How to Repair All Batteries

EZ Battery Reconditioning Method

This eBook guide gives you all the information that you need to know to never have to buy batteries again. You will learn what it takes to recondition your batteries that you already have, with things that already have at your house or can easily get. You can save money by never having to buy batteries again But it gets better! You can make huge profits off of selling the batteries that you reconditioned at premium prices. You don't have to have any technical know-how to learn how to do this All it takes is the information in this book! No matter what kind of batteries they are Even if they are car batteries, normal AA batteries, or forklift batteries, you can recondition them like new and sell them at full price or reuse them for yourself! Read more...

EZ Battery Reconditioning Method Overview

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Simple Charge Controller Circuit

Electrocar Controller Simple

The above diagram shows the simple charge controller circuit. The incoming battery voltage is divided in half by a pair of 3.3K resistors, so the trip points are adjusted to one-half the desired levels. Start at 14 volts for the trip points. The actual trip points will depend on your particular batteries, but a good starting point is 14.5 volts for full charge, and 11.8 volts for discharged. In this case, the trimpots should be adjusted to read 7.25 volts at TP-A and 5.9 volts at TP-B. You will probably need to monitor your battery voltage through several charge cycles to determine the perfect trip points for your system.

Chapter Experiment Programmable Battery Charger

Experiment 1 begins this Experiments with Renewable Energy course with an interesting and practical project that is, building a programmable battery charger. Battery chargers have been around ever since rechargeable batteries were invented. So what's so interesting about charging batteries Actually quite a bit, since battery charging is really a combination of half art and half science, and there seems to be no end to the variety and complexity of battery charging circuits and techniques. The battery charger circuit that you will build in this experiment is no exception. It is yet one more way to charge two standard 1.2-volt AAA-style nickel cadmium (NiCad) batteries. However, the unique feature about this particular battery charger design lies in the fact that the Board of Education circuitry and software constantly monitors the battery's charge and discharge profiles using all four channels (ch0 through ch3) of the A D converter. We'll get into how this happens in Activity 3 -...

The lead acid battery

Lead Acid Battery Chemical Reaction

Although many electrochemical reactions are reversible in theory, few are suitable for a practical storage battery, which will be required to cycle hundreds of times between charging and discharging currents of 1-100 A or more. The most widely used storage battery is the lead acid battery, invented by Plant in 1860 and continuously developed since. Example 16.2 Theoretical energy density of lead acid battery The reactions (16.9) and (16.10) show that to transfer 2mol of electrons requires Figure 16.4 Operating characteristics of a typical lead acid battery (SLI type of about 100 Ah nominal capacity). (a) Discharge. The curves are labelled by the discharge current (assumed steady) and by the time taken to 'fully' discharge at that current. (b) Charge. The curve is for charging at a constant low current. (c) Density of electrolyte as function of state of charge. After Crompton (2000). Figure 16.4 Operating characteristics of a typical lead acid battery (SLI type of about 100 Ah nominal...

Pwm Charge Controllers Are Becoming More Popular

Twelve years ago Heliotrope General pioneered this concept with the introduction of the CC-10 PV charge regulator. Prior to this time all PV chargers were simple on off regulators. The problem with an on off regulator is when the desired regulated voltage is approached. At this point charging is turned off and thereafter you get a lower battery voltage reading. PWM by itself is a misnomer for our charge controllers. Actually the charging sequence is a Series of three distinctly different stages. The first stage is the bulk charge where all available module power goes to the battery. The second is the PWM stage where the battery is more slowly charged to top it off exactly at the selected S.O.C. The final stage is a trickle charge to maintain the S.O.C. Although the cost for a PWM controller is frequently twice or more, this cost difference is justified. In terms of total systems cost, a PWM charger adds less than 5 to the total bill. The results from this expenditure represents an...

Multistage Battery Charging

Lead Acid Battery Hazard

A typical 12 volt lead-acid battery must be taken to approximately 14.2-14.4 VDC before it is fully charged. (For 24 volt systems double these figures.) If taken to a lesser voltage level, some of the sulfate deposits that form during discharge will remain on the plates. Over time, these deposits will cause a 200 amp-hour battery to act more like a 100 amp-hour battery, and battery life will be considerably shortened. Once fully charged, batteries should be held at a considerably lower voltage to maintain their charge -typically 13.2 to 13.4 volts. Higher voltage levels will gas the battery and boil off electrolyte, again shortening battery life. Most battery charger designs cannot deal with the conflicting voltage requirements of the initial bulk charge and subsequent float or maintenance stage. These designs can accommodate only one charge voltage, and therefore must use a compromise setting - typically 13.8 volts. The result is a slow incomplete charge, sulfate deposit build-up,...

Inverters with Builtin Battery Chargers

Many of today's inverters incorporate battery charging circuitry. This is easily and economically accomplished because of the design of most inverters. Inverters step up low voltage and change DC power to AC power. Battery chargers do the reverse of this. Additional circuitry is all that is required to add a whole second function and economically create an Inverter Charger. Transfer switches are also incorporated into these Inverter Chargers so that the AC loaas can be powered directly from the generator when the battery charger is operating. From a reliability, performance, and economical standpoint, built-in battery chargers are the way to go.

Controlling the battery charge rate

Lead acid batteries should be kept in a charged condition. In the case of a wind-powered system, you may have to wait for a wind to charge the battery. But be careful not to discharge the battery too deeply, or to keep it too long in a discharged state, or it will be damaged (sulphated) and become useless. Stop using a battery before it is fully discharged. If there is a problem with the wind generator, then charge the battery from another source within two weeks. Watch the battery voltage. If the battery voltage is below 11.5 volts, then it is being discharged too much. If the voltage is high (over 14 volts) then the battery charging current is too high. Use less current or more current in the loads to correct these problems. If there is no voltmeter available, then the user should watch the brightness of the lights and follow these rules - Dim lights mean low battery. Use less electricity There are simple electronic circuits designed to regulate the battery voltage automatically....

