## EZ Battery Reconditioning Method

This eBook guide gives you all the information that you need to know to never have to buy batteries again. You will learn what it takes to recondition your batteries that you already have, with things that already have at your house or can easily get. You can save money by never having to buy batteries again But it gets better! You can make huge profits off of selling the batteries that you reconditioned at premium prices. You don't have to have any technical know-how to learn how to do this All it takes is the information in this book! No matter what kind of batteries they are Even if they are car batteries, normal AA batteries, or forklift batteries, you can recondition them like new and sell them at full price or reuse them for yourself! Read more...

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## Simple Charge Controller Circuit

The above diagram shows the simple charge controller circuit. The incoming battery voltage is divided in half by a pair of 3.3K resistors, so the trip points are adjusted to one-half the desired levels. Start at 14 volts for the trip points. The actual trip points will depend on your particular batteries, but a good starting point is 14.5 volts for full charge, and 11.8 volts for discharged. In this case, the trimpots should be adjusted to read 7.25 volts at TP-A and 5.9 volts at TP-B. You will probably need to monitor your battery voltage through several charge cycles to determine the perfect trip points for your system.

## Chapter Experiment Programmable Battery Charger

Experiment 1 begins this Experiments with Renewable Energy course with an interesting and practical project that is, building a programmable battery charger. Battery chargers have been around ever since rechargeable batteries were invented. So what's so interesting about charging batteries Actually quite a bit, since battery charging is really a combination of half art and half science, and there seems to be no end to the variety and complexity of battery charging circuits and techniques. The battery charger circuit that you will build in this experiment is no exception. It is yet one more way to charge two standard 1.2-volt AAA-style nickel cadmium (NiCad) batteries. However, the unique feature about this particular battery charger design lies in the fact that the Board of Education circuitry and software constantly monitors the battery's charge and discharge profiles using all four channels (ch0 through ch3) of the A D converter. We'll get into how this happens in Activity 3 -...

Although many electrochemical reactions are reversible in theory, few are suitable for a practical storage battery, which will be required to cycle hundreds of times between charging and discharging currents of 1-100 A or more. The most widely used storage battery is the lead acid battery, invented by Plant in 1860 and continuously developed since. Example 16.2 Theoretical energy density of lead acid battery The reactions (16.9) and (16.10) show that to transfer 2mol of electrons requires Figure 16.4 Operating characteristics of a typical lead acid battery (SLI type of about 100 Ah nominal capacity). (a) Discharge. The curves are labelled by the discharge current (assumed steady) and by the time taken to 'fully' discharge at that current. (b) Charge. The curve is for charging at a constant low current. (c) Density of electrolyte as function of state of charge. After Crompton (2000). Figure 16.4 Operating characteristics of a typical lead acid battery (SLI type of about 100 Ah nominal...

## Pwm Charge Controllers Are Becoming More Popular

Twelve years ago Heliotrope General pioneered this concept with the introduction of the CC-10 PV charge regulator. Prior to this time all PV chargers were simple on off regulators. The problem with an on off regulator is when the desired regulated voltage is approached. At this point charging is turned off and thereafter you get a lower battery voltage reading. PWM by itself is a misnomer for our charge controllers. Actually the charging sequence is a Series of three distinctly different stages. The first stage is the bulk charge where all available module power goes to the battery. The second is the PWM stage where the battery is more slowly charged to top it off exactly at the selected S.O.C. The final stage is a trickle charge to maintain the S.O.C. Although the cost for a PWM controller is frequently twice or more, this cost difference is justified. In terms of total systems cost, a PWM charger adds less than 5 to the total bill. The results from this expenditure represents an...

## Multistage Battery Charging

A typical 12 volt lead-acid battery must be taken to approximately 14.2-14.4 VDC before it is fully charged. (For 24 volt systems double these figures.) If taken to a lesser voltage level, some of the sulfate deposits that form during discharge will remain on the plates. Over time, these deposits will cause a 200 amp-hour battery to act more like a 100 amp-hour battery, and battery life will be considerably shortened. Once fully charged, batteries should be held at a considerably lower voltage to maintain their charge -typically 13.2 to 13.4 volts. Higher voltage levels will gas the battery and boil off electrolyte, again shortening battery life. Most battery charger designs cannot deal with the conflicting voltage requirements of the initial bulk charge and subsequent float or maintenance stage. These designs can accommodate only one charge voltage, and therefore must use a compromise setting - typically 13.8 volts. The result is a slow incomplete charge, sulfate deposit build-up,...

## Inverters with Builtin Battery Chargers

Many of today's inverters incorporate battery charging circuitry. This is easily and economically accomplished because of the design of most inverters. Inverters step up low voltage and change DC power to AC power. Battery chargers do the reverse of this. Additional circuitry is all that is required to add a whole second function and economically create an Inverter Charger. Transfer switches are also incorporated into these Inverter Chargers so that the AC loaas can be powered directly from the generator when the battery charger is operating. From a reliability, performance, and economical standpoint, built-in battery chargers are the way to go.

## Controlling the battery charge rate

Lead acid batteries should be kept in a charged condition. In the case of a wind-powered system, you may have to wait for a wind to charge the battery. But be careful not to discharge the battery too deeply, or to keep it too long in a discharged state, or it will be damaged (sulphated) and become useless. Stop using a battery before it is fully discharged. If there is a problem with the wind generator, then charge the battery from another source within two weeks. Watch the battery voltage. If the battery voltage is below 11.5 volts, then it is being discharged too much. If the voltage is high (over 14 volts) then the battery charging current is too high. Use less current or more current in the loads to correct these problems. If there is no voltmeter available, then the user should watch the brightness of the lights and follow these rules - Dim lights mean low battery. Use less electricity There are simple electronic circuits designed to regulate the battery voltage automatically....

## Electrical storage batteries and accumulators

Electricity is a high quality form of energy, and therefore great effort is made to find cheap and efficient means for storing it. A device that has electricity both as input and output is called an (electrical) accumulator or (electrical) storage battery. Batteries are an essential component of most autonomous power systems (especially with photovoltaic and small wind turbine generation), of standby and emergency power systems, and of electric vehicles. There is also a research expectation that solar energy could be stored directly in commercial photochemical cells (Section 10.7.3).

## Activity Programming The Battery Charger

' Experiments with Renewable Energy v1.0 - BatteryCharger.bs2 ' Programmable Battery Charger which charges, drains, and keeps a record ' of the voltages and currents, to be replayed via StampPlot. ' ----- For Experiment 1 Programmable Battery Charger ------- counter for averaging every 64 sec. average battery voltage storage average battery current storage 2.00 V for both batteries in series maximum measured battery voltage tell whether battery drained tell whether battery charged Experiment 1 Programmable Battery Charger ' Average the battery voltage & current for 256 PlotIt cycles (64 seconds) ' Abort charge cycle if the battery voltage is too high at the beginning ' If battery voltage is below minimum set doneDraining True, halt battery charging zero the average battery charging voltage zero the average battery charging current zero the maximum measured voltage zero the 64 second loop counter zero the EEPROM data logging pointer activate battery charging transistor deactivate...

## Charge Controller Ratings

When selecting a charge controller, consider both its voltage and current ratings. Most of the charge controllers featured here can be programmed or configured to operate at different nominal battery voltages, but double check that the controller you select is compatible with your system's nominal battery voltage. All PV charge controllers have an absolute maximum open-circuit voltage (Voc) rating. Exceeding this rating can damage the controller, and overvoltage-related failures are not covered under warranty. Because module voltage increases as temperature decreases, a temperature correction factor based on the historic lowest temperature at your site must be considered when determining the voltage of your PV array. A controller's rated amperage should typically be 1.25 times the PV array's 25 C short-circuit current (Isc) rating (to account for edge-of-cloud or other enhanced irradiance effects and to meet National Electrical Code requirements), or 1.56 times the array Isc if the...

