Electric Car Conversion Made Easy

Hybrid Cars The Whole Truth Revealed

Hybrid Cars The Whole Truth Revealed

Hybrid Cars! Man! Is that a HOT topic right now! There are some good reasons why hybrids are so hot. If you’ve pulled your present car or SUV or truck up next to a gas pumpand inserted the nozzle, you know exactly what I mean! I written this book to give you some basic information on some things<br />you may have been wondering about.

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Electricity 4 Gas

Anyone can build their own electric car regardless of skill, and after following the information in my manual, I promise: For only a few hundred dollars you will have an electric car that rivals anything the large automakers can produce. Your electric car will look good. Your electric car will travel at 50 mph. You can drive up to 100 miles on a single charge. You will be completely satisfied. Here are just a few of the topics covered in this manual: The parts and tools needed before you start Without this information your whole attempt to create an electric car will be pointless. How to find Free batteries and other Free parts for your electric car. Simple illustrations and diagrams to follow. Complete setup instructions and step by step instructions to convert your gas-guzzling car to an electric car.

Electricity 4 Gas Overview

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The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Concept

The idea of an electrical powered vehicle (EV) has been around for almost 200 years. The first electric vehicle was built by Thomas Davenport in 1834. Until a few decades ago, batteries seemed to be the only device capable of storing the energy in a safe manner. Unfortunately batteries are still not able to store the amount of energy needed to fulfill the needs of an electric vehicle completely. They also have a low energy to weight ratio and problems with the recharging of the battery are not completely solved. Currently a lot of research is focused on the possibility of using fuel cells for producing energy from hydrogen. Results are promising and fully functioning fuel cells may be the missing link that will make the EV a competitive alternative to the standard internal combustion engine (ICE) that is used in today's cars. The customers' demand for an alternative to the combustion engine is, nonetheless, great. The environmental advantages of low emission and the possibility of...

Electrical Machines for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications

As mentioned above, the hybrid electric vehicle needs an electrical machine to transform electrical power to mechanical torque on the wheels. The electrical machine needs to be controlled accurately (control of speed and or torque) and the only machine that initially could fulfill these demands was the DC motor 34 . Due to high weight and a short lifetime the DC motor was gradually replaced by the induction machine (IM). The induction machine is a robust, well-known device and, with the development of new power electronics (like the IGBT transistor), many new methods of controlling three phase machines have been developed. The induction machine is still used in many HEV concepts. In order to increase the energy efficiency of the HEV, all parts of it have to be very efficient and, as an alternative, machines of the permanent magnet type have become a serious challenger to the IM. Recent research has also shown that the reluctance machine can be used in hybrid electric vehicles with...

Hybrid Electric Vehicles HEV

Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) typically combine the conventional internal combustion engine of the automobile with an energy storage device, such as a battery. However, there are many different arrangements for the HEV. The key components to an HEV are the energy storage system (batteries, ultracapacitors, and flywheels), the power unit (spark ignition engines, compression ignition direct injection engines, gas turbines and fuel cells) and the vehicle propulsion system (electric motor). The benefits of HEVs, much like the hybrid power plants, are increased efficiency and lower emissions.

Microgrids building integration and electric vehicles

As well as intelligent interconnected buildings with distributed generation, electricity storage can be incorporated as a key element of micro-grid design in the form of plug-in electric vehicles (see Section 5). A strategy for delivering electricity is where these electric vehicles can become an efficient energy supply source during high cost, peak demand periods. Energy management of the vehicles can enable charging discharging to be controlled to suit the needs of the drivers and the grid (Gridpoint, 2009). For example, vehicles connected to the grid will be automatically detected and identified by the utility and managed in accordance with the owners' wishes. When undertaken at off-peak times, vehicle charging can commence, but at a timing and rate to avoid creating a peak load. When the system is operated during peak periods and as agreed by the driver based on any imminent need for use of the vehicle, the utility can discharge any remaining power from the batteries to the grid...

Electric Vehicles

You turn the key, and with a questioning look, wonder, Is it really turned on There's no sound, no movement, just a green light on the dash. Open the throttle carefully, and the electric vehicle (EV) springs to life. Five minutes later, you're back with windblown hair and a big grin. I've seen it happen time and time again with first-time EV drivers. Over the years, I've worked for five different EV companies, including two of my own, each building practical vehicles with diverse uses. I've witnessed the emergence of highway-ready EVs designed and manufactured by major automakers, the disappearance of these product lines, and the current resurgence in their interest. Most highway-ready, full-size EVs on the road today were originally internal combustion rigs, converted to run on an electric motor and batteries. It's my hope that soon, production electric cars will be readily available. Until then, several categories of light electric vehicles (LEVs), and an ever-growing share of...

Air Pollution Nearly Eliminated

Statistics show that if we replaced 1 million gasoline cars with electric cars, total emissions would be reduced by 150 million tons a year. According to PG& E, an electric mini-van would produce 85 less ozone producing emissions and 97 less carbon monoxide than a gasoline powered mini-van. Tests conducted by the California Air Resources Board in May 1989 combined with PG& E's annual off-peak electricity generation - electric vehicles reduce emissions of HCs by 99 , NOx by almost 80 , and CO by 97 .

The Health Hazards Of Oil And Gas Powered Cars

Electric vehicles are a reality and are available today. Vehicles range from a 900 electric bicycle to a 20,000 luxury sports car. Several models are available for under 10,000 that are capable of carrying four adults. All the vehicles can be recharged simply by plugging into any standard 120 volt ac outlet. Some may also be adapted to solar trickle charging. An information update and an evolving list of available vehicles may be ordered for 30.00 per year from Solar Electric, 175 Cascade Ct., Rohnert Park, CA 94928, or by calling (707) 586-1987. ACCESS Gary Starr, President of Solar Electric has been driving, researching, and marketing electric vehicles for the past 16 years.

Solectria Lightspeed Wins American Tour De

Northeast Solar Energy Association's (NESEA) 1990 American Tour de Sol, the American Solar Car Championship, was a great success. There were 15 entries from across the country, each unique, pushing solar electric vehicle technology to the limits. This second annual five day event was held from May 23 to 27, 1990. It involved 234 miles of travel and fourteen solar car exhibits from Montpelier, Vermont to Boston, Massachusetts. Besides numerous vehicles from colleges, universities, and one high school, the event attracted 3 conventional-looking solar production prototypes which were enthusiastically received by spectators and the press and made competition very stiff. Their designers hope to have them in production by the end of the year. electric vehicles for everyday use. Solar electric vehicles have photovoltaic panels, batteries and electric motors instead of gasoline engines. They are quiet, can travel up to 70 miles per day at normal road speeds, and are totally pollution free...

Come Visit With The Home Power Crew

The next project here is the completion of the island's emergency radio repeater system (callsign VP2EA R, 147.81 mhz) which will be powered by an innovative twin turbine wind generator from Ted Baer of Enercraft. Planning for 1991 includes using surplus 200 watt Winchargers on 64 foot towers to power a local service station and installation of a Bergey 3KW synchronous, grid connected system for a local business. Future planning includes locating a surplus electric powered van in the USA and operating it here in a feasibility test, using a Wincharger or Enercraft system to charge the batteries at night. Considering that the island is only 16 miles long, an electric vehicle may be an interesting and very useful concept. Gasoline is about 2.50 per gallon, not to mention pollution.