Electrical storage batteries and accumulators

Electricity is a high quality form of energy, and therefore great effort is made to find cheap and efficient means for storing it. A device that has electricity both as input and output is called an (electrical) accumulator or (electrical) storage battery. Batteries are an essential component of most autonomous power systems (especially with photovoltaic and small wind turbine generation), of standby and emergency power systems, and of electric vehicles. There is also a research expectation that solar energy could be stored directly in commercial photochemical cells (Section 10.7.3).

Activity Programming The Battery Charger

' Experiments with Renewable Energy v1.0 - BatteryCharger.bs2 ' Programmable Battery Charger which charges, drains, and keeps a record ' of the voltages and currents, to be replayed via StampPlot. ' ----- For Experiment 1 Programmable Battery Charger ------- counter for averaging every 64 sec. average battery voltage storage average battery current storage 2.00 V for both batteries in series maximum measured battery voltage tell whether battery drained tell whether battery charged Experiment 1 Programmable Battery Charger ' Average the battery voltage & current for 256 PlotIt cycles (64 seconds) ' Abort charge cycle if the battery voltage is too high at the beginning ' If battery voltage is below minimum set doneDraining True, halt battery charging zero the average battery charging voltage zero the average battery charging current zero the maximum measured voltage zero the 64 second loop counter zero the EEPROM data logging pointer activate battery charging transistor deactivate...

Charge Controller Ratings

When selecting a charge controller, consider both its voltage and current ratings. Most of the charge controllers featured here can be programmed or configured to operate at different nominal battery voltages, but double check that the controller you select is compatible with your system's nominal battery voltage. All PV charge controllers have an absolute maximum open-circuit voltage (Voc) rating. Exceeding this rating can damage the controller, and overvoltage-related failures are not covered under warranty. Because module voltage increases as temperature decreases, a temperature correction factor based on the historic lowest temperature at your site must be considered when determining the voltage of your PV array. A controller's rated amperage should typically be 1.25 times the PV array's 25 C short-circuit current (Isc) rating (to account for edge-of-cloud or other enhanced irradiance effects and to meet National Electrical Code requirements), or 1.56 times the array Isc if the...

Battery power Charging up your life

Leaving dead car batteries behind For 40, you can get a solar battery charger. A PV module plugs in to the cigarette lighter jack, and you lay the module out on the dashboard in the sun. While you're gone, it trickle charges your battery. A solar charger won't overcharge your battery, so you don't have to worry about removing it, even when the vehicle is running. But it probably won't revive a dead battery, although it won't hurt anything to try. Rechargeable batteries cost 4 apiece, and the good ones issue the same charge as a throw-away. A solar charger costs 40, but the charge cycles are free. You can charge a good rechargeable battery over 500 times. (Note that the number 500 applies to devices like remote controllers, which don't take much current if you're drawing a lot of current and running the batteries down to their minimum, expect more on the order of 200 times.) The cost for a rechargeable battery and 100 charges is 44, which is already a better deal than alkaline. But...

Lead Acid Batteries

The Lineage 2000 is a pure lead battery. The patented design does not require the impurities of calcium or antimony alloys that shorten the life of lead acid batteries. Therefore life expectancy in your alternative energy home is 20+ years of service. The Lineage 2000 is 1680 Amp hours at the 8 hour rate. This battery has the capacity to operate your awesome solar powered home, shop, remote cabin or as a UPS system without deep cycling. Shallow cycling promotes longer life in all lead acid batteries.

Acg Battery Charger

The AC Genius inverters have a low-battery warning and shut-off to prevent complete discharge of your car's battery. They also contain an on off switch which controls the DC input. Thus you can leave the inverter connected to your battery, and simply switch the unit off when not in use. Call now for more information (408) 996-8276

Used Batteries

Used lead acid batteries, especially large two volt telephone type cells can sometimes be found for sale. While used solar modules and inverters are usually an acceptable risK, used batteries are a high risk proposition. Should you consider them In our experience, it is difficult to know just how an older battery has been used. Has the previous user taken good care of the cells or have they been neglected7 Have they actually been load tested or just cleaned ud and recharged Our recommendation is to get as much information as you can on the cells, and load test them, or ask the seller for a load test. Without this test your are really guessing as to the remaining life.

Battery Chargers

If you use a lot of batteries, you can drastically cut back on battery costs by using rechargeable batteries in conjunction with a solar charger. And I'm not only talking about the standard household batteries, either. You can get solar chargers for vehicle batteries, notebook computer batteries, and small appliances.

Daybreak Energy for Your

I have a 4,000 watt generator that's hooked up to a 40 amp battery charger which charges 2 deep cycle golf cart batteries that I picked up used. I have 2 30 watt fluorescent lights, battery monitor and DC service panel purchased from Steve Willey, who has been quite helpful with any questions I had. Also for those on a low budget or who like to build your own equipment who need a voltage regulator or load diverter. I found a circuit in November 1987 Modern Electronics originally for a 120 volt battery charger but a PV or wind generator or other source can be substituted in place of the battery charger. Instead of the relay the current to a second set of batteries or other load when the first set is fully charged. It has adjustable voltage range and the current it can handle is dependent on the relay you use. If you should build one note there is a mistake on the circuit board layout. There should be a circuit trace from the cathode of D1 to the cathode of D2. We did not burn any...

