Nikola Tesla. To understand negative energy two simple new scientific terms are required.
Hot Current: This is the normal form of electrical charge. Since 101 textbooks abound, no further discussion is required.
Cold current: This is simply the time reversed counterpart of normal hot current. Discussion of cold current:
A device that time reverses an electromagnetic wave is called 'phase conjugate mirror,' in the standard scientific literature. The concept is not in any way new or outlandish, but it is the key to 'free energy.' The mistake made by the academic establishment was to assume a constant increase in entropy is the inevitable result of all physical interactions. This is only true so long as time flows forward. Entropy is in fact a process governed by local time flow. Entropy increases when time flows forward, and decreases when time flows backwards. While the universe as a whole has a well documented time forwards entropy increase bias, local entropy with time flow engineering can be slowed, or reversed. If time flows backwards, then a decrease in entropy is possible, and indeed is predicted by standard equations. That is a negentropic physical interaction will take energy from a disordered state, and convert it to an ordered state, giving a net energy gain to a technological system above supply.
For the historical background on Tesla's work, we are entirely indebted to Gerry Vassilato's classic text Secrets of Cold War Technology: Project HAARP and Beyond. The following is some choice quotes from this text.
Through successive experimental arrangements, Tesla discovered several facts concerning the production of his effect. First, the cause was undoubtedly found in the abruptness of charging. It was in the switch closure, the very instant of "closure and break", which thrust the effect out into space. The effect was definitely related to time, impulse time. Second, Tesla found that it was imperative that the charging process occurred in a single impulse. No reversal of current was permissible, else the effect would not manifest. In this, Tesla made succinct remarks describing the role of capacity in the spark-radiative circuit. He found that the effect was powerfully strengthened by placing a capacitor between the disrupter and the dynamo. While providing a tremendous power to the effect, the dielectric of the capacitor also served to protect the dynamo windings. Finally, the effect could also be greatly intensified to new and more powerful levels by raising the voltage, quickening the switch "make-break" rate, and shortening the actual time of switch closure.
Not yet sure of the process at work in this phenomenon, Tesla sought the empirical understanding required for its amplification and utilization. He had already realized the significance of this unexpected effect. The idea of bringing this strange and wondrous new phenomenon to its full potential already suggested drilling new possibilities in his mind. He completely abandoned research and development of alternating current systems after this event intimating that a new technology was about to unfold.
Thus far, Tesla employed rotating contact switches to produce his unidirectional impulses. When these mechanical impulse systems failed to achieve the greatest possible effects, Tesla sought a more "automatic" and powerful means. He found this "automatic switch" in special electrical arc dischargers. The high voltage output of a DC generator was applied to twin conductors through his new arc mechanism, a very powerful permanent magnet sitting crosswise to the discharge path. The discharge arc was automatically and continually "blown out" by this magnetic field.
Imperative toward obtaining the desired rare effect, the capacitor and its connected wire lines had to be so chosen as to receive and discharge the acquired electrostatic charge in unidirectional staccato fashion. The true Tesla circuit very much resembles a pulse jet, where no back pressure ever stops the onrushing flow. Electrostatic charge rises to a maximum, and is discharged much more quickly. The constant application of high voltage dynamo pressure to the circuit insures that continual successions of "charge-rapid discharge' are obtained. It is then and only then that the Tesla Effect is observed. Pulses literally flow through the apparatus from the dynamo. The capacitor, disrupter, and its attached wire lines, behave as the flutter valve.
Tesla found that impulse duration alone defined the effect of each succinct spectrum. These effects were completely distinctive, endowed with strange additional qualities never purely experienced in Nature. Moreover, Tesla observed distinct color changes in the discharge space when each impulse range had been reached or crossed. Never before seen discharge colorations did not remain a mystery for long. Trains of impulses, each exceeding 0.1 millisecond duration, produced pain and mechanical pressures. In this radiant field, objects visibly vibrated and even moved as the force field drove them along. Thin wires, exposed to sudden bursts of the radiant field, exploded into vapor. Pain and physical movements ceased when impulses of 100 microseconds or less were produced. These latter features suggested weapon systems of frightful potentials.
By 1890, after a period of intense experimentation and design development, Tesla summarized the components necessary for the practical deployment of a radiant electrical power distribution system. Tesla had already discovered the wonderful fact that impulse durations of 100 microseconds or less could not be sensed and would do no physiological harm. He planned to use these in his power broadcast. Furthermore, shocking waves of 100 microsecond duration passed through all matter, a fitting form of electrical energy to broadcast throughout the stone, steel, and glass of a power-needy city. Tesla would not expect distortions with specially adjusted energy fields, vectors which permeated matter without interactive effects.