## Battery power Charging up your life

Leaving dead car batteries behind For 40, you can get a solar battery charger. A PV module plugs in to the cigarette lighter jack, and you lay the module out on the dashboard in the sun. While you're gone, it trickle charges your battery. A solar charger won't overcharge your battery, so you don't have to worry about removing it, even when the vehicle is running. But it probably won't revive a dead battery, although it won't hurt anything to try. Rechargeable batteries cost 4 apiece, and the good ones issue the same charge as a throw-away. A solar charger costs 40, but the charge cycles are free. You can charge a good rechargeable battery over 500 times. (Note that the number 500 applies to devices like remote controllers, which don't take much current if you're drawing a lot of current and running the batteries down to their minimum, expect more on the order of 200 times.) The cost for a rechargeable battery and 100 charges is 44, which is already a better deal than alkaline. But...

The Lineage 2000 is a pure lead battery. The patented design does not require the impurities of calcium or antimony alloys that shorten the life of lead acid batteries. Therefore life expectancy in your alternative energy home is 20+ years of service. The Lineage 2000 is 1680 Amp hours at the 8 hour rate. This battery has the capacity to operate your awesome solar powered home, shop, remote cabin or as a UPS system without deep cycling. Shallow cycling promotes longer life in all lead acid batteries.

## Acg Battery Charger

The AC Genius inverters have a low-battery warning and shut-off to prevent complete discharge of your car's battery. They also contain an on off switch which controls the DC input. Thus you can leave the inverter connected to your battery, and simply switch the unit off when not in use. Call now for more information (408) 996-8276

## Used Batteries

Used lead acid batteries, especially large two volt telephone type cells can sometimes be found for sale. While used solar modules and inverters are usually an acceptable risK, used batteries are a high risk proposition. Should you consider them In our experience, it is difficult to know just how an older battery has been used. Has the previous user taken good care of the cells or have they been neglected7 Have they actually been load tested or just cleaned ud and recharged Our recommendation is to get as much information as you can on the cells, and load test them, or ask the seller for a load test. Without this test your are really guessing as to the remaining life.

## Battery Chargers

If you use a lot of batteries, you can drastically cut back on battery costs by using rechargeable batteries in conjunction with a solar charger. And I'm not only talking about the standard household batteries, either. You can get solar chargers for vehicle batteries, notebook computer batteries, and small appliances.

## Daybreak Energy for Your

I have a 4,000 watt generator that's hooked up to a 40 amp battery charger which charges 2 deep cycle golf cart batteries that I picked up used. I have 2 30 watt fluorescent lights, battery monitor and DC service panel purchased from Steve Willey, who has been quite helpful with any questions I had. Also for those on a low budget or who like to build your own equipment who need a voltage regulator or load diverter. I found a circuit in November 1987 Modern Electronics originally for a 120 volt battery charger but a PV or wind generator or other source can be substituted in place of the battery charger. Instead of the relay the current to a second set of batteries or other load when the first set is fully charged. It has adjustable voltage range and the current it can handle is dependent on the relay you use. If you should build one note there is a mistake on the circuit board layout. There should be a circuit trace from the cathode of D1 to the cathode of D2. We did not burn any...

## Appliance Consumption in Watthours per day Total Consumption Watthoursday

The PV array is kept under control by the Heliotrope CC-60 PWM Taper Charge Controller. This device is inserted in series between the PV array and the battery pack. The function of this controller is to see that the array doesn't overcharge the batteries. The Heliotrope is user programmable and capable of handling up to 60 Amperes of array current. This controller not only protects the batteries, but also assures they are as fully charged as possible. This control works very well and we highly recommend it. See Home Power 8, page 31, for a Things that Work test of the Heliotrope CC Series Charge Controllers. Roger and Ana's system uses six Trojan L-16W deep cycle, lead acid batteries for storing the PV produced electricity. The Trojan L-16W is a battery containing three lead-acid cells developing 350 Ampere-hours each. Each L-16W battery contains 350 Ampere-hours at 6 VDC. We combined, via series and parallel wiring, six of these batteries into a pack of 1,050 Ampere-hours at 12 Volts...

## Clean Energy Never Looked This Good

The main problem over the last 20 years has been battery life. I've talked with a few installers who advised me to equalize the batteries twice or even four times a year. Even with the sunny climate here in Hawaii, equalizing at 30 V for three to four hours or until the specific gravity reaches the right place on the hydrometer on all the batteries without using a generator is impossible. batteries by at least 5 of their ampere-hour capacity. Monthly, I use the generator to overcharge the batteries by 10 of their capacity. I don't pay attention to the battery voltage during equalization, but to the amount of overcharge (in ampere-hours) that the battery receives. I don't routinely do hydrometer measurements. I try not to use the batteries too heavily. My average depth of discharge nightly is about 12 of the battery capacity. On most sunny days, the battery is fully recharged before noon (and then the daily overcharge begins). If the battery drops below 30 depth of discharge, I start...

## Systems

The EZ-Solar Systems incorporates an innovative 12, 24 and 48 volt modular design utilizing Power Battery's Advanced Gel (patent pending) PSG series of front access deep cycle batteries. With a size range from 105 to 6120 AH, they are a Clean Power solution for a grid-tie backup or an off-grid power source.

## Kyocera

10 TO 120 AMP PHOTOVOLTAIC CHARGE CONTROLLERS The PWM line of Taper Charge controllers provide complete and failsafe battery charging. State-of-the-Art MOSFET technology gives the fullest possible charge by trickle charging the batteries once they reach float voltage. This is not possible with unreliable relay series type controllers. Heliotrope offers 10, 20, 60 and 120 Amp controllers to meet any system requirement. Unique features include field selectable state-of-charge voltage selection, system voltage, and many more excellent features unique to each control. Request information on CC-10, CC-20 RV-20, CC-60 CC-120

## Vermont

Free PV Workshops for beginners to experts given by David Palumbo of Independent Power & Light, First Saturday of every month at the Palumbo IP& L PV and microhydro powered off-grid neighborhood. Participant interest will determine which of the following topics will be discussed and demonstrated (as practical) site selection, PV modules, batteries, charge controllers, inverters, lighting (ac & DC), balance of system components, system monitoring and maintenance, water (finding it, developing it, transporting it, pumping it, and getting power from it), snow (living with it, playing with it, and removing it), ponds, living in cold climates, living with our woods, heating with wood, and root cellars. Visit a beautiful part of Vermont and meet people who are either living with renewable power or considering it. David Palumbo has taught workshops in the past with the fine people of Solar Energy International and with the real good folks of the Solar Living Institute.

## Photocoh

Our panels have blocking diodes and we have read that diodes are no longer used since they reduce panel output. Instead, panels are matched with charge controllers that have automatic night-time shut-off to control reverse current flow. Can we expect increased charging if we remove the blocking diodes and replace our charge controller with a unit that has the night-time shut-off feature We are considering changing to the Trace C-30A, in any case, because it can be switched to accept an equalizing charge. I realize that two hours is too short a time for adequate equalizing, but since the batteries are full when we visit our cabin, the charge would come on top of full batteries. Ned Vilas, Davis, CA Since you didn't mention the capacity or type of battery you are using, I can't determine if your present charge control is what you need. With a limited solar window such as yours, I'd go for the C-30A and set the disconnect voltage at around 2.5 VDC per cell. This setting assumes a lead...