Appliance Consumption in Watthours per day Total Consumption Watthoursday

The PV array is kept under control by the Heliotrope CC-60 PWM Taper Charge Controller. This device is inserted in series between the PV array and the battery pack. The function of this controller is to see that the array doesn't overcharge the batteries. The Heliotrope is user programmable and capable of handling up to 60 Amperes of array current. This controller not only protects the batteries, but also assures they are as fully charged as possible. This control works very well and we highly recommend it. See Home Power 8, page 31, for a Things that Work test of the Heliotrope CC Series Charge Controllers. Roger and Ana's system uses six Trojan L-16W deep cycle, lead acid batteries for storing the PV produced electricity. The Trojan L-16W is a battery containing three lead-acid cells developing 350 Ampere-hours each. Each L-16W battery contains 350 Ampere-hours at 6 VDC. We combined, via series and parallel wiring, six of these batteries into a pack of 1,050 Ampere-hours at 12 Volts...

Clean Energy Never Looked This Good

The main problem over the last 20 years has been battery life. I've talked with a few installers who advised me to equalize the batteries twice or even four times a year. Even with the sunny climate here in Hawaii, equalizing at 30 V for three to four hours or until the specific gravity reaches the right place on the hydrometer on all the batteries without using a generator is impossible. batteries by at least 5 of their ampere-hour capacity. Monthly, I use the generator to overcharge the batteries by 10 of their capacity. I don't pay attention to the battery voltage during equalization, but to the amount of overcharge (in ampere-hours) that the battery receives. I don't routinely do hydrometer measurements. I try not to use the batteries too heavily. My average depth of discharge nightly is about 12 of the battery capacity. On most sunny days, the battery is fully recharged before noon (and then the daily overcharge begins). If the battery drops below 30 depth of discharge, I start...

Photocoh

Our panels have blocking diodes and we have read that diodes are no longer used since they reduce panel output. Instead, panels are matched with charge controllers that have automatic night-time shut-off to control reverse current flow. Can we expect increased charging if we remove the blocking diodes and replace our charge controller with a unit that has the night-time shut-off feature We are considering changing to the Trace C-30A, in any case, because it can be switched to accept an equalizing charge. I realize that two hours is too short a time for adequate equalizing, but since the batteries are full when we visit our cabin, the charge would come on top of full batteries. Ned Vilas, Davis, CA Since you didn't mention the capacity or type of battery you are using, I can't determine if your present charge control is what you need. With a limited solar window such as yours, I'd go for the C-30A and set the disconnect voltage at around 2.5 VDC per cell. This setting assumes a lead...

Trace 2024 Inverter

TRACE 1512 INVERTER w battery charger and turbo. Used. Never any problems. 750. Used SCB-30 amp SES charge controller. Works perfectly. Free w inverter, 25 separate. Sun Selector low voltage disconnect-LVD-8 16, 12 Volt. New. 20. 916-281-6489. 2, 10 KW JACOBS WIND GEN. Includes Sync. Inverters, 1 has New Factory Blades in box. 8000 each, 2 for 14000. Energy Headquarters, 1045 Barlow-Two Taverns Rd., Gettysburg, PA 17325, 717-359-7378 USED 24V 5KW INVERTER SYSTEM 2 Trace 2024 stacked inverters with turbo 12-2V, 1500amphr Trojan batteries 5Kw Yamaha generator 3KW Gencharger battery charger Control Center with Gen Wizzard, Brain, System Monitor Panel and all fused switch boxes remote monitor panel with generator start switch. Completely automatic system. Everything you need except solar panels 5500. Several 24V motors, recessed fluorescent lights and BEST PRICED SOLAR CELLS Various & sizes .45 volt .3 - 3.5 amps. Ideal for school projects or for building your own panels. Small .45...

Buyers guide

Check out the latest developments in charge controllers. Charge controllers are vital components in battery-based PV systems, keeping the PV array from overcharging the batteries and optimizing charge current. These smart little boxes are placed between the PV array and the battery bank, and allow maximum energy in when the batteries are at a low state of charge (SOC) and reduce incoming energy from the array as the batteries approach full. When the battery reaches 100 SOC, the charge controller reduces the energy flow to a small maintenance (float) charge. Without a charge controller, a battery can be overcharged, resulting in excessive battery gassing and, in chronic cases, damage to the battery, shortening its life span. Matching the appropriate charge controller to a particular PV system is important for proper system function and for maximizing the amount of solar energy harvested. This guide lists charge controllers 40 amps or above commonly used for whole-house PV systems....

PbO Pb H Sp

Automotive electrical system requires 12 VDC for operation. How is this accomplished with a basic 2 VDC lead-acid cell The cells are wired together in series, this makes a battery that has the combined voltages of the cells. A 12 Volt lead-acid battery has six (6) cells, each wired anode to cathode (in series) to produce 12 VDC. Cells are combined in series for a voltage increase or in parallel for an electrical capacity increase. Battery Capacity Battery capacity is the amount of energy a battery contains. Battery capacity is usually rated in Ampere-hours (A-h) at a given voltage. Watt-hours (W-h) is another unit used to quantify battery capacity. While a single cell is limited in voltage by its materials, the electrical capacity of a cell is limited only by its size. The larger the cell, the more reactive materials contained within it, and the larger the electrical capacity of the cell in Ampere-hours. A battery rated at 100 Ampere-hours will deliver 100 Amperes of current for 1...

