Description Of The Figures And System Operation

The process in this invention is described in a description below and in the process gain block diagram cited below and attached as separate sheets, which are intended to be read in conjunction with the following set of drawings, which include (1) the background Lenz reactions, Poynting and Heaviside energy flow operations, Heaviside energy flow component, giant negentropy operation, Whittaker's decomposition of the scalar potential, and creation and use of curved local spacetime utilized in the invention, and (2) the principles, the functional block diagram, a physical laboratory test and phenomenology device, and the process operation of the invention as well as typical measurements of a laboratory proof-of-principle device.

Figure 1 graphically shows Whittaker's decomposition {1, 29, 30} of the scalar potential into a harmonic set of phase conjugate longitudinal EM wavepairs. The 3-symmetry of EM energy flow is broken {16, 26} by the dipolarity of the potential, and 4-symmetry in energy flow without 3-flow symmetry is implemented {1, 26}.

Figure 2 expresses this previously unexpected functioning of the scalar potential—or any dipolarity, including the magnetic dipole of a permanent magnet—as a true negative resistor {23}, receiving energy in unusable form, transducing it into usable form, and outputting it in usable form.

Figure 3 shows the startling ramifications of this previously unsuspected process: an ongoing, free, negentropic reordering of a fraction of the local vacuum energy {26}, spreading at the speed of light in all directions from the moment of formation of the dipole, and continuing as long as the dipole and its broken 3-symmetry exists. We have previously stated {22, 25} that the energy input to the shaft of a generator, and the chemical energy of the battery, have nothing to do with powering the external circuit connected to the battery or the generator. 0ther than dissipation in internal losses, the available internal energy dissipated by the generator or battery does not add a single joule/sec of energy flow to the external circuit. Instead, the available internal energy is dissipated internally and only to force the internal charges apart, forming the internal source dipole connected to the terminals. The input energy to a generator and expended by it, and the chemical energy available by a battery and expended by it, thus are expended only to continuously reform the source dipole that the closed current loop circuit continuously destroys.

Once established, the source dipole applies the giant negentropy process {26, 43} shown in Figures 1, 2, and 3. Energy is continuously received by the dipole charges from the surrounding active and negentropically reordered vacuum (curved spacetime), transduced into usable form, and output as real EM energy flow in 3-space. The receipt of this energy as reactive power freely received from the vacuum, does not yet appear in present classical electrodynamics texts, which texts do not include the vacuum interaction, much less the broken symmetry of the source dipole in that vacuum exchange, even though such has been proven in particle physics since the 1950s. The present invention is believed to be the first applied process using this previously omitted process of easily extracting energy from the vacuum and outputting it in usable transduced form as real EM energy flow, via the giant negentropy process {26, 43}.

The transduced EM energy received from the vacuum by the source dipole, pours out of the terminals of the battery or generator and out through space surrounding the transmissions lines and circuits connected to the terminals (Figure 4) as shown by Kraus {53}. As is well-known, the energy flow (Figure 4) fills all space surrounding the external circuit conductors out to an infinite lateral radius away{53}. This is an enormous EM energy flow—when one includes the space-filling nondiverged component discovered by Heaviside {10, 11}. This neglected vast nonintercepted, nondiverged energy flow component was never even considered by Poynting {9}, and was arbitrarily discarded by Lorentz {51} as "of no physical significance".

Figure 5 shows that almost all that great EM energy flow pouring out of the terminals of the generator or battery and out through the surrounding space surrounding the transmission line conductors, misses the circuit entirely and is just wasted in conventional circuits having no iterative feedback and feedforward additional collection components and processes. In a simple circuit, for example, the arbitrarily discarded Heaviside nondiverged energy flow component may be some 10 trillion times in total rate of energy flow as the feeble Poynting component {9} that is intercepted by the surface charges in the circuit conductors and components, and diverged into the wires to power the Drude electrons and the loads and losses.

Figure 6 illustrates the negative resistor process diagrammatically. The source dipole and the associated scalar potential between its poles act as a true negative resistor, receiving enormous EM energy from the surrounding vacuum in unusable form (via the giant negentropy process shown in Figure 3). The charges of the dipole absorb this unusable energy and transduce it into usable EM energy form, then re-radiate it as usable EM energy. This of course is precisely a negative resistor process.

Figure 7 shows the integration trick which Lorentz originated to discard the perplexing and enormous Heaviside non-diverged energy flow component, while retaining the diverged (Poynting) energy flow component. In short, Lorentz's procedure—still utilized by electrodynamicists to discard the embarrassing richness of EM energy poured out of every dipole and not intercepted and used by the attached external circuit—for over a century has specifically and ubiquitously diverted electrodynamicists' attention away from the process described in this invention.