Electrathon Racing in Michigan

Electrathon America

EVT is short for the Electric Vehicle Technology program at Jordan College Energy Institute (JEI) in Michigan. After working with events such as the 1990 GM Sunrayce (Florida to Michigan) and the Ford Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge, JEI formed the 1994 Michigan High School Electrathon competition. A year after its conception, most of the 23 participating high schools scattered throughout Michigan have working under the watchful eye of Clark Beaseley. The site has seating capacity for 10,000 people and a fairgrounds to attract vendors and displays, and room for inspections and repairs. The Electrathon will run a daytime event on the same date as a nighttime stock car race, so that the track's single event insurance will cover both. Since spectators must traverse a large area between the parking lot and bleachers, owners of electric cars and trucks will be invited to display their vehicles to the general public in this area. Immediately prior to the Electrathon event, the display...

The Handson Journal Of Homemade Power

Electric Vehicles 52 Electric Car Batteries Placement & Containment Shari Prange discusses installing batteries in electric vehicles. Considered are placement, wiring, and more. Michael Hackleman discusses the refueling and recharging of electric vehicles. Anyone want to swap out batteries instead of filling the gas tank Transportation technology is complementary with independently-generated power. My exploration into electric vehicles and other transportation alternatives began in the 70's. My home and shop were both designed to be solar, and we aimed to generate all of our electricity from pre-REA windmachines. Our first EV was charged from wind power. We called it Ox a workhorse vehicle. Ultimately, I wish to empower HP's readers with the knowledge, ability, and confidence to realize their own alternative transportation ideas.

Cruising Equipment

Our new Kilowatt-Hour+ Meter was created for the Department of Energy to provide instrumentation for one hundred electric vehicles that participated in competitions this summer. The data gathered from the Phoenix 500, the Atlanta Clean Air Gran Prix, the American Tour de Sol, and the Ford HEV Challenge, is the largest sample of energy performance data that has ever been collected. The final report on this data is yet to be published, but the preliminary analysis has established the benchmark of 4 miles per kilowatt-hour at 50 miles per hour. We are proud to have been selected as the metering standard for these exciting and leading edge competitions. I use mine on a daily basis and will recommend it to any electric car buffImeet Mark Parthe

Massachusetts

The Seventh Annual Sustainable Transportation and S EV95 (Solar & Electric Vehicle) Symposium, Boston, MA, October 1995 (exact location and dates to be announced) will bring together a broad coalition of transportation planners, electric and hybrid electric industry representatives, business people, policy makers, ands engineers to foster the growth of a viable electric vehicle industry, and the development of a sustainable transportation vision for the nation. In-depth workshops, concurrently held sessions and an extensive trade show have made the event the major electric vehicle conference in the United States. For more information contact NESEA, 50 Miles St, Greenfield, MA 01301, 413-774-6051, fax 413-7746053.

Rhode Island

The Sustainable Transportation and Solar and Electric Vehicle (S EV94), October 3-5, 1994, will be held at the Rhode Island Convention Center in Providence. The show provides transportation planners, auto, bus and train industry personnel, business people, fleet owners and operators, students and concerned citizens a forum to exchange information on EV technology, policy, and business, as well as transportation planning strategies to create a non-polluting, equitable and efficient multi-model transportation system. For more info contact NESEA, 413-7746051.

Michigan

The Third Annual Great Lakes Renewable Energy Fair, August 6-8, 1993, Traverse City Senior High School, Traverse City, MI. Designed to promote conservation & new energy technologies, the event will feature solar panels, windmills, electric cars and boats, biomass fuels, the latest in energy saving appliances, and a popular renewable energy home tour. Amory Lovins will be the keynote speaker and give workshops on Saturday. For more info contact GLREA, 11059 Bright Rd, Maple City, MI 49664, 616228-7159.

Solopower

Electrathon Motor Drive Rear

I met Jonathan for the first time when I was hiking around the Big Island in early 1987. For a long time, I walked along a stretch of highway, hoping for a ride. I finally got one from a young woman, who told me about a local source for solar panels and electric vehicles. When I reached the area and called the number she gave me, I gave my name, and the usual you don't know me but I'd love to visit. Jonathan drove down to pick me up. I rode back up through the volcanic shield in an electric pickup truck I was grateful for his Jonathan has pointed out the advantage of the Big Island of Hawaii in testing electric vehicle technologies. After all, seventeen of the world's twenty-one microclimates are represented there. Where else can you test a car in the tropics, in the desert, and in the snow all in the same day (This article is largely an excerpt from my upcoming book, The New Electric Cars Simple, Efficient and Reliable, by permission of Chelsea Green Publishing, available July 1995.)

National

Electric Vehicle Safety Survey In order to establish meaningful standards, the Electric Vehicle Industry Assoc. is seeking data on the safety of EVs already in actual use. Anyone who has had any experience with EV accidents is invited to share their information. The survey takes 10 minutes to complete. Final data will be made available for publication. To participate, contact Shari Prange, Electro Automotive, POB 1113, Felton, CA 95018-1113 408-429-1989

Electricity as a Fuel

Electricity is considered an alternative fuel when it is used to charge an electric vehicle. Today, electric vehicles are available from most major automakers. Ford Motor Company, for instance, recently received an order from the U.S. Postal Service for 500 electric vehicles the largest U.S. order for electric vehicles in history. The real question for electric cars is, where does the electricity come from It's possible for the electricity to come from renewable energy sources, making the electric car a clean car in every way. The simplest way is to purchase 100 green power to recharge the car. Some cities have also installed recharging stations with roofs to shelter the cars as they refuel. These roofs are covered with photovoltaic solar panels, so that they actually generate the electricity to refuel the cars.

Millennium Power Systems

Electric vehicles, maybe even driven one. Now it gets personal. How can you put an EV into your garage Yes, you can get a ready-to-drive electric car with full factory support. Every major manufacturer has at least one electric vehicle in the lineup. There are, however, a few restrictions which may put some of these cars out of the running for you. Other vehicles, like the Ford Ranger or GM S10 pickup, are only available to fleets. And most of the electric vehicles offered are not available for sale, but only for lease. The lease payments can be several hundred dollars a month. On the other hand, this does include a full warranty (even the battery pack) and may also include insurance. The next easiest option is buying a used electric car. Fleets turn over their rolling stock every few years, and these vehicles are available at auction to any buyer. Also, private EVs get sold for the same reasons used gas cars get sold the owner had a baby and needed a back seat, got issued a company...

New York To Pennsylvania

1994 American Tour de Sol, Solar and Electric Car Championship, New York to New Jersey to Pennsylvania. Over 50 electric and solar powered cars will drive from the Statue of Liberty to the Liberty Bell, May 21-28 on a five day quest for the national electric and solar vehicle championship title. The American Tour de Sol, now in its sixth year, follows the century long tradition of using car racing as a proving ground for technical advances and education. Production electric vehicles compete alongside two and four seater commuters and sleek solar racing cars built by entrepreneurs, students and individuals. The New York to Philadelphia event will have a carnival atmosphere at the many free displays of the cars along the route. For more info contact NESEA, 413-774-6051

The Future Is Electric

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) can serve as a transitional technology to the all-electric cars of the future, by supplanting some of their liquid fuel needs with grid electricity. Even better, electric trains offer a huge opportunity to offset an enormous portion of our fuel demand.

Midwest Renewable Energy

Music and dancing is scheduled for Friday and Saturday night with Greg Brown, a contemporary folk musician, opening the show on Friday night. Tom Pease will be staging a children's concert during the day Saturday. Plans for an alternative vehicle rally have been modified to an exposition. There will be a showcase of not only solar electric, but also super high mileage and electric vehicles. A Solar Cook-Off is scheduled on Saturday . Booths are being reserved by businesses and schools representing PV, windpower, controllers, batteries, solar vehicles, and electric cars.