## Trace 2024 Inverter

TRACE 1512 INVERTER w battery charger and turbo. Used. Never any problems. 750. Used SCB-30 amp SES charge controller. Works perfectly. Free w inverter, 25 separate. Sun Selector low voltage disconnect-LVD-8 16, 12 Volt. New. 20. 916-281-6489. 2, 10 KW JACOBS WIND GEN. Includes Sync. Inverters, 1 has New Factory Blades in box. 8000 each, 2 for 14000. Energy Headquarters, 1045 Barlow-Two Taverns Rd., Gettysburg, PA 17325, 717-359-7378 USED 24V 5KW INVERTER SYSTEM 2 Trace 2024 stacked inverters with turbo 12-2V, 1500amphr Trojan batteries 5Kw Yamaha generator 3KW Gencharger battery charger Control Center with Gen Wizzard, Brain, System Monitor Panel and all fused switch boxes remote monitor panel with generator start switch. Completely automatic system. Everything you need except solar panels 5500. Several 24V motors, recessed fluorescent lights and BEST PRICED SOLAR CELLS Various & sizes .45 volt .3 - 3.5 amps. Ideal for school projects or for building your own panels. Small .45...

Check out the latest developments in charge controllers. Charge controllers are vital components in battery-based PV systems, keeping the PV array from overcharging the batteries and optimizing charge current. These smart little boxes are placed between the PV array and the battery bank, and allow maximum energy in when the batteries are at a low state of charge (SOC) and reduce incoming energy from the array as the batteries approach full. When the battery reaches 100 SOC, the charge controller reduces the energy flow to a small maintenance (float) charge. Without a charge controller, a battery can be overcharged, resulting in excessive battery gassing and, in chronic cases, damage to the battery, shortening its life span. Matching the appropriate charge controller to a particular PV system is important for proper system function and for maximizing the amount of solar energy harvested. This guide lists charge controllers 40 amps or above commonly used for whole-house PV systems....

## PbO Pb H Sp

Automotive electrical system requires 12 VDC for operation. How is this accomplished with a basic 2 VDC lead-acid cell The cells are wired together in series, this makes a battery that has the combined voltages of the cells. A 12 Volt lead-acid battery has six (6) cells, each wired anode to cathode (in series) to produce 12 VDC. Cells are combined in series for a voltage increase or in parallel for an electrical capacity increase. Battery Capacity Battery capacity is the amount of energy a battery contains. Battery capacity is usually rated in Ampere-hours (A-h) at a given voltage. Watt-hours (W-h) is another unit used to quantify battery capacity. While a single cell is limited in voltage by its materials, the electrical capacity of a cell is limited only by its size. The larger the cell, the more reactive materials contained within it, and the larger the electrical capacity of the cell in Ampere-hours. A battery rated at 100 Ampere-hours will deliver 100 Amperes of current for 1...

## Richard Perez

And we needed it to be there 24 hours a day without constantly running a noisy, gasoline eating, engine. At that time, NASA was about the only folks who could afford PVs. We started using lead-acid batteries to store the electricity produced by a small gas engine generator. We'd withdraw energy from the batteries until they were empty and then refill them by running a lawnmower engine and car alternator. Since we stored enough energy to last about 4 days, we discharged and recharged the batteries about 100 times a year. Over years of this type service, we have learned much about lead-acid batteries-- how they work and how to best use them. The following info has been hard won we've made many expensive mistakes. We've also discovered how to efficiently and effectively coexist with the batteries that store our energy. Batteries are like many things in Life, mysterious until understood. A battery is a group of electrochemical cells. Individual cells are...

The 7th Canadian Hydrogen Workshop will be held June 4-6, 1995 in Quebec, Canada. Workshop topics are Hydrogen production, usage, storage, safety, environment, fuel cells, and metal hydride rechargable batteries. For more information contact Canadian Hydrogen Association, 5 King's College Rd, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A4, fax 416-978-0787.

## Electric Vehicles

Wait Lead-acid batteries always take it on the chin when it comes to propulsive power packs. Okay, so they do have low electro-mechanical efficiency and low energy density. In a hybrid EV, they work adequately because there's less to do, and storage isn't an issue like it is in pure EVs. In the MBG, there is an OCU there to recharge them immediately. These factors tickle the thought that standard SLI (Starting-Lighting-Ignition) batteries COULD be used for the battery pack. Although not intended for deep-cycle, they are adept at the higher charge discharge currents involved, and good performance may justify more frequent battery replacement. It's worth investigating

## Windy Dankoff

Renewable energy systems that depend on storage batteries (photovoltaic, hydro-electric, wind-electric) produce low voltage DC power. Utility companies supply high voltage ac power (more appropriate for mass-distribution). We live in a world of two electrical standards. Neither form of power is best. What's important is to use the available form in an efficient, simple and

## Photocomm

A circuit is considered to be in series when all components are connected in such a way that there is only one possible path for current to flow. This means that each voltage source, switch, load, or other component is in succession with the other components of the circuit. Electrons flowing through such a circuit flow through every component in turn. Figure 1 shows a pictorial representation of a simple series circuit with a battery voltage source and two light bulbs as loads. Figure 2 shows a schematic representation of the same circuit. If you trace the path of an electron as it flows from the negative terminal of the battery through the circuit to the positive terminal you will notice that it passes through one lightbulb (R1) before it passes through the other lightbulb (R2). There is no way for an electron to pass through bulb 2 (R2) first, nor is there any way for an electron to pass through one bulb but not the other. The electron flow (current) follows the one and only path...

## Bogart Engineering I

Displays last cycle battery (charge) efficiency Are batteries still operating at the efficiency you expect Max. battery voltage check charging system setpoint. Min. battery voltage check for possible battery misuse. Last cycle deepest discharge (net) amp-hours. Amp-hours (total) consumed since battery was charged. And also Individual resets for different functions. Important data remains when power disconnected. Adjustable time constant for charged current parameter so the charged'indicator will work with slow pulse width charge controllers. 48 volt adapter lightning protector available ( 29) for areas with special lightning risk.

## Capacity and efficiency

Battery capacity is a measure of how much total energy a battery can hold. Ratings come in amp-hours (Ah). To get the total energy capacity, simply multiply this number by the voltage. Thus, a 100 Ah battery at 12 volts yields 1.2 kilowatt-hours of energy. In general, the larger the battery capacity, the larger and heavier the battery is. However, the faster you pull the charge out of a battery, the lower the capacity, so the capacity is really useful only for comparing different batteries. It's not a true measure of what you can get out of a battery. (Sound so complex it's almost impossible to get a good handle on things You're catching on.) Also, the higher the voltage, the more efficient the system. Batteries are available in either six or twelve volts, and you can connect them in series or parallel (see Chapter 4) to get 6VDC, 12VDC, 18VDC, 24VDC, and so on. If you're using an AC inverter, with AC appliances, it won't make any difference which battery voltage you decide on, so ask...

## Activity Replaying The Charge Cycle

This activity involves replaying the charge cycle in a rapid, fast forward manner. Recall from Exp_1_Charge that it took nearly 4 hours to charge the batteries and that during this time, we also took a 64-second average of the Battery Charge Current (BCI) and Battery Charge Voltage (BVI) and stored these values in EEPROM. As a matter of fact, we stored exactly 200 samples, each, of BCI and BVI in EEPROM. This is because DataPtrMax is limited to 400, so 400 divided by 2 samples EEPROM entry 200 EEPROM entries approximately every 64 seconds. Therefore, this effort took nearly 4 hours by computations shown previously. If everything is working correctly, you should see the plot of the charging cycle repeating over and over again with the blue plot being the battery voltage (BV) and the green plot being the battery charge current (BCI). The other two plots are at zero since nothing has been recorded for them. To see something similar to the above, you will have to decrease the StampPlot...