Richard Perez

And we needed it to be there 24 hours a day without constantly running a noisy, gasoline eating, engine. At that time, NASA was about the only folks who could afford PVs. We started using lead-acid batteries to store the electricity produced by a small gas engine generator. We'd withdraw energy from the batteries until they were empty and then refill them by running a lawnmower engine and car alternator. Since we stored enough energy to last about 4 days, we discharged and recharged the batteries about 100 times a year. Over years of this type service, we have learned much about lead-acid batteries-- how they work and how to best use them. The following info has been hard won we've made many expensive mistakes. We've also discovered how to efficiently and effectively coexist with the batteries that store our energy. Batteries are like many things in Life, mysterious until understood. A battery is a group of electrochemical cells. Individual cells are...

Canada

The 7th Canadian Hydrogen Workshop will be held June 4-6, 1995 in Quebec, Canada. Workshop topics are Hydrogen production, usage, storage, safety, environment, fuel cells, and metal hydride rechargable batteries. For more information contact Canadian Hydrogen Association, 5 King's College Rd, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A4, fax 416-978-0787.

Electric Vehicles

Hydrogen Production Workshop

Wait Lead-acid batteries always take it on the chin when it comes to propulsive power packs. Okay, so they do have low electro-mechanical efficiency and low energy density. In a hybrid EV, they work adequately because there's less to do, and storage isn't an issue like it is in pure EVs. In the MBG, there is an OCU there to recharge them immediately. These factors tickle the thought that standard SLI (Starting-Lighting-Ignition) batteries COULD be used for the battery pack. Although not intended for deep-cycle, they are adept at the higher charge discharge currents involved, and good performance may justify more frequent battery replacement. It's worth investigating

Windy Dankoff

Renewable energy systems that depend on storage batteries (photovoltaic, hydro-electric, wind-electric) produce low voltage DC power. Utility companies supply high voltage ac power (more appropriate for mass-distribution). We live in a world of two electrical standards. Neither form of power is best. What's important is to use the available form in an efficient, simple and

Photocomm

A circuit is considered to be in series when all components are connected in such a way that there is only one possible path for current to flow. This means that each voltage source, switch, load, or other component is in succession with the other components of the circuit. Electrons flowing through such a circuit flow through every component in turn. Figure 1 shows a pictorial representation of a simple series circuit with a battery voltage source and two light bulbs as loads. Figure 2 shows a schematic representation of the same circuit. If you trace the path of an electron as it flows from the negative terminal of the battery through the circuit to the positive terminal you will notice that it passes through one lightbulb (R1) before it passes through the other lightbulb (R2). There is no way for an electron to pass through bulb 2 (R2) first, nor is there any way for an electron to pass through one bulb but not the other. The electron flow (current) follows the one and only path...

Vermont

Free PV Workshops for beginners to experts given by David Palumbo of Independent Power & Light, First Saturday of every month at the Palumbo IP& L PV and microhydro powered off-grid neighborhood. Participant interest will determine which of the following topics will be discussed and demonstrated (as practical) site selection, PV modules, batteries, charge controllers, inverters, lighting (ac & DC), balance of system components, system monitoring and maintenance, water (finding it, developing it, transporting it, pumping it, and getting power from it), snow (living with it, playing with it, and removing it), ponds, living in cold climates, living with our woods, heating with wood, and root cellars. Visit a beautiful part of Vermont and meet people who are either living with renewable power or considering it. David Palumbo has taught workshops in the past with the fine people of Solar Energy International and with the real good folks of the Solar Living Institute.

Kyocera

10 TO 120 AMP PHOTOVOLTAIC CHARGE CONTROLLERS The PWM line of Taper Charge controllers provide complete and failsafe battery charging. State-of-the-Art MOSFET technology gives the fullest possible charge by trickle charging the batteries once they reach float voltage. This is not possible with unreliable relay series type controllers. Heliotrope offers 10, 20, 60 and 120 Amp controllers to meet any system requirement. Unique features include field selectable state-of-charge voltage selection, system voltage, and many more excellent features unique to each control. Request information on CC-10, CC-20 RV-20, CC-60 CC-120

Systems

The EZ-Solar Systems incorporates an innovative 12, 24 and 48 volt modular design utilizing Power Battery's Advanced Gel (patent pending) PSG series of front access deep cycle batteries. With a size range from 105 to 6120 AH, they are a Clean Power solution for a grid-tie backup or an off-grid power source.

Example application Monster Truck Madness

A POD unit could be fitted onto the back of this truck, significantly extending the rather short battery life of 30-45 minutes. The POD enhanced battery life would really be dependant upon the quality of your engineering, so much as any inherent limitation in the POD performance curve. This is a simple example of how much good clean fun is to be had with POD technology - I am sure you can think up many others.

Battery Calculations and Hookup Sequence

Ordinary 12 volt car batteries, when hooked up in series are capable of supplying very high (and lethal) voltages. Yoi can in actual fact run a high voltage all-electric home off only a bank of 12 volt car batteries and your alternator power unit connected up for battery re-charging - no other major generating equipment is necessary. Your alternator will fast charge these batteries quite rapidly, arid the actual stored battery power, i.e. battery capacity in amp hours is enormous if you connect them in'parallel' at low volts.

How To Install Dump Load Regulator Tristar

Low Rpm Axial Flux Alternator

Never disconnect thf battery and leave the wind turbine connected to the inverter or charge controller alone, because the voltage will rise sharply and damage the electronics. The charge controller is unlikely to be able to prevent this voltage rise without the presence of batteries. It is important to have a good battery voltmeter (with its own small fuse for safety), A clear digital display is really helpful when reading battery voltage because small changes are significant one ohm heater works well at 14 volts, and a ohm heater is suitable for 28 volt operation. These are typical battery charging voltages for 12 and 24 volt (nominal) systems. These heaters will dump up to 14 and 9 amps respectively* Add more heaters in parallel until you have enough load to absorb all that the wind turbine can produce together with any extra solar PV charging current that is not already regulated. You can also build your own charge controller using circuits available on the web - for example on my...