Nickel Cadmium Batteries

Our reconditioned Ni-Cad batteries have a proven track record of Superior performance under various conditions. With Ni-Cads you can add to your system as your power needs increase. Don't worry about deep discharges and over charging. Ni-Cads are very forgiving. Our reconditioned Ni-Cads are being used for home power, electric vehicles, marine power, electric bicycles, travel trailers and other uses. Call or write us for more info. (See you at SEER)

Electrical storage batteries and accumulators

Electricity is a high quality form of energy, and therefore great effort is made to find cheap and efficient means for storing it. A device that has electricity both as input and output is called an (electrical) accumulator or (electrical) storage battery. Batteries are an essential component of most autonomous power systems (especially with photovoltaic and small wind turbine generation), of standby and emergency power systems, and of electric vehicles. There is also a research expectation that solar energy could be stored directly in commercial photochemical cells (Section 10.7.3).

Ample Power Company

Electric Vehicle Chargers One of the most critical components for good electric vehicle performance doesn't even function while the car is being driven the charger. It is also the component most likely to stimulate debate about appropriate specifications. While there is no consensus on the right answers, I can at least help you to ask the right questions, and evaluate the choices yourself. No single charger combines the best of all features. Which combination you consider the best will depend on how important each feature is to you. The important points can be boiled down to the few basic qualities effectiveness, safety, reliability, and convenience. The charge you get out of your electric car will only be as good as the charge you put into it.

Application in Road Vehicles

Beginning in 1964, General Motors engineering staff started a program of building electric vehicles to determine the goals for research and development of the electric drive system, such as the motor, its controls, and the power source. One of the electrical power sources used for evaluation was the fuel cell because it was not limited in range as batteries were, and because it was not limited by the heat engine efficiency and, therefore, had the potential for higher fuel economy (Marks et al., 1967). An alkaline fuel cell system was used which had hydrogen and oxygen as reactants. In the 1980s, fuel cells were again considered as a power source for transportation vehicles. At this point, however, with the fuel selection constrained to methanol or gasoline, the phosphoric acid fuel cell system was the most advanced and the most likely to be suitable, except for its operating temperature. The solid polymer fuel cell was seen as having the best characteristics, but it was still in the...

Touch of Geothermal

Raser Technologies manufactures high-performance electric motor and controller technology for electric vehicles. This is what originally got us interested in this company, and ultimately one of the reasons we recommended it as an alternative transportation play. However, in January 2007, we got word that the company had decided to get into the geothermal game. A few days later, a press release appeared announcing that Raser Technologies had secured geothermal rights to a few properties in Nevada. A few months later, more properties were announced. Then a few weeks later, another property was announced. It became a trend. In fact, from late March through October 2007, Raser announced all of the following

Contribution Potentials

We have assumed that PV's end-use sector is electric power. But in the future, PV electricity could also be used in electric vehicles or to make fuels, such as hydrogen for vehicular use. We have not assumed any contribution from these more speculative applications. However, they could be of great significance-even outweighing the impact of grid-connected PV electricity during the next 40 years. PV is not resource limited relative to these markets in any region. The required land area for all capacity needs in 2030 is about 60,000 km2, approximately 1 of U.S. land area. Therefore, PV could meet 100 of the market needs as an ultimate theoretical potential. Referring to peaking needs only, they are estimated to be 15 of these capacity needs for the Northeast and North Central areas, and 8 in the South and West. Electricity for peak power is expected to be the major market for PV during the next 5 to 15 years.

Controlling the Machine

The PMSM is fed by the voltage source inverter (VSI), which is powered by the grid through an AC DC converter. For the hybrid electric case, the VSI is fed by a DC source, such as batteries. The VSI is controlled by a digital signal processor (DSP). A combination of a fast DSP and a modern VSI can control the voltage in the three phases of the PMSM very accurately. Note also the feedback devices, which consist of current measuring devices and rotor position detection. The rotor position detection usually consists of Hall sensors or a resolver. The term sensorless control usually implies that the rotor position and or rotor speed is not measured but estimated from the currents fed to the machine. Using vector control, various parameters can be controlled, for example rotor speed, angular position and torque on the shaft. The torque on the shaft is controller in hybrid electric vehicle applications.

Pending policies relating to renewable energy project deployment

I To encourage the use of less gasoline and diesel for transport, a walkable community is being planned, with adequate pedestrian links making most of the main facilities easily accessible. Car-share programmes and recharging stations for electric vehicles are being developed.

Large Scale Integration of Renewable Energy

First, the CHP stations should be operated in such way that they produce less when the RES input is high and more when the RES input is low. Such measures have already partly been implemented in Denmark. However, along with increasing the share of wind power, the measure will lead to an inefficient use of boilers instead of CHP. Such consequences have been seen in recent years in Denmark. Therefore, the next step is to add heat pumps and maybe additional heat storage capacity to the CHP stations and operate the system in such way that further RES can be efficiently integrated. Such measures will result in an integration of up to 40 percent of fluctuating RES into the electricity supply without losing the overall system efficiency. The economic feasibility of the investments in heat pumps proves very high for Danish society. Moreover, the investment in wind power is substantially improved. Third, electricity should be used in the transportation sector, preferably in electric vehicles....

Percent Renewable Energy Systems

The second study went a step further, especially with regard to energy conservation and the design of a coherent transportation solution. The study suggested the implementation of energy conservation measures at a high level, and, as a consequence, energy demands decreased compared to the first study. On the other hand, the transportation technologies applied in the second study were much more differentiated and included the combination of electric vehicles as well as biofuel technologies, which increased the energy demand compared to the first study.

White House Sets Renewables Agenda

Obama and Vice President Biden have already developed a plan to invest in alternative and renewable energy, reduce demand for foreign oil, address climate change and create millions of new jobs. The Obama-Biden 'New Energy for America plan' aims to help create five million new jobs by strategically investing US 150 billion over the next decade, ensure 10 of US electricity comes from renewable sources by 2012, and 25 by 2025 and implement an economy-wide cap-and-trade scheme to reduce greenhouse gas emissions 80 by 2050. Other aspects of the programme include putting 1 million Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) on the road by 2015, eliminating current imports from the Middle East and Venezuela within 10 years and make the US a global leader on climate change issues.

Essential Recommendations

Provide credit for MFCVs in regulatory policies encouraging the use of electric vehicles. The State of California requires that 10 percent of the vehicles sold in Model Year 2003 must be zero emission vehicles (ZEVs). MFCVs qualify for the highest level of partial ZEV credits. Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) vehicles fully qualify as ZEVs. METHANOL (CH3OH) a convenient liquid fuel made from natural gas or renewable resources is a leading candidate to provide the hydrogen necessary to power fuel cell vehicles, the next generation of automotive technology. The commercialization of methanol-powered fuel cells will offer practical, affordable, long-range electric vehicles with zero or near-zero emissions while retaining the convenience of an economical liquid fuel. By 2004 or sooner, fuel cells operating on methanol will power a variety of vehicles in the United States and worldwide.

Governance by authority

Regulations imposed by a municipality on its planning (Linz), housing density, zoning, public transport and infrastructure can encourage the local generation and deployment of renewable energy including through distributed energy systems (New York) and electric vehicle use (Yokohama, Adelaide). Other factors to be considered include impacts on local air pollution and health (Mexico City, Ottawa), as well as on vehicle congestion (London) and travel time reductions. The concept of permitting an increased percentage of total land area for a building on a given plot of land if the building integrates a specified amount of renewable energy generation could also be a consideration.

Home Power Magazine Post Office Box Hornbrook CA

The X-Wing was my first attempt at a high speed experimental solar vehicle. This PV powered speedster has been driven at We need a vehicle sized in between the bicycle and the car. The solar assisted electric vehicle is the perfect solution with many added benefits. Virtually all the frame members in these electric vehicles are aluminum box beam. More complex parts such as front ends and rear axle swing arms are MIG welded steel assemblies which bolt up to the box beam hole pattern. Many vehicle frames can now be assembled in minutes instead of days or weeks of cutting and welding. ELECTRIC VEHICLE KITS & COMPONENTS Electric Vehicle Parts Electric Vehicle Parts SEND 20 for the 1990 Suntools' Electric Vehicle transmissions. All the hard-to-find electric vehicle components are in this book along with years of valuable hands-on information.