## Appendix B Source Code Listing

' Programmable Battery Charger ' Dueling Solar Cells ' Solar Cell Sun Tracker ' Half& Full Wave Rectification Three-Phase AC Alternator Plot Data w StampPlot Pro Experiment 1 Programmable Battery Charger Average the battery voltage and current for 256 PlotIt cycles (64 seconds) Abort the charge cycle if the battery voltage is too high at the beginning Else, store the average of the sampled voltage and current to eeProm Increment the eeProm pointer If battery voltage is below minimum set doneDraining True, turn the Drain LED on, and deactivate any more draining. ' halt battery charging ' zero the average battery charging voltage ' zero the average battery charging current ' activate battery charging transistor ' sample the battery charge current (BCI) and battery voltage (BV) and ' deactivate battery charging transistor ' deactive battery charging transistor ' sample the battery voltage (BV) ' ch1 I (Vbatt-Vcollector) 10 ohms ' test battery voltage for below min ' deactivate battery...

## Flowlight Booster Pump

All load controllers that I've seen work the same way. They sense a preset battery voltage level and turn on a transistor or a relay to use the power elsewhere, usually to a resistive load used to heat either air or water. The problem is that it takes a heap o'amps at 12VDC to heat any significant amount of air or water. If you got'em, fine. If you ain't, why bother Besides that, you have to size your shunt load to be capable of handling your hydroplant's maximum output. If you nozzle down for summer flow as most folks do, and use the same shunt, your controller has to work overtime switching on and off. And if, God forbid, the controller or the shunt fails for whatever reason, (they're machines, ain't they ) the full, unregulated, output of the hydroplant mainlines directly into your already full batteries. Boil, boil, bubble, and trouble Home Power tests the Heliotrope CC-20 PV Charge Controller A photovoltaic charge controller keeps the PV array from overcharging the battery....

## Summary And Applications

This experiment introduced you to a popular and useful device to know about. a programmable battery charger. With this basic circuit and program you can go on to create other, more exotic battery charging circuits and programs for yourself and, quite possibly, for a company that hires you. As we mentioned before, there are hundreds if not thousands of battery chargers on the market, each with its own particular niche in the marketplace. The key, then, is to find the right rechargeable battery with the right niche application and then design your next programmable battery charger around that need. Here are some ideas. Marine batteries, that is, rechargeable batteries that are built for heavy-duty marine or boating applications, require specialized charging. This is indicated when you see written all over the battery the words deep cycle. So what does deep cycle mean In short, a deep cycle battery demands more than just a surface charge which is what your car battery generally gets as...

## Why you need a controller

The main function of a controller or regulator is to fully charge a battery without permitting overcharge. If a solar array is connected to lead acid batteries with no overcharge protection, battery life will be compromised. Simple controllers contain a relay that opens the charging circuit, terminating the charge at a pre-set high voltage and, once a pre-set low voltage is reached, closes the circuit, allowing charging to continue. More sophisticated controllers have several stages and charging sequences to assure the battery is being fully charged. The first 70 to 80 of battery capacity is easiiy replaced. It is the last 20 to 30 that requires more attention and therefore more complexity.

## Answers From The University Of Auckland

A Soma 300 watt wind generator, a solar tracking device incorporating two Solar Wind 24 watt panels, and Lucas 12 Volt, 80 Ampere-hour deep hour cycle batteries were used. Various combinations of solar input and battery size were evaluated. A detailed computer simulation was undertaken to test the cost efficiency of the system. Hourly records of sunlight and windspeed direction were obtained from the Auckland Meterological office, covering the entire year from April 1984 to March 1985. These were then processed to simulate the actual site of the system (a more exposed site with a hill obstructing the south). A further simulation was made of charging characteristics of various sizes of battery banks under various combinations of wind and solar output (wind alone, wind and 1 or 2 solar tracking devices). These simulations were made at different continuous demand levels. The combined solar wind system had only one complete charge-discharge cycle while wind alone had nine. Since battery...

## Powerline Example System

One enclosure which encompasses a number of components including Array input breakers, controller(s), monitoring of battery state of charge, input and load amperage. DC load breakers, main battery disconnect and current limiting fuse, automatic generator start stop by battery state of charge, grounding terminals.

East Penn recycles 100 of scrap lead-acid batteries at our state-of-the-art, E.P.A. permitted recycling facility. In fact, we safely recycle 20,000 batteries a day on site. We are the world's largest and most modern single-site battery manufacturer offering premium quality valve regulated lead acid batteries in both Gel and AGM types to exceed the solar industiys high standards.

## Flowlight Solar Power

NEW EXTRA-DEEP CYCLE STORAGE BATTERIES Sealed GEL-CELL lead-acid Because of their high reliability, safety and maintenance-free features, SEALED LEAD BATTERIES are fast becoming a favorite in industrial and PV power systems. They tolerate repeated overdischarging and undercharging that destroy ordinary lead-acid batteries. No explosive corrosive gas hazard -- safer for indoor use No spillage hazard. No equalizing charges required. 10-year life expectancy (5-year warranty). Far cheaper than NiCads and easier to determine state-of-charge. 12V 90 Amp-Hour 190. Send for details.

This extraordinary, first ever rechargeable battery, invented by the French physicist, Gaston Plante (1834-1889), has withstood the competition of numerous other batteries and is still in large-scale production after more than 150 years of use. Only the modern lithium ion cells seem to pose serious competition to Plante's invention. Lead-acid batteries have survived mainly because they are a low-cost, high power-to-mass device, capable of delivering large surge currents, albeit for a short time owing to their unfavorable energy-to-mass ratio. (See A.3, Ragone Plots in Figure 9.38.)

## Social and environmental aspects

Nevertheless, there are relatively minor environmental downsides to some of the storage mechanisms described in this chapter. In particular, batteries of all kinds are filled with noxious chemicals, so that their disposal is an issue. Lead acid batteries, however, are so widespread for vehicles that there is a thriving recycling business for them in most countries. Although lead metal is poisonous, it is also expensive and has a low melting point so that it is relatively easy and economically worthwhile to salvage lead from 'dead' batteries and reform it for new ones.

## Kathleen Jarschke Schultze

I also heard from Billy Barr of the Rocky Mountain Laboratory in Crested Butte, CO. He has been running a heavy duty Maytag washer for years, on a Trace 2012, without a problem. He has a moderately small battery system, using six 100 amphour lead-acid batteries (rated for 3 years- now in their 11th year). His Maytag has performed excellently and has been as dependable as they advertise. This is good for Billy as the repairman and or any parts would have to be skied in most times of the year. As an added bonus, Billy says Maytag is easily the most socially responsible of the appliance companies.

## Evolution Overview

The 1997 30 kW baseline system is based on a commercially-available 31 kW PV flooded lead-acid battery system . The battery subsystem is assumed to improve and transition in technology type, changing from flooded lead-acid i n 1997 and 2000 to VRLA beyond 2005. Advanced batteries are anticipated in 2020. These technology changes slo w the cost reduction path for the battery subsystem. The PCS and max power tracker are expected to be integrated, so significant cost reductions are expected as modular design and factory-assembly become the norm and productio n volumes increase substantially. The balance of plant subsystems are expected to decline in cost as one-of-a-kin d engineering and site-specific installations become less common.