Boost Your Solhr Output

Stop throwing away that extra power and use a Solar Boost maximum Power Point Tracking (mPPT) charge controller. Solar Boost charge controllers can deliuer up to 30 more power to your batteries ouer conuentional controllers. With Patented SOLAR BOOST mPPT Charge Controllers. RU Power Products- The recognized leader in quality mPPT charge controllers, fluailable in 12 24 48 uolt.

Construction Guidelines for the Historic CD Motor Device

2 CDs - Can be taken from old computer magazine covers, for example 3 4 Magnets - Glue 2 grade 8 ceramic disc magnets together to make one magnet Circuitry - Hall ic, MOSFET, general purpose wire, etc 12v 7Ah lead acid battery - A good Ah rating is required for best results 24 - 26 awg stator wire - Enameled copper required to wind stator

Steamco Solar Electric Spm System Power Monitor

Displays Battery Voltage, Amps, Watts, Amp-hrs, Watt-hrs of Two Separate Channels, Simultaneously Compare these advantages before you invest in a simple, single channel Amp-hour accumulator Accuracy 1 Amps 2 Watts Operates on 12 or 24 Volt systems Local or Remote Mounting Low Power Drain - 90mA .09A Typical Monitors 2 Channels Simultaneously Full 2 year parts and labor Warranty Fully protected against improper hookup Will support 12V Inverters To 2.5kw and 24V Inverters To 5kw

Batteries The Heart of the System

A Solar Electric system is made up of a number of components, ana of these, none needs as much attention as the batteries. Thouan the idea ana usage of a battery bank is very simple, if batteries are neglected, degradation can occur at a fast pace. As someone in the industry once put it, few batteries die a natural death, most are murdered. The following information is designed to tell you how to get the longest life possible from your battery bank. (This is strictly flooded cell lead-acid battery information for Alkaline and gel-cell batteries many of these needs and characteristics are completely different.) The second type of cycle is a deep cycle where up to 80 of the battery capacity is discharged and recharged. Batteries designed for deep cycling are built with thicker plates of active material which have less overall surface area. Because of the lessened availability of surface area for cnemicai reaction, these batteries yield just as much power relative to their size, but do...

Another Cold Running Adams Motor Using A Hard Drive Platter to Make an NIB Motor

Hdd Platters Reading Speed

In the above picture you can see the oscilloscope reading. The back EMF (cemf) was connected to the power supply (car automobile battery 12V). The duration of the pulse command and back EMF spike was measured on an oscilloscope, and as can be seen, the back EMF is a full 80 of the delivered pulse width Hence the constructor of this motor believes the efficiency of his motor is 80 and NOT OVER-UNITY. The motor runs at about 2800 RPM, and does so ABSOLUTELY COLD, as does the circuitry. Then a load (the motor) was placed on it, and the battery voltage fell to 12.32 V After 2 hours the battery voltage rose to 12.35 V After 20 hours battery voltage was recorded slightly lower at 12.32 V

The Original Hard Drive Motor

Back Motors

In the above picture you can see the oscilloscope reading. The back EMF (cemf) was connected to the power supply (car automobile battery 12 V). The duration of the pulse command and back EMF spike was measured on an oscilloscope, and as can be seen, the measured back EMF is a full 80 of the delivered pulse width, even using basic transistor grade switching parts The motor runs at about 2800 RPM, and does so ABSOLUTELY COLD, as does the circuitry. Then a load (the motor) was placed on it, and the battery voltage fell to 12.32V After 2 hours the battery voltage rose to 12.35 V After 20 hours battery voltage was recorded slightly lower at 12.32V

PV Combiner Box Buyers Guide

Every inverter and charge controller, whether in a utility-interactive or stand-alone system, has a DC input voltage window that must be adhered to. In batteryless grid-tied Combiner boxes, like these models from OutBack, take incoming wires from multiple PV series strings, add overcurrent protection, then parallel the strings for output to the inverter or charge controller. Combiner boxes, like these models from OutBack, take incoming wires from multiple PV series strings, add overcurrent protection, then parallel the strings for output to the inverter or charge controller.

The Fuelless Engine Plans

Fuelless Engine Coil

Qty- 2 12 vdc car batteries, See page 5, car batteries collect free energy back emfand also run the 1,000 vdc power supplies. The special HV magnets will be used and will only consume very little amperage in the milliamps Batteries will last a very long time without the back emf

Http Overunity.com Index.php Topic 2535.0.html

Free Energy Device

The electronics tutorial which forms part of this eBook shows the principles which can be used for the design and construction of this kind of circuitry. It might be sensible to have the control circuitry kick in at fourteen or fifteen volts and drop out again when the battery voltage drops back to 12.5 volts or so. The connecting wires should be at least 30 Amp current carrying capacity and the individual diodes and the diode bridge are rated at 35 Amps 50 Volts. The circuit is intended for use with lead acid batteries but it has been used successfully with rechargeable NiCad batteries. The circuit provides about 12 volts as the output, so mains equipment would be operated using a standard, commercial inverter which converts this low DC voltage to normal mains AC voltage capable of powering TV sets, DVD recorders, or whatever.

Fully Independent Adams Motor Replication

555 Timer Hydrogen Generator

This motor is a successful over-unity cold current design. The constructor wishes to remain anonymous. He also warned me, these pictures show an early version, and significant modifications were subsequently undertaken. Exact mechanical efficiency numbers are not available, but they are clearly well over 100 . The constructor so far measures his performance by the amount of back-emf he can pull off relative to input - 97 . Which is absolutely astonishing Secondary windings could most easily be added to the stators to push that number well past 100 - battery charging in excess of motor draw, is clearly no problem. The constructor also notes the benefits of alternate N S Muller type setups. But I was most interested to read his comments on pulse duration, and the importance of fine tuning this parameter for best results.