Individual machines and integrated systems

Example 9.4 Fair lsle multimode wind power system Fair Isle is an isolated Scottish island in the North Sea between mainland Shetland and Orkney. The population of 70 is well established and progressive within the limits of the harsh yet beautiful environment. Previously the people depended on coal and oil for heat, petroleum for vehicles, and diesel for electricity generation. The electricity co-operative installed first a 50 kW rated-capacity wind turbine that operates in the persistent winds, of average speed 8-9ms-1. The control system was mentioned in Chapter 1, see Figure 1.6. Lighting and power outlets receive electricity metered at larger price, and a reduced price controlled-supply is available (wind permitting) for hard-wired comfort heat and water heating, see Section 1.5.4. At the frequent periods of excessive wind power, further heat is available, e.g. for growing food in a glasshouse or for a small swimming pool. An electric vehicle was charged from the system to include...

The Development Perspective

However, this does not only apply to emerging markets. We might consider, for instance, how rapidly the automobile would have diffused throughout industrialized countries without the ability to acquire a loan or a lease on the vehicle. Certainly, it is the loan and the lease that will facilitate the uptake of innovations such as the hybrid electric vehicle, which has relatively high up-front costs but much lower running costs due to its lower consumption of fuel. price of a green machine', and it put forward the idea that the very essence of green innovations is that they tend to cost more up-front. Solar is a good example of this, as is the hybrid electric vehicle or electric wind turbine. The point is that when buying such resource-conserving innovations, the vast majority of the costs are paid at the point of purchase, with comparatively less during operation. This makes the availability of customer credit that much more important for green innovations, and doubly so when they are...

Other Cells Some Fuel Cells Some

Such cells have a very good energy density. Zinc air batteries are very widely used in applications that require long running times at low currents, such as hearing aids. Several companies are also developing higher power units for applications such as electric vehicles. This is because they can also be 'refuelled' by adding more metal to the anode - which is why they are sometimes called fuel cells. The fact that the cathode reaction is exactly the same as for a fuel cell, and that the same electrodes can be used, is another reason. However, the electrolyte also has to be renewed to remove the metal oxide. Thus, they consume both the anode and the electrolyte, and cannot really be described as fuel cells. They are mechanically rechargeable primary batteries.

Introduction Batteries and Fuel Cells

This special issue of Chemical Reviews covers the electrochemical storage and generation of energy in batteries and fuel cells. This area is gaining tremendous importance for powering high technology devices and for enabling a greener and less energy-intensive transportation industry. Whether the demand is from a cell phone, a computer, or an iPOD, consumers are demanding a longer life in a smaller package and at a lower cost with minimal if any wired connection. The consumer generally does not care whether the power source is a battery, a fuel cell, or something else, as long as it works. In the area of greener transportation, there has been a surge of interest in vehicles that are electrically powered, either totally, as planned for the green Beijing Olympic Games, or partially, as in hybrid electric vehicles. The present generation of such vehicles uses a combination of an internal combustion engine and a battery, today nickel metal hydride, as in the Toyota Prius, and tomorrow...

Letters to Home Power

Do you have ideas or examples of how we can live without fossil fuel that you would like to share with other people I am making a video program about fossil-free living and am looking for people who would like to participate, either through being interviewed or by showing me their solar home, gridless electrical system, electric vehicle, etc. With regard to the OOZIE backwoods electric vehicle project We are surprised to hear how many of you share the same concept. Don Harris is into the wheel motors and will be making the prototypes on is hydro-powered lathes. We are starting a design newsletter around the project (as if we didn't do enough publishing) and will circulate it to all interested. Our design objective is a low speed, four-wheel drive solar electric buckboard. 30 mph tops with a 50 mile range. Payload around 1,000 pounds with rough terrain capability. If you want in on OOZIE, write Home Power and say you want to get the OOZIE Design Newsletter.

Robin Leach Tours The Most Expensive Solar Homes

If the sun is shining or the wind blowing and your batteries are fully charged, I maintain that YOU are wasting energy because you are not using it. So I purpose using all that wasted energy to have some fun. Race your electric car. Light up the outside of your house. Pump water through your fountain. Impress your friends with the luxury and sanity of renewable energy. Have some fun, you deserve it.

Automotive Power Plants

The gas can be used as such (compressed or liquefied as discussed in Chapter 11) or in the form of a hydrogen carrier such as methanol (Chapter 10) or a metallic hydride (Chapter 11). Hydrogen carriers can be derived from fossil fuels (Chapter 10) or from biomass (Chapter 13). Fuel cell cars may need energy storage devices (batteries, flywheels, or ultra-capacitors) to provide start-up power and to accumulate the energy recovered from dynamic braking. This stored energy can be used to supplement the fuel cell during fast accelerations. Hence, the needed fuel-cell power might be closer to the average power required by the vehicle than to the peak power. This would cut down the size and cost of the cell stack. Under all circumstances, the total electrically stored energy would be only a small fraction of that of a purely electric car.

Ballard Power Systems Bus and Daimler Benz

Daimler-Benz demonstrated the NECar (New Electric Car) in 1994, using solid polymer fuel cells developed by Ballard Power Systems (Prater, 1994). The vehicle was a Mercedes-Benz transporter van (MB180), with the cargo section containing 12 stacks of the Mk5 design (50 kW gross power) and holding the compressed hydrogen gas cylinders.

Thesis Free Energy Magnet Motor

Hellsing, Design and Optimization of a Permanent Magnet Motor for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle, Lic. thesis, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden, 1998. 24 J. Malan and M. J. Kamper, Performance of a hybrid electric vehicle using reluctance synchronous machine technology, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 1319-1324, Sept. Oct. 2001. 32 V. Wouk, Hybrid electric vehicles, Scientific American, no. 10, Oct. 1997. 33 F. A. Wyczalek, Hybrid electric vehicles year 2000, Proceedings of the Energy Conversion Engineering Conference and Exhibit (IECEC) 35th Intersociety, vol. 1, pp. 349-355, July 24-28, 2000.

Cruising Equipment Co Seattle Wa A

Our new Kilowatt-Hour+ Meter was created for the Department of Energy to provide instrumentation for one hundred electric vehicles that participated in competitions this summer. The data gathered from the Phoenix 500, the Atlanta Clean Air Gran Prix, the American Tour de Sol, and the Ford HEV Challenge, is the largest sample of energy performance data that has ever been collected. The final report on this data is yet to be published, but the preliminary analysis has established the benchmark of 4 miles per kilowatt-hour at 50 miles per hour. We are proud to have been selected as the metering standard for these exciting and leading edge competitions. I use mine on a daily basis and will recommend it to any electric car buffImeet Mark Parthe

Low Pressure Gas Storage Tank With Water Seal

Opslagtanks Biogas

This technology is very promising since either in a vehicle or in a stationary unit the gas generator can be run by a battery which is charged by alternative energy methods. It is obvious that it can also be charged by the device it supplies, such as an engine generator unit or a hydrogen fuel cell. This technology also provides a viable alternative to an all-electric vehicle since it takes much less stored battery energy to produce the hydrogen fuel from

The California Fuel Cell Partnership

While Toyota remains fuel neutral, the company has showcased a prototype MFCV based on the popular RAV4 SUV, with a range of 500 kilometers (310 miles). Toyotas fuel cell RAV4 employs a 25-kW fuel cell that works in conjunction with a downsized electric vehicle battery pack. The batteries are constantly recharged from the fuel cell. Regenerative braking provides additional electric power to charge the batteries. Toyota s design draws extra power from the batteries to supplement the fuel cell during acceleration. The batteries also enhance the vehicle by providing instant power, avoiding the short warm-up that prototype fuel cell reformers require to reach maximum power output. Due to its high fuel economy, Toyota believes that once in production, the fuel cost to the consumer will be half that of conventional gasoline vehicles, and it is likely this estimated cost will decline even further with improved design and manufacturing experience.