## Heat Removal from Fuel Cells

Although Michael Faraday did demonstrate a mechanical electric generator in 1821 and, around 1832, several prototypical mechanical electric generators were built, one can date the beginning of widespread use of electric power to the work of Thomas Edison (1880) and Werner von Siemens (1881). Thus, when in 1859, Gaston Plante invented his lead-acid battery, there were no ready sources of electricity to be stored. Essentially, the Plante battery was a device designed to store the electricity generated by other batteries, a fact that did not promise a brilliant future for the invention. Nevertheless, the lead-acid battery has survived some 150 years and can be considered the most successful electricity storage device ever built. But now the tide is changing, and the growing need of more appropriate batteries has reinvigorated research into new chemistries. The need for higher gravimetric energy densities has turned our attention from one of the densest metals lead to the lightest...

## Home Power tests an Ancient PV Panel

I was amazed that the RTV compound is still in perfect condition after 10 years in the sun. When we got the panel it had a fair amount of dirt and grunge covering its face. A little soap and water cleaned it up. The panel's face, made of special UV transmissive silicon RTV, is still clear and flawless. The panel is still sealed and shows no sign of weather degradation or moisture infiltration. We used a Fluke 77 Digital Multimeter (DMM) to test the panels electrical operation. We measured the open circuit voltage of the panel at 24.65 VDC. We hooked the panel up to a small lead-acid battery, including a blocking

## Methods of Storing Electricity

While DC electricity can be conveniently stored for later use, AC cannot, which is the primary shortcoming of AC electricity. There are many storage devices for DC electricity. The most popular DC storage device is the battery, which is a chemically based electric storage device. Batteries now come in all sorts of physical forms and chemical compounds. Some of the most common are lead acid (car battery), nickel cadmium (NiCad), nickel metal hydride, and lithium, to name some common types used in laptop computers, cell phones and video cameras. Each one has its particular advantages to the technology it powers.

## Powerfilm Fseries Foldable Solar Chargers

The next step up in portable solar electricity, PowerFilm's foldable solar-electric chargers unfold like photovoltaic picnic blankets. PowerFilm offers several sizes the larger the array, the greater its output, and the more quickly it will charge your electronics. At the low end, the F15-300 offers 11 by 25.5 inches of 5-watt solar real estate, which can effectively charge small handheld devices, as well as provide a trickle charge for your car battery. Unfold it on the dash and plug it into your cigarette lighter receptacle when ditching your car for extended periods, and it'll maintain a minimum charge until you return.

## Mechanical Technology

Dear Home Power, I am a recent subscriber and also have had access to back issues of your magazine. After reading them, skimming some articles, I have a much broader knowledge of alternative technology. I have one small PV panel which charges an old car battery that runs my radio tape deck. Otherwise, I have no electricity, I use ice in an old fridge frozen in a neighbor's freezer. I don't have access to a lot of money to buy the equipment needed to electrify my house so I'm interested in tapping into any information anyone might have for mechanical appliances. I'm sure we can eliminate some of the need for electricity, thus cutting down on electrical energy fields in our living situation. A friend who lived in Arkansas for a while, told me of a blender that was run by hand through a series of gears. A wheel was turned and the blender whizzed. Right now, that's my main interest. If there is anyone who could help me with this , I'd be most appreciative. In one of your back issues, I...

## Chapter Lessons Learned

As renewable energy technologies continue to evolve in terms of efficiency and cost reduction, more and more systems will be installed in many developing countries. Renewable systems are becoming even cheaper than conventional systems, especially for small to medium applications. Using wind and PV systems for village home systems (such as for solar home systems and battery charging) is cheaper than the traditional kerosene or car battery lighting systems. Similarly, use of renewable technologies for water pumping applications becomes more attractive for rural water supply, livestock watering, and small irrigation systems. Systems installed in the last decade have demonstrated that well-matched wind or PV designs based on proper resource assessment can operate reliably with minimum maintenance.

## Reading Under the Sun at Night

An off-grid reading light is a great project, and you can get as fancy as you want. Start with a simple, self-contained camping light comprised of a small PV panel and a little pod containing a rechargeable battery, a light sensor, a switch, and a few LEDs. Then hang this light over your favorite reading chair (you may need to monkey around to get the light to shine in just the right spot), and you can read every night for hours without plugging in to the grid. Get the lowdown on these lights in Chapter 9.

## Finding Cheap Batteries

You'll need a good deep cycle battery to store the power from your wind generator. These can be purchased rather inexpensively on Ebay, but there are ways to find them for free as well. A couple of good sources of free batteries are old golf carts and forklifts. Companies tend to replace these batteries long before their shelf life runs out, and they just so happen to make the perfect deep cycle battery for our wind generator project. So if you haven't got a deep cycle battery on hand then go ask your local golf club or any fork lift distributor. If you tell them that you are building a windmill (or solar system) then I am sure they won't mind handing you a few old batteries.

## Intelligent Energy And Transportation

Hello, I'm upgrading my power system from 12 VDC to 24 VDC. I know that it's common now to run an inverter-only system, but I have many 12 V appliances that I'd like to keep. It doesn't make sense to me to keep the inverter awake constantly to run the answering machine or charge the cell phone. Also, I've never gone a night without lights, which can't be said by anybody I know with an inverter-only setup. So what's the best way to tap 12 V from a 24 V battery bank My cells are from a forklift battery (Champion, sealed, maintenance-free, 600 AH, 2,120 pounds). Thanks for this and all your work to give the world an alternative to blood for oil. Ray raygris asis.com

## The Positive Choice For Life

The heart of a solar battery is the positive plate. Surrette pioneered the REZISTOX GRID design which has rugged vertical and horizontal main members with the main cross members reinforced by filleting. Surrette batteries require the rezistox design due to the utilization of dense active material which exerts higher than normal pressure on the positive grid. High density active material, like Surrette uses, retards active material shedding thus prolonging the useful life of the battery. In cycling service, deep discharge and recharging, causes the active material to loosen and shed from the positive plates. Low density active material is less expensive and gives good performance when the battery is new but is susceptible to shedding, thus a shorter battery life.

## How Far Off The Grid Are

Antarctica is the coldest continent on the planet. 98 of it is covered in ice. With no permanent human population, only the toughest plants and animals are able to survive the cold. And the same goes for your batteries. So when a government funded agency needed to deploy a photovoltaic system for monitoring land mass movement In this harsh environment, they chose Deka Solar Batteries.

## Proven Performance You Can Trust

Trojan Battery has been building the world's most reliable, long-lasting batteries in the United States for over 80 years. Every Trojan battery is designed to enhance the performance of your renewable energy system while providing outstanding durability and battery life you can depend on.

## Recreational Vehicle Systems

Your Solar Charging System will pay for itself several times over by increasing battery life and reducing the amount of money you spend on campground hook-ups and generator maintenance. Batteries that are deep cycled too many times or sit idle for several months can be permanently damaged. Solar modules provide a daily maintenance charge to your batteries and eliminate this problem. By recharging every day, the depth of discharge is reduced, and battery life and performance are greatly improved.

## Hybrid energy storage systems

For instance, where BSPMs are set up for normal battery charging duty, a diversion shunt is added so that when the batteries are fully charged, the electricity from the solar panel is diverted to the electrolyzer to produce hydrogen. Simple types of shunt devices that are not particularly energy efficient when solely used for charging in a regular BSPM system are, in this system, quite efficient.