Tesla made a most startling discovery the same year, when placing a long single-turn copper helix near his magnetic disrupter. The coil, some two feet in length, did not behave as did solid copper pipes and other objects. The thin walled coil became ensheathed in an envelope of white sparks. Undulating from the crown of this coil were very long and fluidic silvery white streamers, soft discharges which appeared to have been considerably raised in voltage. These effects were greatly intensified when the helical coil was placed within the disrupter wire circle. Inside this "shockzone", the helical coil was surrounded in a blast which hugged into its surface, and rode up the coil to its open end. It seemed as though the shockwave actually pulled away from surrounding space to cling to the coil surface, a strange attractive preference. The shockwave flowed over the coil at right angles to the windings, an unbelievable effect. The sheer length of discharges leaping from the helix crown was incomprehensible. With the disrupter discharge jumping I inch in its magnetic housing, the white shimmering discharges rose from the helix to a measured length of over two feet. This discharge equaled the very length of the coil itself. It was an unexpected and unheard transformation.
Here was an action more nearly "electrostatic" in nature, although he knew that academes would not comprehend this term when used in this situation. Electrostatic energy did not fluctuate as did his shockwaves. The explosive shockwave had characteristics unlike any other electrical machine in existence. Yet Tesla stated that the shockwave, during the brief instant in which it made its explosive appearance, more nearly resembled an electrostatic field than any other known electrical manifestation. just as in electrostatic friction machines, where current and magnetism are negligible, a very energetic field component fills space in radiating lines. This 'dielectric" field normally launches through space in a slow growth as charges are gathered. Here was a case where a DC generator provided the high voltage. This voltage charged an insulated hoop of copper, growing to its maximum value. If all values in the circuit were properly balanced, in the manner prescribed by Tesla, a sudden charge collapse would then occur. This collapse was necessarily very much shorter than the interval required to charge the hoop. The collapse comes when the magnetic disrupter extinguishes the arc. If the circuit is properly structured, no backrush alternations ever occur.
This unidirectional succession of charge-discharge impulses causes a very strange field to expand outward, one which vaguely resembles a "Stuttering' or 'staccato" electrostatic field. But these terms did not satisfactorily describe the conditions actually measured around the apparatus, a powerful radiant effect exceeding all expectable electrostatic values. Actual calculation of these discharge ratios proved impossible. Implementing the standard magneto-inductive transformer rule, Tesla was unable to account for the enormous voltage multiplication effect. Conventional relationships failing, Tesla hypothesized that the effect was due entirely to radiant transformation rules, obviously requiring empirical determination. Subsequent measurements of discharge lengths and helix attributes provided the necessary new mathematical relationship.
He had discovered a new induction law, one where radiant shockwaves actually auto-intensified when encountering segmented objects. The segmentation was the key to releasing the action. Radiant shockwaves encountered an helix and "flashed over" the outer skin, from end to end. This shockwave did not pass through the windings of the coil at all, treating the coil surface as an aerodynamic plane. The shockwave pulse auto-intensified exactly as gas pressures continually increase when passing through Venturi tubes. A consistent increase in electrical pressure was measured along the coil surface. Indeed, Tesla stated that voltages could often be increased at an amazing 10,000 volts per inch of axial coil surface. This meant that a 24 inch coil could absorb radiant shockwaves which initially measured 10,000 volts, with a subsequent maximum rise to 240,000 volts! Such transformations of voltage were unheard with apparatus of this volume and simplicity. Tesla further discovered that the output voltages were mathematically related to the resistance of turns in the helix. Higher resistance meant higher voltage maxima.
He began referring to his disrupter line as his special "primary", and to the helical coil placed within the shockzone, as his special "secondary". But he never intended anyone to equate these terms with those referring to magnetoelectric transformers. This discovery was indeed completely different from magneto-induction. There was a real and measurable reason why he could make this outlandish statement. There was an attribute which completely baffled Tesla for a time. Tesla measured a zero current condition in these long copper secondary coils. He determined that the current which should have appeared was completely absent. Pure voltage was rising with each inch of coil surface. Tesla constantly referred to his "electrostatic induction laws", a principle which few comprehended. Tesla called the combined disrupter and secondary helix a 'Transformer".
Tesla Transformers are not magnetoelectric devices, they use radiant shockwaves, and produce pure voltage without current. No university High Frequency Coil must ever be called a "Tesla Coil", since the devices usually employed in demonstration halls are the direct result of apparatus perfected by Sir Oliver Lodge and not by Nikola Tesla. The Tesla Transformer is an impulse apparatus, and cannot be as easily constructed except by strict conformity with parameters which Tesla enunciated. Tesla Transformers produce extraordinary white impulse discharges of extreme length and pressure, which exceed the alternating violet spark displays of Lodge Coils. This is illustrated by noting the manner in which Tesla Transformers are actually constructed. While looking and seeming the same, each system actually performs very different functions. Lodge Coils are alternators. Tesla Transformers are unidirectional impulses. The most efficient Tesla Transformations were obtained only when the disruptive radiating wire line equaled the mass of the helical coil.
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It seems like the efforts to find the best alternative energy sources are seriously being looked into by lots of countries including most US cities. One proof is the signing of the Kyoto Treaty. The main aim of the concerned group and individuals is to lessen the greenhouse gases and pollutants.