We strongly iterate the following point: We have designed the process of this invention and its embodiments by and in accord with Sachs' unified field theory and the Evans-Vigier O(3) electrodynamics subset of it. Consequently, all energy in mass-free spacetime is general relativistic in nature, modeling, and interpretation. The general relativity interpretation applies at all times, including for the electrodynamics. Hence any local delta energy in spacetime is precisely of one and only one nature: a curvature of that local spacetime. A traveling EM wave thus becomes identically a traveling oscillation of a specialized curvature of spacetime. Further, wherever the wave exists, its energy a priori curves that part of the spacetime. So EM waves, fields, potentials, and energy flows always involve and identically are spacetime curvatures, structures, and dynamics. We also accent that time is always part of it, since what exists prior to observation is spacetime, not space. Hence "energy currents in time" and "electromagnetic longitudinal waves in the time domain" are perfectly rational expressions and facts, albeit strange to the 136-year old classical electrodynamics stripped of its integration with general relativity.

Figure 8 shows the relationship between a linearly moving magnetic vector potential AL, a swirling or circulating AC, the implementation of the V* operator by the interacting coil and its moving charges, and the resulting magnetic field B. AL can also be defined as the vector potential 0L if desired, where 0 L is a vector potential and no longer the familiar scalar potential f since 0 is in motion. If the coil is wound very tight and is very long (or closed such as in a very tight toroid), then the magnetic field B will be retained entirely inside the coil, while the field-free (curl-free) AC will remain outside the coil. This illustrates one of the major unrecognized principles of the potential (such as A) being a flow process: What is usually considered to be the energy in the potential in a given volume of space, is actually the "reaction cross section" of the potential in that volume. Conventional electrodynamicists and electrical engineers do not calculate magnitudes of either fields or potentials, but only their reaction cross sections, usually for a unit point static charge assumed fixed at each point. We point out that this procedure calculates the divergence of energy from the potential, and hence the reaction cross section of the potential, but not the potential itself.

The energy so calculated—in this case, the curl of the A flow, being the magnetic field B—can in fact be diverted from the A potential flow through a volume of space into another different volume of space. The magnitude of the A potential flow will continue undiminished through the original volume of space, so long as the source dipole performing the giant negentropy process and thus providing the continuous EM energy flow represented by A remain unchanged. In the case used in the process of this invention, we diverge the magnetic field energy from the A-flow, while simultaneously retaining all the A-potential energy flowing through the space outside the tightly wound coil. This is in fact an "energy collecting amplification" subprocess, and is no more mysterious than diverting a tiny flow of water from a nearly infinite river of flowing water, and having the river flow on apparently undiminished. In short, we may deliberately use the energy flow nature of the potential A in order to simultaneously separate it into two flows of different energy form, curled and uncurled.

If we place a square pulse in the current of the coil in Figure 8, we also invoke the Lenz law reaction (Figure 9) to momentarily increase the current and hence the AC and the action of V* A C = B, so that additional AC energy and additional B energy are obtained. In this way, the energy gain is increased by the Lenz law effect—which is a regauging effect deliberately induced in the invention process by utilizing square pulse inputs. Then when the trailing edge of the pulse appears and sharply cuts off the pulse, a second Lenz law gain effect (Figure 9) is also produced, further increasing the energy gain in both AC and in B. We use these two serial Lenz law effects to increase the potential energy of the system twice and also the collected field energy, thus allowing COP > 1.0 since during the regauging process the potential and the potential energy of the system are both increased freely, and so is the diversion of the increased potential energy into B-field energy inside the coil. Both the changes increase the voltage drop across the coil and the current through it, translating the increased magnetic energy into usable electrical energy to power loads and losses.

Figure 10 shows the cross section of an input coil, one form of input device. The input can be from a separate signal generator, in which case the system runs "open loop" and requires continuous input power, but still provides COP>1.0. Or, a portion of the output power can be extracted, clamped in magnitude, and positively fed back to the input, in which case the system runs "closed loop" and the operator need furnish no external power input. In either case, the system is an open system far from thermodynamic equilibrium with its active vacuum environment, freely receiving energy from said active environment to the dipole in the permanent magnet, and from the dipole out into the nanocrystalline material core in the form of magnetic field energy B, and in the space outside the core in the form of field-free A-potential. As can be seen, the B field energy is confined to the core material inside the coil, and the A-potential outside the core is field-free A. Any change in the B-field inside the core, is also a change in the B-field inside the coil and the coil interacts with it to produce current and voltage. Any change in the A-potential outside the core, also interacts with the coil which applies the Vx operator, thereby producing voltage and current in the coil and also producing additional B-field in the core material. In turn, this changes the B-field in the core, which produces more voltage and current in the coil and additional A-potential outside the coil, and so on. Hence there are dual iterative retroreflective interactions which increase the performance of the coil, making it an energy amplifying coil, and which also increase the COP of the system process. The output of the input coil is thus the alteration and increase of the B-field flux and energy in the core material, and an increase and alteration in the field-free A-potential surrounding the coil and moving around the circuit in the space surrounding the nanocrystalline core material flux path.