## Maintenance of your solar panels

Check that the charge controller is securely mounted in a clean environment. Inspect for dirt, insects, and corrosion. 5. Check that the air flow around the charge controller is not blocked. 7. Check that the charge controller functions and LED indicators are correct for the system conditions at that time. A critical part of maintaining the solar powered battery charging system is keeping the panel clean. The amount of power that a panel will produce is directly related to the intensity of sunlight that reaches the internal crystals. A dirty panel will allow less light to reach the crystals resulting in reduced power output. A layer of dust or road grime can reduce power output by 15 to 25 . Combining dust with leaves and debris that cover two or three of the individual cells can reduce output power by 50 to 75 .

## Public Sector Diffusion

Diffusing highly subsidized solar systems for homes, or centralized solar systems with battery charging (where a home brings their battery for charging to a centralized solar system), the Government managed to diffuse only 133 kilowatts of installed capacity of solar in various applications by 1999.11 Or to put it into perspective, less than 3000 solar systems (of 50 watts) over more than one decade among an unelectrified population of more than 3 million -penetration of a mere 0.1 per cent.12

## Accelerating a Renewable Energy Future

As we have seen, although solar had higher up-front costs than the alternatives, it was already cost-effective over its lifetime, was preferred by customers over the alternatives - such as kerosene lanterns and battery charging - and, provided that consumer finance was available, customers were willing to buy it in ever-increasing numbers. Accelerating its diffusion was not about returning to the laboratory to figure out how to further reduce the cost of the solar module. Instead, accelerating solar diffusion was reliant on entrepreneurs entering the market, learning how to sell solar effectively, learning how to arrange consumer finance in a way they could manage, learning how to extend their distribution channels without over-extending their cash position, and learning how to raise the capital they needed for expansion. In parallel, policymakers had to learn which types of policies worked best to help promote and stimulate the solar markets, and which ones did not. All of this took...

## Get All The Power You Paid

Solar panels You bought them, and they were expensive. But are you getting the power you paid for Be certain with the state-of-the-art Charge Controllers from Fire, Wind and Rain Easy To Use Set up with built in LCD display or computer (depending on model). Our exclusive Virtual Control Panel lets you monitor your system and collect data on how much energy has been produced and used, and the state of charge of the battery as well as battery life based on present load. Available in 24 and 48 volt models with capacity up to 1500 watts. Also available in both step up and step down voltage models. Ideal for retrofits Any installation using a conventional charge controller can use a Power Advantage

## Boost Vour Solar Output

Stop throwing away that extra power and use a Solar Boost maximum Power Point Tracking (mPPTJ charge controller. Solar Boost charge controllers can deliver up to 30 more power to your batteries ouer conventional controllers. mPPT Charge Controllers. RU Power Products- The recognized leader in quality IHPPT charge controllers. Available in 12 24 48 uolt.

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## Boost Your So Lrr Output

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## Boost Your So Im Output

W UJlHi Patented SOLflfl BOOST ill PPT Chume Controllers. Atf WPouier Products- TTte recognized r Leader in quality in PPT charge controllers, Available in 12 24 48 uolL RV Power Products introduces the Neni integrated Power Net (1PN ) network technology, a new series of charge controllers and equipment designed to talk with each other, yet operate as one. charge controller. I he IPN compatible remote display monitors networked controllers, accumulates amp-hours for both charge controllers and battery, and pro ides a highly accurate indication of remaining battery capacity.

Stop throwing away that extra power and use a Solar Boost maximum Power Point Tracking mPPTJ charge controller. Solar Boost charge controllers can deliuer up to 30 more power to your batteries ouer conventional controllers. With Patented SOLAR BOOST mPPT Charge Controllers. RU Power Products- The recognized leader in quality mPPT charge controllers, fluailable in 12 24 48 uolt.

## Considering higher costs and maintenance

Off-grid solar power systems provide electrical power, but it's relatively expensive. When you install an off-grid solar PV system, you can't get anywhere near 100-percent utilization, plus you need batteries, charge controllers (which control the battery functions), and so on all this extra equipment is expensive, and it requires a lot of maintenance.

## Revising Standards Codes

Underwriters Laboratories (UL) standard 1703 governs safety issues that relate to PV modules, and standard 1741 addresses PV inverters and charge controllers. These UL standards are not all-inclusive, but reference numerous other standards that establish requirements for the various components and materials used in a product's design and manufacture. Equipment designers diligently reference these standards, which establish construction and test protocols, to ensure that new products meet the requirements for safe installation and operation.

## Northern Alternate Power Systems

Canadian Kyocera 48 Watt PV Module- 415. Canadian Heliotrope PSTT WF-12 2300 Inverter 1700. CDN Heliotrope CC-20 Charge controller 235. CDN Trace C30-A Charge Controller 130. CDN Danfoss 12V refrigeration compressor, electronic unit & capillary temperature sensor complete Kit 425. CDN

## Hi Quality Crystalline Frameless Modules

3+ watts 10x10 36 cells, V0C-20.1, VPP 15.7 - 45.00 1+ watts 5x5 18 cells, VOC- 9, VPP-7.5 - 15.00 4 AMP CHARGE CONTROLLER, TIMER 2 TO 16 HOURS w batt-temp compensation, these work great for outdoor light. New, sold as is - 38.00 For day night sensor add 9.00 10 WATT AMORPHOUS MODULES 12x36 With 1 2 wide alum. frames VOC-22.5, VPP-14.50 - 79.00

## Backwoods Solar Electric Systems

Our own 30 amp Backwoods Charge Controller standard features Large amp and volt meters, trickle finishing charge, hand adjustable set voltage on automatic charge control, battery connection cable including main fuse, reverse current blocking diode, surplus power diversion, and manual override switches. All one unit for easy installation. Price is 305

Were paralleled for the 160-foot run down to the power shed to the charge controller. Is there a big loss incurred by putting an 80-watt module in series with a 120-watt module I was thinking the amperages would average out. Is that true, or does the 120-watt module perform like an 80-watt module in that configuration Should I have put the 80s in series and the 120s in series What would have been the most efficient way to wire these modules for a 24-volt nominal system At 160 feet, you will need some pretty big wire to carry that charging current to the batteries. Using a standard charge controller, such as a Xantrex C40, you will need 1 copper conductors to keep your voltage drop under 3 . If you install a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) charge controller, you can use 2 conductors (one size smaller) and still stay under 3 . This is because the MPPT controller operates at the higher array maximum power voltage of about 34 volts at the higher voltage, less current is lost to heat...

## Market Infrastructure Perspective Is it Available

Installing a solar system is not easy, and most of us would get something wrong in doing it ourselves. The solar module has to be positioned correctly towards the sun both its tilt angle and the direction it is facing. It also has to be secured well, to ensure that it does not disappear with the next typhoon or monsoon rains. And if a household has installed a system that powers four or five lights, then the lights will also need to be installed properly, the entire house wired and the lights connected to wall-mounted switches. Furthermore, additional sockets need to be arranged for other appliances, and the charge controller needs to be mounted and connected to the battery. In addition to this, there would then be a need for customer education on how best to use the system and manage household energy requirements, as well as an understanding of what to do to maintain the batteries, and who to turn to for support if the system fails.