Tire Components Contributing To Rolling Resistance

Car Tire Components

Goodyear pioneered tires designed specifically for electric cars by working with General Motors on the Impact. Their research also produced the low rolling resistance Invicta GAL and Invicta GLR tires. Firestone, Bridgestone, Goodrich, and Michelin have also produced low rolling resistance tires. The electric car is an entire system including many different parts. No portion of the system should be ignored. Even though tires have nothing to do with the drive system of the car, they can have a significant effect on its performance.

Sunlight Energy Corporation

Electric Car Batteries The battery pack is one of the electric car's biggest components, in many senses of the word big. It is the bulkiest and heaviest component. It is one of the most expensive. And it is one of the most important to performance. Higher battery voltage gives the resulting EV a higher top-end speed. However, you can't simply add as many batteries as you want. Each one is the size of a toaster and weighs close to 70 pounds (32 kilograms). Both space and weight are limited and carefully planned for in a successful electric vehicle. Most electric cars now have a 96 Volt system, which means sixteen 6 Volt batteries. This seems to be an optimum weight power balance. A typical steel-bodied conversion will have a range of 60 to 80 miles (96 to 129 kilometers) in average commute conditions mostly flat roads, some freeway time, some stop-and-go in-

Energy Outfitters Moves To Grants Pass Oregon

Dear Sirs, This is a recap of a letter I already sent to Windpower Monthly magazine. In the Techwatch section of the June 2000 issue of Popular Mechanics, they have an article entitled Wind Recharger for EVs, which is about the Automotive Rotor Blade System developed by the Genesis Engineering Group of Hemet, California (maybe that company folded, I cannot find it anywhere). This is a horizontal windmill that is installed atop electric cars and vans, and automatically adjusts its blades to accommodate wind from diverse directions to power a generator that recharges the vehicle's batteries.

Decentralize

Ever since watching the movie Who Killed the Electric Car , I have seen a trend. Concerning electric-only motor vehicles of all types, I have found restrictions on use and the lack of availability in the United States evolving into a clear pattern, including in recent Home Power articles on electric cars (HP117) and electric bikes (HP118), and elsewhere. In The New York Times, NYC's new restrictions on pedicabs are bad enough, but to specify bans on electric assist pedicabs was over the top. It seems the advantages of electric vehicles, specifically electric-only, as an option will be restricted in the United States. Electric-only vehicles are extremely cheap to run and maintain and a threat to the status quo of centralization.

Paul E Zellar

Those of us at JEI who worked on the Sunseeker project were struck by how very little attention is paid by academic institutions to education in the area of maintenance of electric vehicles. The comment heard most often from potential employers is that they have to train people with no previous experience for the work. Even graduates of electrical and electronics programs in which the emphasis is on AC and low-current DC power know very little about the operation and repair of electric vehicles. We at JEI decided to meet this need by creating a college program in electric vehicle maintenance. JEI has consistently taught other ways of doing things than the standard one of bigger is better, and it is the only college in Michigan to have continuously offered programs in alternative energy since the seventies. Founded in 1967, JEI now offers, in addition to certificates, the Associate of Applied Science and the Bachelor of Science degrees. THE JEI ELECTRIC VEHICLE PROGRAM The First Year...

Happenings

The time is right for the American Tour de Sol, an exciting 5 day solar electric car race, which will run from Montpelier Vermont to Boston, Massachusetts May 23-27, 1990. Conventional gasoline and diesel vehicles burn 68 of all the oil used in this country, and contribute 30 of the air pollutants such as hydrocarbons, nitrous oxides and carbon dioxide, which cause environmental problems such as the greenhouse effect, acid rain and smog. Solar electric vehicles are completely non-polluting state the organizers of the race, the Northeast Solar Energy Association. No exhaust, no greenhouse effect, no smog. How a solar car works First and foremost the car must be a very efficient electric car, with an electric motor and batteries to store the fuel, electricity. In the case of the solar car batteries are recharged by photovoltaic panels which convert sunlight into electricity. The panels can be located either on the car, or at home or work. Battery capacity and cost are the limiting...

Hybrid Vehicles

One approach to increasing automotive efficiency is the hybrid electric vehicle. These vehicles are powered by both an engine and an electric motor, and include a battery pack large enough to continue providing power to the electric motor under most normal driving conditions. The electricity needed to maintain the charge of the batteries is generated by the engine, so unlike elec- DaimlerChrysler and Toyota are among automakers developing hybrid electric vehicles. DaimlerChrysler and Toyota are among automakers developing hybrid electric vehicles. tric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles do not need to be plugged in. The year 2000 marked a turning point for hybrid electric vehicles in the United States, with the first sale of hybrid electric cars by Honda. The Honda Insight, initially released as a two-seat vehicle, combines a three-cylinder gasoline engine with an electric motor that provides an extra boost while accelerating and climbing hills. The Insight achieves a remarkable 70...

Colorado

'95 Jade Mountain Denver Electric Vehicle Council Electrathon Challenge Schedule Electrathon Challenge '95 events will be held the third Sunday of the month. Vehicle inspection will begin at noon with competition starting at 1 00 pm. The future is electric Join the fun at the next Electrathon. June 25th, 12 00-3 00, 33rd and Arapahoe, Boulder, CO. July 23rd, 12 00-3 00 6th Ave and RD93, Golden, CO. All event locations are tentative. August 27th and September 24th locations to be announced. For more information call Bill Williams 303-449-6601 or write DEVC, 2940 13th St, Boulder, CO 80304 1995 Sun Sprint of the Rockies is an electric, hybrid and solar electric vehicle race. For its inaugural year, the race will be run from Aspen, CO to Moab, UT crossing some of the world's most beautiful scenery during the days of July 11-21, 1995. All contestants must be present on July 10, for the pre-event technical testing in Aspen. On the morning of the 11th we will begin the 550 mile road trek to...

Simpsoh

A little electric car for kids. Then the car stops, its roof no higher than your knees. The canopy opens, and a six-foot-tall man steps out, like some kind of stage magic trick. You've just encountered your first Electrathon racer. In 1978, EV enthusiasts in Great Britain formed the United Kingdom Electric Vehicle Association (UKEVA), and decided to hold an EV competition, with the assistance of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers. The vehicles they built would compete in an electric marathon an electrathon. This competition was the Lucas Electric Vehicle Endurance Run. All vehicles were supplied with identical 25 kg packs of Lucas batteries, and the race was on. In 1979, John Stevens, president of the Australian Electric Vehicle Association (AEVA), saw the Lucas competition in the UK, and decided to start a similar event back home. The first Australian race ran in 1980 in a shopping centre carpark (shopping center parking lot), with a course laid...

Reality

With every trip to the pump, converting your gas-guzzling car into an electric vehicle (EV) may sound better and better. The benefits seem obvious freedom from rising fuel prices, the satisfaction of a do-it-yourself project, and best of all, a clean, quiet ride. But before you get totally swept away by the idea, there are some realities that you should consider this kind of project is not for everyone.

Not Ok

ELECTRIC VEHICLE KITS & COMPONENTS SEND 20 for the 1990 Suntools' Electric Vehicle Catalog & Sourcebook. Everthing from high and low speed front ends to four speed transmissions. All the hard-to-find electric vehicle components are in this book along with years of valuable hands-on information.