How To Build A Rotoverter Generator

Free Windmill Motor Construction

The input drive may be from an inverter driven from a battery charged via a solar panel. The system how needs to be 'tuned' and tested. This involves finding the best 'starting' capacitor which will be switched into the circuit for a few seconds at start-up, and the best 'running' capacitor.

Solar Electricity Today

An Account of Lead Acid Battery Restoration Using EDTA Tetrasodium After reading the several stories in Home Power describing how to restore lead-acid batteries, it was time to try it. Most lead acid batteries are disabled by a build-up of sulfur on the lead plates (sulfation). There are two methods to break sulfation chemical (using EDTA tetrasodium), and electronic using a pulsed device that electrically breaks the bond. For this first try, chemical chelating agents are used. Refer to the article in Home Power 20 & 21 for details. I collected six old lead-acid batteries as my test subjects. Two of these batteries are Exide, two are Sears Die Hard, one Les Schwab, and one Fred Meyer brand. They vary in age and usage. Five of the batteries were deep-cycle (Exide, Die Hard, Fred Meyer), and one was a standard car battery. I decided to use a car battery for comparison. After the test, four batteries came out usable. The Exide batteries were used in a bass fishing boat to run a 24...

Performance Of Voltage Control Unit Vcu At Cronalaght Wind Farm Ireland

Drouilhet, S., Johnson, B.L. (1997) A battery life prediction method for hybrid power applications. 35th Aerospace Sciences meeting & Exhibition. Reno NV, USA, Jan 6-10 Muljadi,E., Drouilhet,S., Holz,R., & Gevorgian,V. (1996). Analysis of permanent magnet generator for wind power battery charging. In Procedings on Industry Applications Conference. Vol. 1. 541-548

Recreational Vehicle Systems

Vehicle Systems

Your Solar Charging System will pay for itself several times over by increasing battery life and reducing the amount of money you spend on campground hook-ups and generator maintenance. Batteries that are deep cycled too many times or sit idle for several months can be permanently damaged. Solar modules provide a daily maintenance charge to your batteries and eliminate this problem. By recharging every day, the depth of discharge is reduced, and battery life and performance are greatly improved.

Dwt In Vertue Lv Plans

200 Amp Solar Panels Charger Circuit

Please read this it is very important YOU CAN NOT CHARGE EACH CAPACITOR WITH 24 VDC AND ALSO HAVE THEM CONNECTED IN SERIES You must do one or the other never at the same time 1st you charge each capacitor, then 2nd you disconnect that charge, 3rd you then connect each capacitor ( that now has that powerful 24 volt charge ) and connect them in series. now it would be stupid to connect and disconnect all of this by hand. So what you must do is use switches You can use all relay switches 1- 4 pole double throw and 5 - 30 amp auto relay switches, or you can use 1- 4 pole double throw relay and 5 - SCR's (Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers.) as switches. ( It is very easy to do ) Using SCR's is much quieter than using loud relays. you can buy low power SCR's at Radio Shack or you can buy High amperage SCR's by catalog. use 70 amp x 200v SCR's for a 1,000 watt unit, or 275 amp x 600 volt SCR's for a 5,000 watt unit. FIGURE 1 is the Charging diagram, this is where you will need to use the 4 pole...

Solectria Lightspeed Wins American Tour De

The limiting factors in solar electric vehicle design are the cost of photovoltaic panels and the energy density of batteries. Photovoltaic panels,which convert sunlight directly into electricity, have become significantly cheaper and more efficient but government funding for research has dropped steadily since the 1980's. It is time to renew our support for photovoltaic and battery research and invest in our own and the world's future said race co-director Dr. Robert Wills. While esoteric battery technologies such as solid lithium, molten sulphur and zinc-air show promise, most vehicles in the American Tour de Sol used conventional lead acid batteries.

COP Figures Mechanical not electrical overunity

As stated above, it requires less energy to demagnetize the pm field in the stator cores, than you gain in the 'yaw to register' stator attraction phase, because of the 'free precharge' Lenz effect manifested in the overwound generator configured stator coils. Is that free energy You tell me. Sounds just like a scientific effect to me, rather than something 'free' and magical. What Mr Aspden was unable to state because his unit for unknown reasons was not capable of the necessary high rpms, was that the 12-15 energy gain you make from that asymmetry, causes a brief negative impulse to be issued from the central pole face of permanent magnets, a process clarified by the recent disclosure of the POD magnetic schematic. This is conducted along the length of the stator core, hence the current pulse is converted to a time negative polarity. It then promptly flows BACKWARDS to the source, which it recharges. To this extent, it is perhaps more accurate to describe the Adams motor as a...

Manual Tracker and Mounts for PVs

8 220 A-hr 6 V deep cycle battery cells* Trace C-30A charge controller 'Represents used battery prices go back to work to make more money to buy more panels. My guess at this point is that another 4 panels and increasing my battery storage by about 50 would get me close to 100 solar at the shop. Though I pulled the eight best batteries from the van, they are still four and a half years old and were not treated kindly. The increase in storage capacity would be achieved with 12 new batteries (660 Amp-hrs at 24 Volts). When the shop system is finished, then there's the store where I sell my stoves

Utilityscale Flatplate Thin Film Photovoltaics Land Water and Critical Materials Requirements

Certain PV technologies require important elements such as tellurium, indium, selenium, and gallium. The availability of these materials is, in principle, limited by economics and geologic factors. However, thin film PV uses very smal l amounts. Typical elemental concentrations in PV are about 3 g m2 for each micron of layer thickness. Laye r thicknesses vary from about 1-3 m . In early years, little effort will be put into reducing thicknesses, because eve n at these thicknesses materials costs are not a driver. But as performance increases and other costs are overcome, materials costs will become important, and layers will be thinner. The theoretical limit on how thin layers can be (from today's understanding) is about 0.1-0.3 m, depending on device subtleties such as light trapping to cause multipl e reflections. This evolution of materials needs is captured in Table 4 (above) based on reduced layer thickness (coming down from about 2 m to about 0.2 m) and efficiency (output per g...