## If There Is No Rural Finance Target Smaller System Sales Instead

So in this situation, customers cut corners to make solar affordable. The vast majority of systems sold in Kenya have been the small 10-20-watt variety, enough for one or two lights and maybe a little bit of radio. Often customers bought these systems gradually, component by component installed them themselves and did not invest in a charge controller to help them regulate the flows to and from the battery. Moreover, with smaller systems and little or no servicing, many customers experienced failure in their system. So in what way does the Kenyan example provide us with a model for policymakers of any kind

## Pumping In Home Power Systems

Homes beyond the power lines often have alternative energy systems, usually photovoltaics with storage batteries. There are perhaps 50,000 such homes already in the U.S. and a growing industry to serve their special needs -- low voltage DC lights, appliances, pumps and electronic inverters. An inverter converts the stored DC power to household AC. Most independent homes use a combination of DC and AC appliances. A variety of special DC pumps are available. See articles in Home Power 5 and 11. DC Solar Pumps are typically more energy-efficient than AC submersibles powered by inverters, but they are often more costly. Even if less efficient, there are times when AC pumping makes sense in alternative energy systems. The lower cost of the AC pump must be weighed against the cost of additional PV modules, batteries, and the inverter required to power it. AC pumping may be economical if one or more of these factors apply

## Photovoltaic Technology

The other system components, generally referred to as balance-of-system (BOS) components, may include (depending upon the application) an inverter to convert direct current to alternating current, a power conditioner, current and voltage regulators, storage batteries, power controls, and various structural parts. Photovoltaic systems have characteristics that make them suitable for a variety of applications. Because they produce electricity during the daytime, PV systems are well-suited to feeding power into the utility grid to meet daytime peak demand. In addition, storage batteries can be used to enable a system to meet the demand when the sun does not shine. Furthermore, due to their modularity, PV systems are also well-suited to providing relatively small amounts of electricity in remote locations not connected to a grid.

## Technology Constraints

Although improvements in all performance measures are important for most cost-effective applications of battery technology, perhaps the most important to expanded application of renewables are cost-per-unit energy capacity and cycle life. These factors, along with storage efficiency, are key to determining the life cycle cost of the delivered energy. The Ni H2 battery is a good example of an advanced system with improved cycle life, low maintenance, and adequate specific energy and power but with high cost-per-unit capacity. Present costs are about 700 kWh (as compared with 110 kWh for lead acid) however, projections are that advanced production engineering can lower the costs to less than 400 kWh in approximately 3 years. This would allow a greatly improved storage system when lifetime costs are considered.

## Energy storage and auxiliaries

Fuel cell technology for a while rested with the alkali-based cells originally developed for space applications (until photovoltaic panels took over). Later, molten carbonate cells were prematurely marketed and then withdrawn. Recently, proton-exchange membrane cells for automotive applications, and high-temperature, solid oxide cells for utility applications have entered a very active phase of development and planning for market introduction, and the expectations of substantial price reductions underlie the considerable investments made (cf. e.g. Daimler-Chrysler-Ballard, 1998). Clearly, there is no guarantee that the substantial price reductions needed will be forthcoming. Fuel-cell technology has many similarities to battery technology, so one may fear to encounter similar disappointments. The further requirement of substantial infrastructure changes in order to use hydrogen both in vehicles and for stationary uses, is a further impediment for the

## Understanding Batteries Familiarity Breeds Contempt

But when you install a system with batteries, you have to stay on top of things. The battery or battery pack is the core of any off-grid system, and it drives the system's cost. All action comes and goes from the battery, and much of the safety and control equipment is designed to protect either the battery or the balance of the system from the battery. You absolutely have to understand batteries, or you'll end up paying an arm and a leg for new ones all the time and you won't get decent performance out of the ones you have.

## Power Sources And All Loads Including Inverter

We installed the meter on our fully charged battery pack on 15 January 1990. We have been watching it like hawks ever since. We measured its accuracy against a Fluke 87 (reading true average current simultaneously through the same shunt at the same time). The Cruising Equipment Ampere-hour meter agrees with the Fluke 87 test setup to within 2 . And that's close enough to be within the limits of error in our testing procedure.

## Example application Monster Truck Madness

A POD unit could be fitted onto the back of this truck, significantly extending the rather short battery life of 30-45 minutes. The POD enhanced battery life would really be dependant upon the quality of your engineering, so much as any inherent limitation in the POD performance curve. This is a simple example of how much good clean fun is to be had with POD technology - I am sure you can think up many others.

## Battery Calculations and Hookup Sequence

Ordinary 12 volt car batteries, when hooked up in series are capable of supplying very high (and lethal) voltages. Yoi can in actual fact run a high voltage all-electric home off only a bank of 12 volt car batteries and your alternator power unit connected up for battery re-charging - no other major generating equipment is necessary. Your alternator will fast charge these batteries quite rapidly, arid the actual stored battery power, i.e. battery capacity in amp hours is enormous if you connect them in'parallel' at low volts.

## How To Install Dump Load Regulator Tristar

Never disconnect thf battery and leave the wind turbine connected to the inverter or charge controller alone, because the voltage will rise sharply and damage the electronics. The charge controller is unlikely to be able to prevent this voltage rise without the presence of batteries. It is important to have a good battery voltmeter (with its own small fuse for safety), A clear digital display is really helpful when reading battery voltage because small changes are significant one ohm heater works well at 14 volts, and a ohm heater is suitable for 28 volt operation. These are typical battery charging voltages for 12 and 24 volt (nominal) systems. These heaters will dump up to 14 and 9 amps respectively* Add more heaters in parallel until you have enough load to absorb all that the wind turbine can produce together with any extra solar PV charging current that is not already regulated. You can also build your own charge controller using circuits available on the web - for example on my...

## Construction Guidelines for the Historic CD Motor Device

2 CDs - Can be taken from old computer magazine covers, for example 3 4 Magnets - Glue 2 grade 8 ceramic disc magnets together to make one magnet Circuitry - Hall ic, MOSFET, general purpose wire, etc 12v 7Ah lead acid battery - A good Ah rating is required for best results 24 - 26 awg stator wire - Enameled copper required to wind stator

## Steamco Solar Electric Spm System Power Monitor

Displays Battery Voltage, Amps, Watts, Amp-hrs, Watt-hrs of Two Separate Channels, Simultaneously Compare these advantages before you invest in a simple, single channel Amp-hour accumulator Accuracy 1 Amps 2 Watts Operates on 12 or 24 Volt systems Local or Remote Mounting Low Power Drain - 90mA .09A Typical Monitors 2 Channels Simultaneously Full 2 year parts and labor Warranty Fully protected against improper hookup Will support 12V Inverters To 2.5kw and 24V Inverters To 5kw

## Batteries The Heart of the System

A Solar Electric system is made up of a number of components, ana of these, none needs as much attention as the batteries. Thouan the idea ana usage of a battery bank is very simple, if batteries are neglected, degradation can occur at a fast pace. As someone in the industry once put it, few batteries die a natural death, most are murdered. The following information is designed to tell you how to get the longest life possible from your battery bank. (This is strictly flooded cell lead-acid battery information for Alkaline and gel-cell batteries many of these needs and characteristics are completely different.) The second type of cycle is a deep cycle where up to 80 of the battery capacity is discharged and recharged. Batteries designed for deep cycling are built with thicker plates of active material which have less overall surface area. Because of the lessened availability of surface area for cnemicai reaction, these batteries yield just as much power relative to their size, but do...