Washington State

SEI 2007 workshops. Oct. 6 Intro to RE Oct. 8-13 Solar-Electric Design & Installation Oct. 15-17 Grid-Tied Solar Electricity Oct. 19-20 Successful Solar Businesses Oct. 22-24 Solar Hot Water Nov. 5-10 Electric Vehicle Conversion. Info See SEI in Colorado listing. Local coordinator Ian Woofenden 360-293-5863 ian.woofenden homepower.com

Hybrids

This section present hybrids for generating electricity or for providing power in automotive vehicles. Hybrid systems that incorporate gas turbines build upon the outstanding performance of the fuel cell by utilizing the exhausted fuel cell heat. Hybrid electric vehicles utilize fuel cells to provide electric power to augment or replace exiting power sources. These systems are highly efficient and deliver superior environmental performance. Presented below is a general discussion of hybrid technology as well as specific initiatives in the gas turbine fuel cell and electric power hybrid vehicle areas.

Monaco

Born from its traditions of autosports and a beautiful environment, the first Monte-Carlo Rendezvous of Electric Vehicles will occur October 19-22. The Salon portion will bring together manufacturers, distributors, dealers and servicers of EVs with press, schools, municipalities, etc. The Rallye portion will feature sports entertainment personalities and leading EV drivers for a media-filled event of the latest technologies. To participate, drive or exhibit, contact Sylvie Boutinot, Editions & Promotions Internationales, 11, Boulevard Albert-I-ER , Phone 92-16-03-76, Fax 93-15-03-13

California

Renewable Energy & Efficiency Fair, Saturday April 25 at Arcata's Redwood Community Park. Held in conjunction with SUN DAY '92 (see above), the fair will be a regional gathering to see micro hydro, wind, and PV systems solar ovens, solar hot water, electric vehicles, etc. There will be workshops on renewable energy, local music on a PV powered sound system, and a keynote address by Richard Perez of Home Power. Contact us at PO Box 4179 Arcata, CA 95521 707-822-3481 Solar Energy Symposium April 18 and 19, 1992, sponsored by College of the Desert. The event will feature solar and electric car displays as well as electric vehicle components, the latest energy conservation and renewable energy technologies, and more. Please join us and accept our invitation to be part of the solution to our energy dilemma. For more info contact George Smith Jr. at 619-346-8041 FAX 619-341-8678, College of the Desert, 43-500 Monterey Ave. Palm Desert, CA 92260 AlTranEx'92 Sept. 9-13, at the Santa Monica...

Washington

The Seattle Electric Vehicle Association presents Gasless in Seattle, this summers cleanest automotive event, Saturday, August 26, 1995, 11 am to 6 pm. Bring your banners, your card tables, chairs, hand-outs, etc. Participate help educate. For more information on this event or to join the Association call Steven Lough 206-524-1351, Olof Sundin 206-634-0263, or Victor Munoz 206-632-2994. , i

Tennessee

On October 2-4 1992, The Farm School in Summertown, Tennessee is hosting The Alternatives Fair energy conservation and economic conversion for the 90's. Educational presentations, product demonstrations, and experts from across the Southeast. Issues covered include sustainable energy practices, least toxic pest management, biodiversity, passive solar design, midwifery, vegetarian nutrition, permaculture, group economics, the impact of chip mills, water testing, and solar electric vehicles. Sponsored by Global Village Institute, Tennessee Solar Assoc., and The Farm School. For registration, camping information, and travel directions, send SASE to Mary Ellen Bowen, 51 The Farm, Summertown, TN 38483. For exhibitor information call 615-385-2123 or 615-964-2637

Florida

14th International Electric Vehicle Symposium, December 15-17, 1997, Walt Disney World Dolphin, Orlando, FL. Call for papers by Feb. 14.1997. For more information on submitting an abstracts or attending or exhibiting contact Pan Turner, EVS-14 Symposium Manager, c o First Option, 15 N Ellsworth Ave Ste 202, San Mateo, CA 94401 phone 415-548-0311 fax 415-548-9764 e-mail firstopt aol.com

Info

An electric vehicle of mass 1000 kg excluding the battery is designed for a 50 km range in a city driving cycle. The vehicle is equipped with a new 500 kg battery and the average energy consumption is measured to be 0.3 kWh km-1 (from the battery). At a speed of 36 km h-1 the required acceleration is 2.0 m s-2, and the power required to overcome the frictional losses is one third of

Hawaii

The Electric Vehicle Association of Hawaii and the Hawaiian Electric Company are hosting Hawaii EV '93, an international electric and hybrid vehicle conference and trade show. Held at the Hilton Hawaiian Village, the event , which is co-sponsored by Hawaii Dept. of Business Economic Development and Tourism, will be held December 9-12, 1993. The event is designed to meet the needs of major manufacturers, the general public and everyone in between. Preliminary sessions on Thursday and Friday cater to industry interests, providing valuable information on vehicle and infrastructure development. Paul MacCready, Aerovironment will be keynote speaker at Thursday's luncheon. Saturdays activities are for the general public, including training sessions for the maintenance and repair of EVs. Concurrent for these three days is a vehicle and component trade show . Sunday closes the event by bringing industry and the public together for the Pali Challenge, a road rally and exhibition to show-off...

Targets

Setting a target specifically for renewable energy deployment can help focus the community on methods and technologies available for reaching the target. The target could be for a pre-determined share of renewable electricity (Adelaide, Taipei), renewable heating cooling (Beijing, Tokyo), transport from biofuels (Betim, Stockholm) and or for electric vehicles (Oslo) by a specified date. It could be for a specified number or share of dwellings, (Oxford) and or commercial buildings (London), and or government buildings (Leicester, Toronto). to incorporate some form of renewable energy installation by a specified date. Setting the appropriate size of target is imperative and should be based on an assessment of the resources, available technologies, cost evaluations, co-benefits and links to other policies.

Electricity demands

The replacement of liquid fossil fuels is perhaps the most difficult energy supply problem. Electric vehicles are here assumed to make large inroads into the car and light haulage vehicle markets. Vehicles are mostly in use during times of high electricity demand therefore, their batteries would be predominantly charged at off-peak times, thus reducing the diurnal variation in total electricity demand. The use of electricity for making hydrogen to be used in fuel cells is excluded because this route is currently less efficient than the combination of batteries and electric motors. If hydrogen technologies were to improve, hydrogen fuel cells would replace batteries, where appropriate. This substitution would not change the rest of the electricity system significantly because the electricity requirements for charging batteries or producing hydrogen would be similar in quantity. Electric vehicle charging

National Us

The National Environmental Trust's Pollution Solutions Tour highlights the latest renewable energy technologies including fuel cells, wind generators, solar power water heaters, PV panels, energy efficient appliances, and alternative fuel vehicles, including the Honda Insight and a variety of light electric vehicles from scooters to electric cargo bikes. The tour will stop in 43 cities in 16 states. Come learn about easy pollution solutions that help stop global warming. 888887-8234 Photos and reports go to the NET Web site (www.hotearth.org) and click on the Pollution Solutions icon. Tour schedule Louisiana March 13, New Orleans March

Iiiiiiiii

I replaced all my light bulbs years ago with energy-saving fluorescents. Still there are many power-hungry appliances in my home, including a pool pump, forced air heater (gas) with a fan motor, refrigerator, freezer, electric range, microwave, computer, fax printer, shop garden tools, and of course the electric vehicle. I also have an electric rototiller, which I use in the spring on weekends. I built it myself from an engineless frontend tiller over twenty years ago.