Electrifying Solar Energy

Junior Solar Sprint

Compete with peers so there are four classes of entry. Middle schools use 150 Watt panels and either build their hulls or modify commercial hulls. Senior high teams use either 150 or 300 Watt panels. Boats are limited to two lead-acid batteries with a combined capacity of 220 Amp hours at 12 Volts or 110 Amp hours at 24 Volts. There's no on-shore battery charging or swapping. Boats are inspected by the US Coast Guard and carry fire extinguishers and Minnesota registration. Boats must be piloted (no remotely controlled boats) and pilots must be swimmers and wear life preservers.

Don Denhardt Parts

Hi Stephen, I have two major disappointments about the two hybrid vehicles on the market. First is that they are completely gas powered. You cannot plug these cars in. It would be nice if you could use RE or even grid electricity for battery charging, since it is both cleaner and more convenient. Second is that the electric component is so minor. The Prius'battery is only 110 pounds, while the Insight's is half of that. These are small battery banks, so they primarily offer a boost to the car for acceleration and some slow-speed operation with the Prius. However I look at it, these hybrid designs seem to be completely stacked in favor of non-renewable fuel use. On lightning, my experience says that systems with buried wires have the most lightning damage to inverters and sometimes charge controllers. Wires going underground to PV, or underground AC wires to outbuildings always seem to be present in lightning damaged systems. We recommend placing the arrestors on these wires where they...

Pocketplate Nicads in Home Power Service

I have just recovered from a pain in the neck that lasted twenty years. It started with our first lead-acid battery's arrival in 1970. I've had this pain for so long it became normal and I hardly noticed it anymore. The energy portion of my life revolved around these lead-acid batteries. All the decisions and compromises in our system were to accommodate the cranky lead-acid cells. The list of Dos and Don'ts was seemingly endless. Thou shalt not discharge more than 80 of the energy in the lead-acid cells. Thou shalt perform regular equalizing charges. Thou shalt recharge the cells as soon as possible. Thou shalt keep all connections clean and bright. A never ending litany of limitations and chores all related to the lead-acid cell's delicate and cranky nature-- a real prima donna Well, things have changed. Nicad cells offer vastly better power storage for home power systems. We like these nicads so well that we are replacing all our lead-acid systems with nicads as quickly as we can...

Series Parallel Circuits

Why in the world would someone want to do this Lets say that you want to increase the Amp hour rating of a battery pack so that you could run your appliances longer but you needed to wire the pack in such a way as to keep the battery pack at 12 volts. This is a good way to accomplish that.

Watsons Self Powering Generator

One feature of Watson's unit was that it charged the batteries with negative energy (i.e., with Dirac sea hole current, or cold energy as sometimes referred to), and could use negative energy for powering the unit. Hence, his batteries became charged with negative energy as the machine ran and powered its loads. After much demonstration and running, such a negatively charged battery has its local curved vacuum charged with an appreciable number of unfilled Dirac holes. Such a negatively charged battery supersystem will then absorb positive energy charging (electron current charging) for a protracted period before it will start to change its voltage and accept the positive charge. Instead, during that protracted initial period the battery will just eat electron currents and positive energy from the battery charger, with no apparent effect and no change in Its discharged state or its voltage. A very simple way to absolutely ascertain whether or not a unit such as Watson's (without a...

Inverter Standby Losses

The majority of solar-electric (photovoltaic PV) systems installed are grid-tied, and rely on batteryless inverters to convert the DC electricity generated by your PV array to AC electricity used in your home or sent to the grid. Most batteryless inverters are designed with low standby loss in mind, and will shut down overnight, drawing only a fraction of a watt after the sun goes down. In grid-tied systems with battery backup, standby losses can be more significant compared to batteryless systems, since battery charging and management is required. Correct programming will minimize inverter energy consumption overnight. rechargeable batteries. Chances are that these products will have standby losses. Plug the power meter into the electrical outlet, and the appliance being measured into the meter. Set the display to watts and jot down the power draw when the appliance is turned off, powered up, and operational. Multiplying the wattage you measure by 24 hours (or the amount of time the...

Maximum Thermal Efficiencies

Electrochemical cells such as storage batteries and fuel cells, on the other hand, operate at constant temperatures with the products of the reaction leaving at the same temperature as the reactants. Because of this isothermal reaction, more of the chemical energy of the reactants is converted to electrical energy instead of being consumed to raise the temperature of the products the electrochemical conversion process is therefore less irreversible than the combustion reaction. In the electrochemical cell, none of the criteria that define heat engines (Section 3.1.4) is satisfied, so the Carnot cycle efficiency, which limits the maximum work to the highest temperature of the cycle, is irrelevant to electrochemical cells. Instead, the maximum work for an electrochemical cell, Wmax,cell, is equal to the change in the Gibbs function (or Gibbs energy), AG, between products and reactants.

Proven Performance You Can Trust

Trojan Battery has been building the world's most reliable, long-lasting batteries in the United States for over 80 years. Every Trojan battery is designed to enhance the performance of your renewable energy system while providing outstanding durability and battery life you can depend on.