## Another Cold Running Adams Motor Using A Hard Drive Platter to Make an NIB Motor

In the above picture you can see the oscilloscope reading. The back EMF (cemf) was connected to the power supply (car automobile battery 12V). The duration of the pulse command and back EMF spike was measured on an oscilloscope, and as can be seen, the back EMF is a full 80 of the delivered pulse width Hence the constructor of this motor believes the efficiency of his motor is 80 and NOT OVER-UNITY. The motor runs at about 2800 RPM, and does so ABSOLUTELY COLD, as does the circuitry. Then a load (the motor) was placed on it, and the battery voltage fell to 12.32 V After 2 hours the battery voltage rose to 12.35 V After 20 hours battery voltage was recorded slightly lower at 12.32 V

## The Original Hard Drive Motor

In the above picture you can see the oscilloscope reading. The back EMF (cemf) was connected to the power supply (car automobile battery 12 V). The duration of the pulse command and back EMF spike was measured on an oscilloscope, and as can be seen, the measured back EMF is a full 80 of the delivered pulse width, even using basic transistor grade switching parts The motor runs at about 2800 RPM, and does so ABSOLUTELY COLD, as does the circuitry. Then a load (the motor) was placed on it, and the battery voltage fell to 12.32V After 2 hours the battery voltage rose to 12.35 V After 20 hours battery voltage was recorded slightly lower at 12.32V

## PV Combiner Box Buyers Guide

Every inverter and charge controller, whether in a utility-interactive or stand-alone system, has a DC input voltage window that must be adhered to. In batteryless grid-tied Combiner boxes, like these models from OutBack, take incoming wires from multiple PV series strings, add overcurrent protection, then parallel the strings for output to the inverter or charge controller. Combiner boxes, like these models from OutBack, take incoming wires from multiple PV series strings, add overcurrent protection, then parallel the strings for output to the inverter or charge controller.

## The Fuelless Engine Plans

Qty- 2 12 vdc car batteries, See page 5, car batteries collect free energy back emfand also run the 1,000 vdc power supplies. The special HV magnets will be used and will only consume very little amperage in the milliamps Batteries will last a very long time without the back emf

## Http Overunity.com Index.php Topic 2535.0.html

The electronics tutorial which forms part of this eBook shows the principles which can be used for the design and construction of this kind of circuitry. It might be sensible to have the control circuitry kick in at fourteen or fifteen volts and drop out again when the battery voltage drops back to 12.5 volts or so. The connecting wires should be at least 30 Amp current carrying capacity and the individual diodes and the diode bridge are rated at 35 Amps 50 Volts. The circuit is intended for use with lead acid batteries but it has been used successfully with rechargeable NiCad batteries. The circuit provides about 12 volts as the output, so mains equipment would be operated using a standard, commercial inverter which converts this low DC voltage to normal mains AC voltage capable of powering TV sets, DVD recorders, or whatever.

## Fully Independent Adams Motor Replication

This motor is a successful over-unity cold current design. The constructor wishes to remain anonymous. He also warned me, these pictures show an early version, and significant modifications were subsequently undertaken. Exact mechanical efficiency numbers are not available, but they are clearly well over 100 . The constructor so far measures his performance by the amount of back-emf he can pull off relative to input - 97 . Which is absolutely astonishing Secondary windings could most easily be added to the stators to push that number well past 100 - battery charging in excess of motor draw, is clearly no problem. The constructor also notes the benefits of alternate N S Muller type setups. But I was most interested to read his comments on pulse duration, and the importance of fine tuning this parameter for best results.

## How To Build A Rotoverter Generator

The input drive may be from an inverter driven from a battery charged via a solar panel. The system how needs to be 'tuned' and tested. This involves finding the best 'starting' capacitor which will be switched into the circuit for a few seconds at start-up, and the best 'running' capacitor.

## Solar Electricity Today

An Account of Lead Acid Battery Restoration Using EDTA Tetrasodium After reading the several stories in Home Power describing how to restore lead-acid batteries, it was time to try it. Most lead acid batteries are disabled by a build-up of sulfur on the lead plates (sulfation). There are two methods to break sulfation chemical (using EDTA tetrasodium), and electronic using a pulsed device that electrically breaks the bond. For this first try, chemical chelating agents are used. Refer to the article in Home Power 20 & 21 for details. I collected six old lead-acid batteries as my test subjects. Two of these batteries are Exide, two are Sears Die Hard, one Les Schwab, and one Fred Meyer brand. They vary in age and usage. Five of the batteries were deep-cycle (Exide, Die Hard, Fred Meyer), and one was a standard car battery. I decided to use a car battery for comparison. After the test, four batteries came out usable. The Exide batteries were used in a bass fishing boat to run a 24...

## Performance Of Voltage Control Unit Vcu At Cronalaght Wind Farm Ireland

Drouilhet, S., Johnson, B.L. (1997) A battery life prediction method for hybrid power applications. 35th Aerospace Sciences meeting & Exhibition. Reno NV, USA, Jan 6-10 Muljadi,E., Drouilhet,S., Holz,R., & Gevorgian,V. (1996). Analysis of permanent magnet generator for wind power battery charging. In Procedings on Industry Applications Conference. Vol. 1. 541-548

## Dwt In Vertue Lv Plans

Please read this it is very important YOU CAN NOT CHARGE EACH CAPACITOR WITH 24 VDC AND ALSO HAVE THEM CONNECTED IN SERIES You must do one or the other never at the same time 1st you charge each capacitor, then 2nd you disconnect that charge, 3rd you then connect each capacitor ( that now has that powerful 24 volt charge ) and connect them in series. now it would be stupid to connect and disconnect all of this by hand. So what you must do is use switches You can use all relay switches 1- 4 pole double throw and 5 - 30 amp auto relay switches, or you can use 1- 4 pole double throw relay and 5 - SCR's (Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers.) as switches. ( It is very easy to do ) Using SCR's is much quieter than using loud relays. you can buy low power SCR's at Radio Shack or you can buy High amperage SCR's by catalog. use 70 amp x 200v SCR's for a 1,000 watt unit, or 275 amp x 600 volt SCR's for a 5,000 watt unit. FIGURE 1 is the Charging diagram, this is where you will need to use the 4 pole...

## Solectria Lightspeed Wins American Tour De

The limiting factors in solar electric vehicle design are the cost of photovoltaic panels and the energy density of batteries. Photovoltaic panels,which convert sunlight directly into electricity, have become significantly cheaper and more efficient but government funding for research has dropped steadily since the 1980's. It is time to renew our support for photovoltaic and battery research and invest in our own and the world's future said race co-director Dr. Robert Wills. While esoteric battery technologies such as solid lithium, molten sulphur and zinc-air show promise, most vehicles in the American Tour de Sol used conventional lead acid batteries.

## COP Figures Mechanical not electrical overunity

As stated above, it requires less energy to demagnetize the pm field in the stator cores, than you gain in the 'yaw to register' stator attraction phase, because of the 'free precharge' Lenz effect manifested in the overwound generator configured stator coils. Is that free energy You tell me. Sounds just like a scientific effect to me, rather than something 'free' and magical. What Mr Aspden was unable to state because his unit for unknown reasons was not capable of the necessary high rpms, was that the 12-15 energy gain you make from that asymmetry, causes a brief negative impulse to be issued from the central pole face of permanent magnets, a process clarified by the recent disclosure of the POD magnetic schematic. This is conducted along the length of the stator core, hence the current pulse is converted to a time negative polarity. It then promptly flows BACKWARDS to the source, which it recharges. To this extent, it is perhaps more accurate to describe the Adams motor as a...

## DIY Battery Repair

You can now recondition your old batteries at home and bring them back to 100 percent of their working condition. This guide will enable you to revive All NiCd batteries regardless of brand and battery volt. It will give you the required information on how to re-energize and revive your NiCd batteries through the RVD process, charging method and charging guidelines.

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