Fuel cells

A fuel cell converts chemical energy of a fuel into electricity directly, with no intermediate combustion cycle. Since there is no intermediate 'heat to work' conversion, the efficiency of fuel cells is not limited by the second law of thermodynamics, unlike conventional 'fuel heat work electricity' systems. The efficiency of conversion from chemical energy to electricity by a fuel cell may theoretically be 100 . Although not strictly 'storage' devices, fuel cells are treated in this chapter because of their many similarities to batteries, Section 16.5, and their possible use with H2 stores, Section 16.3.2. In a 'hydrogen economy', fuel cells would be expected to be used not only for stationary electricity generation but also for powering electric vehicles. Therefore we shall discuss only fuel cells using H2, although other types exist.

Conclusions

Conversion technologies, such as heat pumps and electric vehicles, may improve the efficiency of the system, and they also entail the possibilities of cost-effective and efficient storage options. On the other hand, pure electricity storage technologies, such as CAES and hydrogen fuel cell systems, only contribute marginally to the integration of fluctuating RES and also have a low feasibility. 3. Electricity should be used in the transportation sector, preferably in electric vehicles. Such measures will serve as an efficient improvement of the integration of fluctuating RES.

Video Reviews

Mike Brown's Electric Vehicle Components Primer Over 40 cars, powered by the sun, will race from Albany, NY to Boston, MA May 18-23 1992, 4th Annual American Tour de Sol, Solar and Electric Car Championship. There will be ten free educational displays of these innovative non-polluting cars along the route. For information about the display nearest you, please contact NESEA, 23 Ames FSEC is also co-sponsoring a SunDay Challenge AE Vehicle Rally on June 14, 1992 in conjunction with the 21th American Solar Energy Society Annual Conference & Solar 92 in Coco Beach, FL. The rally will include commuter and solar electric vehicles. The Rally will be limited to 40 cars with a limit of 10 cars per each of the four classes. The registration fee is 10 per vehicle. Prizes will be awarded. For more info contact FSEC.

The Winner

This issue of Home Power is being printed by a new printer. We decided that it was worth the extra cost for a magazine that was not over-inked, cut crooked, and delivered late. We are learning. Neither Karen nor I have published a magazine before and the learning curve looks like a wall, even after three years of actually doing it. We get by with a little help from our friends (Thanks to all of you ). We are actively researching electric vehicles and will soon be building prototypes. In Karen's words, I want an EV more than I want indoor plumbing So we are starting design and construction of a four wheel drive backwoods solar electric buckboard. Steve Borgatti of Yreka CA will be doing the metal work, I will be doing the overall design & the electrics (leaning heavily on microprocessors) and the Wiz will be writing the computer code that makes it go down the road. Our design criteria is a totally PV powered vehicle, 30 mph tops, 50 mile range, and 800 to 1,000 pound payload. This...

Compose

In Table 4.3, the hour-by-hour simulation models applied to the regional national level have been grouped according to their optimization and their operation levels. Again, such grouping is not 100 percent accurate for all models. The LEAP model is left out. It is characterized as a simulation model rather than an optimization model because other models optimize the operation of the system. In principle, the two models SIVAEL and Balmorel do not include all sectors, as individual heating and transportation are left out. However, they do comprise the aspect of electricity grid involvement in the case of micro-CHP or electric vehicles.

Switch OFF

Of course, it may well be that energy storage appears in the system for other reasons. As discussed by Barrett (see Chapter 9), it may well be that a significant proportion of transport needs will be provided by electric vehicles. Whether these are powered by batteries or fuel cells is immaterial if the energy is supplied by the electricity system. In both cases, substantial energy storage is involved and this can be used to improve the utilization of the renewable resources. In fact, this storage may be essential for stable dynamic operation of the electricity supply system, and this critical issue is not addressed in either Barrett's (see Chapter 9) or Streater's (2002) studies.

Smart metering

A good design of smart meter should also be able to control and verify a number of separate circuits, typically those dedicated to large load devices such as air conditioners, refrigeration stores, motor drives, water pumps, electric vehicle charging and water heaters. The energy user can then select the optimum time-of-use based on varying tariffs and thus enable utilities to undertake load demand response actions and compensate customers for doing so. In addition, intelligent thermostats can communicate to allow utilities and or customers to automatically adjust heating cooling systems based on a balance between comfort, cost and power system requirements including peak load shaving.

Prologue

First, I will bring to bear a range of theories on innovation diffusion to help us understand and explain the solar phenomenon. The starting point for all of these theories is that an innovation rarely diffuses through a society as quickly as is anticipated, and all of them try to explain this phenomenon. By integrating these theories into one coherent framework, I hope to provide a tool for those interested in the diffusion of other renewable energy and energy-efficient innovations, such as small hydro, solar water heaters, wind turbines, fuel cells, LED lights and electric vehicles. I also hope the framework will be relevant for those interested in green innovation and innovation diffusion more broadly. The book is intended to be of use to those who are studying diffusion from an academic perspective, as well as those who are more proactively trying to expedite the rate at which an innovation spreads.

Calseia Sunday

A statewide solar electric car race, ecological exhibits and demonstrations of solar and other forms of alternate energy will be featured at the First Annual Sun-Day, sponsored by the California Solar Energy Industries Assoc. (CALSEIA). SUN-DAY will also be the site of the finish line for the California Clean Air Race, a race of solar electric cars from Sacramento, through Palo Alto, Fresno, San Luis Obispo, to Los Angeles. The 760 mile car race will highlight the development of alternate energy vehicles, and is the first of its kind in California.

Michael Potts

Above Electric car controller evolution on the left is an early transistorized PWM controller on the right is a modern Electric Car Speed Control Systems The controller is to the electric car what the carburetor is to the gas car. It meters out the fuel to the motor according to the demand, as signalled by the throttle pedal. Controllers have advanced more than any other part of the electric car over the years. The most primitive system involved series-parallel switching. In this method, the batteries could be run in two configurations all wired together in series for full battery pack voltage, or split into two equal half-packs connected in parallel. This system had two speeds, which combined with the manual transmission to yield a confusing set of choices. It had complex wiring and required flipping some type of switch as well as shifting gears. Series-parallel switching provided little speed control, and performance was jerky. The next step in the evolution of the controller was...

Composting Toilets

Cocconi left the joint GM-Aerovironment project because he felt that GM was going to sit on the technology. He's put thousands of miles on a next generation ac drive that he has built and installed in a Honda CRX. With a tiny generator pod in tow, he drove his electric non-stop from Los Angeles to the Phoenix electric car races earlier this year. He has systems for sale. been driving nothing but an electric car for the past 18 months. It's content to sip power from a wall socket. The conversation wasn't over. I was told it will cost more to buy an electric car. And operate it, too. How much more operating cost over a gas car , I asked. 1,000 per year average, came the reply. That's funny. My experience has been just the opposite. Some EV owners have been documenting their use and costs over very long time periods. Why Wait For Detroit (Steve McCrea, editor) has printed this information. Can this data be ignored When it comes to EVs, the U.S. lags behind other countries in design and...

Electro Automotive

Electric Car Conversions Since 1979 Books Videos Kits Components Catalog Send 6.00 for our catalog, or visit our web site. Convert It We wrote the book on electric car conversions - literally Send 30.00 postage paid for this hands-on how-to conversion manual, written in plain English for the home hobbyist mechanic.

November

For a free 16-page brochure, write to Omni-HPV, Box 96, Albion, CA 95410 or fax your address to 707-937-0603. The first 400 respondents also receive My Mom Drives An Electric Car,a 20-page book that introduces the young people in your life to battery-powered transportation.