Figure 11 shows the cross section of a typical output coil for either open-loop or closed-loop operation. The operation is identical to the operation of the input coil, except this coil outputs energy in the form of voltage and current to an external circuit, external load, etc., and also outputs energy from its reaction with the A-potential outside the flux path to the nanocrystalline flux path material in its core. The output coil receives its energy input from the field-free A-potential outside the nanocrystalline material flux path as well as from the B-field energy and magnetic flux inside the nanocrystalline flux path through its core.

Further, the dual interaction processes and their mutual iterative interactions provide gain in both the A-potential energy outside the core material and the B-field energy and magnetic flux energy inside the core material.

Further, all coils on the core material thus serve as both output and input coils, and also have mutual iterative interactions with each other around the loop, coupled by the field-free external A-potential and the B-field and magnetic flux in the nanocrystalline material flux path acting as the cores of the coils. These interactions also provide gain in the kinetic energy produced in the Drude electron gas due to the iterative summation work performed upon the electrons to increase their energy.

Further, these mutual iterative feedback and feedforward energy gains also change the flux back through the permanent magnet, alternating it, so that the pole strength of the magnet alternates and increases. This in turn increases the dipolarity of the permanent magnet, which in turn increases the magnitude of the associated giant negentropy process {26, 43}. In turn this results in more energy received from the active vacuum by the permanent magnet, and also more energy output by said permanent magnet dipole to the core material and to the coils.

Thus we have described a system and process having a multiplicity of iterative feedbacks and feedforwards from each component and subprocess, to every other component and subprocess, all increasing the energy collected in the system and furnished to the load. In open loop operation, this results in COP>1.0 permissibly, since the excess energy is freely received from an external source. In closed loop operation, the COP concept does not apply except with respect to operational efficiency. In that case, the operational efficiency is increased because more energy is obtained from the broken symmetry of the permanent dipole, and therefore additional energy is provided to the loads, compared to what the same permanent magnet can deliver when such iterative feedback and feedforward actions in such multiplicity are not utilized. In closed loop operation, the system powers itself and its loads and losses simultaneously, with all the energy being freely supplied by the giant negentropy process of the permanent magnet dipole and the iterative asymmetrical self-regauging processes performed in the process.

Figure 12 is another view showing the major energy flows in an output coil section and subprocess, and the iterative dual inputs and interactions, of the basic scheme of operation of the process and its active component subprocesses.

Figure 13 is another view showing the major energy flows in an input coil section and subprocess, and the iterative dual inputs and interactions, of the basic scheme of operation of the process and its active component subprocesses.

Figure 14 is a diagrammatic block-diagram illustration of the components and processes in the system and system process, with the dual feedforward and feedbacks shown. It accents the overall system process gain due to the multiplicity of interactions and iterative interactions between the various system components and subprocesses, and further interactions with the dual local interactions and iterative feedforwards and feedbacks, thus providing a multiplicity of individual energy gain process and an overall energy gain process.

Figure 15 shows a type embodiment of the system and system process, perhaps at a home and powering a variety of home appliances and loads. The system as shown is "jump-started" initially in open-loop mode, and once in stable operation is disconnected from the jump starter (such as a battery) to run in closed-loop operational mode.

Figure 16 shows one of the former laboratory test build-ups embodying the process of the invention. This test prototype was used for proof-of-principle and phenomenology testing.

Figure 17 shows a simplified block diagram of a basic embodiment demonstrating the process. Many of these build-ups were built to test various core materials, observe phenomenology, etc. The "square C's" of the flux path halves right and left, as shown in this Figure 17, were actually made as "half-circle C-shaped flux path halves" right and left in Figure 16 above.

Figure 18 shows the measurement of the input to the actuator coil of the test unit of Figure 16 operated in open-loop mode.

Figure 19 shows the measurement of the output of one of the output coils of the test unit of Figure 16 operated in open-loop mode.

Figure 20 shows the output power in watts as a function of the input potential in volts, thus indicating the output versus potentialization sensitivity. The circles indicate actual measurements, and the curve has been curve-fitted to them.

Figure 21 shows the COP of a single output coil's power divided by the input power, as a function of input potentialization. The circles indicate actual measurements, and the curve has been curve-fitted to them. The second coil had the same power output and COP simultaneously, so the net unit COP of the unit is double what is shown in the figure.

Figure 22 shows the projected unit output power sensitivity versus voltage input, expected for the next prototype build-up now in progress.

Figure 23 shows the projected unit COP versus input potentialization, expected for the next prototype build-up now in progress. We expect this type of unit to easily operate at the COP = 30 or COP = 40 level, with multiple kilowatt output power.

0 0

Post a comment