Energy Tax Credits

On January 1, a set of federal energy efficiency tax credits went into effect, making it easier for American families and businesses to reduce energy costs at home, at work, and on the road. These credits are designed to improve our nation's energy efficiency, while helping you offset the costs of purchasing and installing energy efficient appliances, renewable energy systems, and fuel-efficient vehicles, such as hybrid electric cars and trucks.

Oregon

Oregon SunWorks 93 Sustainable Homes Sustainable Community A three day conference October 15-17, 1993 merging the best ideas of the 70's with state-of-the-art-technology of the 90's energy professionals, exhibitors, electric car rally, solar chile cook-off, speakers, workshops, solar home tours and a kids camp.The event will be held at the Two World Trade Center, Portland Oregon. Presented by the Solar Energy Association of Oregon. For more information call 503-224-7867

Model A

The use of to many magnets to close together will result in creating a more powerful resistance, using the least amount of magnets per array is best, make sure each array is far from the other or it will create problems. For more horse power you can make the rotor longer and apply more arrays just as long as they are not to close to each other to cancel each other out. if you buy very strong and larger ceramic magnets you will get more horse power also. This Motor can be made up to 15 Hp and we believe beyond that if you have the money. a small inexpensive 10 hp motor can be designed to fit into a electric car to a 2 60 amp alternators to keep up the battery's to run the electric motor to run the car. a 1 to 2 hp motor can run your home

Amorningstar

My wife and I make 150 of our household electricity with sunshine, we heat 99.95 of our water with a solar thermal system, we drive fuel-efficient cars and buy green tags to offset our car and air travel, and we buy local food. We plan to install a solar air collector to supplement a high-efficiency wood heater, and to buy an all-electric car fueled by our solar-electric system. Yet even after all of that individual effort, I feel that we are not close to living a sustainable lifestyle.

Arizona

Tucson Solar Potluck and Exhibition, 16th Annual, May 9 at Catalina State Park. Join 1,000 people for a day in the sun with lots of solar cooked food. See exhibits of PV, cool towers, water pumping, electric cars, and more. Free fair, but the park has a 4 per car fee. Camping available. Info Toby Schneider, 520-292-9020 Citizens for Solar, PO Box 36744, Tucson, AZ 85740 The Southwest Energy Fair, September 19-20, 1998, Flagstaff Arizona will offer technical, general public, and children's workshops as well as project, debate, and essay contests for students. An electric car race and EPCOT center solar exhibit. Commercial booths will be available and we are looking for individuals and companies to give demonstrations, hold workshops, or have ideas to contribute. On-site camping will be available as well as numerous free recreational opportunities for vendors. For more information call the Greater Flagstaff Economic Council at 1-800-595-7698 email gfec primnet.com

Nickel Iron

In the early competition between steam, internal combustion, and electric automobiles, the electric suffered (as do modern electric cars) from a limited range. These cars had a large fraction of their weight in lead-acid batteries. Thomas Edison, (1847-1931), using his usual empirical approach, tested many materials in search of elements for a battery that would outperform the ones currently being used. He finally settled on an iron-nickel oxide combination which had a moderate success, being quite robust in terms of resistance to overcharge and to prolonged times of idleness.

Minnesota

MINNESOTA SUNFEST 93, A three day renewable energy exposition will be held June 25-27 1993. Events include the finale of the SunRayce 93, featuring 36 solar vehicles designed by college students from across the US, Solar Boat Regatta at Lake Nokomis, Student Science Contest, Kids Programs, a non-polluting commuter vehicle demo, solar powered hot water exhibit, entertainment featuring strolling musicians and a live radio show, solar workshops and a variety of exhibitors featuring commercial solar products, ecological exhibits, and food booths. Most of the activities will be held at the Minnesota Zoo. For more info contact Stephen Dess, PO Box 36, Crosby, MN 56441 218-546-5369

Police Car Drag Race

Between a Willits police car and an amped up electric car Although Bill had never been in an electric car, he was one hundred percent supportive and enthusiastic from the start. He had ideas for suspension modifications and suggested that we get the vehicle to his shop for work and testing.

Publications

The previous work on off-board battery chargers for electric vehicles, also part of the research work, is reported in P. Karlsson, M. Bojrup, M. Alak la and L. Gertmar, Efficiency of Off-Board, High Power, Electric Vehicle Battery Chargers with Active Power Line Conditioning Capabilities, European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, EPE '97 Conf. Rec., Trondheim, Norway, Sept. 8-10, 1997, vol. 4, pp. 4688-4692. M. Bojrup, P. Karlsson, B. Simonsson and M. Alak la, A Dual Purpose Battery Charger for Electric Vehicles, IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, PESC '98 Conf. Rec., Fukuoka, Japan, May 17-22, 1998, vol. 1, pp. 565-570.

Going Electric in

Beginning in 1998, it's expected that 40,000 electric vehicles per year will be registered in California alone. Even if someone is patient enough to wait, the selection available to consumers may be poor. Major auto makers will steer clear of affordable commuting vehicles lest they compete with internal combustion engine vehicles. Fleets are the most likely recipients for vehicles that would fall into this category. Fortunately, there are alternatives in two general categories conversion and purpose-built EVs. The conversion of a standard automobile to electric propulsion is the most common way to obtain an EV today. Converted vehicles are available from or performed by a number of companies like Solectria, Solar Car Corporation, ElectroAutomotive, Burkhardt Turbines, KTA Services, MendoMotive, Electric Vehicles of America and others. Kits and components are also available for the DIY (Do It Yourself) crowd. Conversion manuals make it easier to understand what's involved. Do your own...

Business

ELECTRIC CARS AND BICYCLES, electric car parts for the builder, solar electric tricycles. Send S.A.S.E. for info or call 707-961-0459, 1258 N. Main St., unit B2B, Fort Bragg, CA. 95437 CONSIGNMENT LIQUIDATION All sorts of PV equipment, below dealer cost. M65s, 4x4 cells, 2K & 5K inverters, Sunlites, Patiolites, Batteries, 10K Generator, Electric Car, more most new, some demo. Send 1 and SASE for description and prices. To view items, send VHS tape and 3, or just 7 (we'll send a VHS tape) to Mark Gilbert, Box 424, Colwich, KS 67030

Side View

Rotor Bedini

If the voltage on a battery under load actually increases, it is reasonable to assume that the battery is receiving more power than that delivered to the load (a load is a motor, a pump, a fan, lights, or any other electrical equipment). As this is so, and the circuit is not connected to any visible outside source of energy, it will be realised that there has to be an outside source of energy which is not visible. If the circuit is provided with powerful enough components, it is perfectly capable of powering an electric car at high speeds, as has been demonstrated by Ronald Brandt. This indicates that the invisible source of outside energy is capable of supplying serious amounts of additional power. It should also be remembered that a lead-acid battery

The Spark

Jordan folks not only attended the Fair, they also brought their solar car, the Sunseeker, with them. Jordan continues with their fine renewable energy and electric vehicle programs. I spent some time crawling around their solar car and was amazed at the level of technology displayed there. By the time Detroit gets their EV act together, the Jordan crew will be flying around in PV-powered heliocopters.

Isehhhb

The new battery's energy density (output per unit of weight) is 35 percent better than the previous world record for a battery. To maintain a constant charge, the battery is discharged or receives charging energy from the generator and the motor, so it does not require external charging, as do electric vehicles.

Energy Specialists

November 11,1990 - 2nd annual SOLAR ELECTRIC VEHICLE SYMPOSIUM, sponsored by the American Tour de Sol of the Northeast Sustainable Energy Assoc., Manchester, NH Contact NESEA 413-774-6051 May 21-25, 1991 - 3rd annual AMERICAN TOUR de SOL, The solar & electric vehicle championship, sponsored by NESEA, Albany, NY to Boston, MA. Contact NESEA 413-774-6051