Ananda Power Technologies

We relied heavily on modern power processing equipment. We used a PowerStar UPG 1300 Watt inverter. This inverter converts 12 VDC power stored within the battery into 1 20 vac, 60 cycle modified sine wave power, like the Colombian standard in downtown Bogota. We used a Heliotrope CC-60C photovoltaic charge controller. This PV control allowed us the wide voltage operating window required by the alkaline battery, and also gave us room for array expansion in the future. We used a Cruising Equipment Ampere-hour +2 meter to give the system's users information about their battery's state of charge. One channel of this meter was connected as a net reading battery Ampere-hour meter. The other channel was configured as a cumulative Ampere-hour meter for the photovoltaic array. This second channel will give us data about the performance of the PV modules at Mosoco's health center.

The California Fuel Cell Partnership

While Toyota remains fuel neutral, the company has showcased a prototype MFCV based on the popular RAV4 SUV, with a range of 500 kilometers (310 miles). Toyotas fuel cell RAV4 employs a 25-kW fuel cell that works in conjunction with a downsized electric vehicle battery pack. The batteries are constantly recharged from the fuel cell. Regenerative braking provides additional electric power to charge the batteries. Toyota s design draws extra power from the batteries to supplement the fuel cell during acceleration. The batteries also enhance the vehicle by providing instant power, avoiding the short warm-up that prototype fuel cell reformers require to reach maximum power output. Due to its high fuel economy, Toyota believes that once in production, the fuel cost to the consumer will be half that of conventional gasoline vehicles, and it is likely this estimated cost will decline even further with improved design and manufacturing experience.

How to Build an Efficient Alternative Energy Device

Free Energy Device

Reading this article you will learn how I discovered what I now call an ion valve and how it is used in an extremely efficient tank circuit to greatly conserve the current to run motors or provide light. Tests show that motors can be run many times longer on a battery supply using the ion valve as a regulating component. I will not discuss actual numbers at this point in time. However, it is not too hard to envision a motor vehicle that used to travel 50 miles on a single battery charge that can now travel 200 miles, or a bank of light bulbs being powered up for several days on one 12 volt car battery.

Operation Of The Invention

Free Energy Devices That Work

The rotor is desirable but not essential as the coils marked 1 and 2 can self-oscillate, and there can be any number of windings shown as 3 in the diagram. Winding 3 produces very short, sharp, high-voltage spikes, which is the essential part of the design. If those sharp pulses are fed to a lead-acid battery (instead of to a capacitor as shown above), then an unusual effect is created which triggers a link between the battery and the immediate environment, causing the environment to charge the battery. This is an amazing discovery and because the voltage pulses are high-voltage courtesy of the 1 1 choke coils, the battery bank being charged can have any number of batteries and can be stacked as a 24-volt bank even though the driving battery is only 12 volts. Even more interesting is the fact that charging can continue for more than half an hour after the pulsing circuit is switched off. However, the really important point here is the way that when these short pulses are applied to a...

HandsOn Workshops in Maine

The purpose of these practical, one day events is to de-mystify solar energy by showing the participants that it is practical today to use the sun to heat your home, make your hot water, furnish your electricity, and even cook your food and grow your vegetables out of season. In the past year we have had a very successful passive solar architecture workshop in Bangor, a solar greenhouse & sunspace workshop in Falmouth, and two photovoltaics workshops. The participants of the photovoltaic workshops actually constructed solar cell modules that they could take home for the cost of the parts. Some people made small solar battery chargers. Several participants assembled large 35 watt power modules.

Load flow and short circuit calculations

DC power system analysis in terms of load flow and short circuit calculations is investigated in 26 . Numerous source models (i.e. battery charger, rectifier and generator models) are given. Also connector models for load flow and short circuit calculations are investigated. Loads and branches are modeled. According to 26 , the present standards (in the year 1996) are not complete and need further work. In 3 , the methods of the IEC draft standard Calculation of short circuit-currents in dc auxiliary installations in power plants and substations are investigated. The calculations are intended to determine appropriate fusing for the system. Four different loads are investigated in 3 . These are the (thyristor) converter in 50 or 60 Hz AC systems, stationary lead-acid batteries, smoothing capacitors and DC motors. The straightforward methods given in the standard are compared with EMTP simulations. The standard gives conservative estimates of the short circuit currents (25...

Remote Measurement Systems ADC Data Acquisition and Control

What is a battery's voltage profile over a number of charge discharge cycles When it's added up, does most of the wind turbine's output come from constant breezes, or the gusts How much more energy does a tracked module put out, month by month How do we use power in the course of the day Precise answers to these questions require loads of measurements, taken at constant intervals, for long periods of time. You could dedicate your days, and those of a few friends, recording measurements like clockwork, armed with a multimeters, clipboards, and superhuman patience. Indeed, this is the way we've collected data for dozens of tests on inverters, charge controllers, and PV modules in past issues.

Max Power Tracker Power Conditioning System

Battery subsystem Most PV storage subsystems today consist of flooded lead-acid batteries. Improved valve -regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are now emerging in utility systems. Advanced batteries (such as lithium ion and zinc bromine) are being developed and are at different levels of size and readiness for utility operation. Other electric storage subsystems are addressed briefly in the Overview of Energy Storage Technologies, including flywheels , superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) and supercapacitors. Batteries are complex devices whose performance is a function of many variables, including rate and depth of charg e and discharge, temperature, and previous operating history 3 . The basic building block of the battery module is th e electrochemical cell. Cells are packaged together into modules which are connected in a matrix of parallel-serie s combinations to form a string. Lead-acid batteries consist of two-volt (at open circuit) cells which are connected i n...

Q Millions of people relying on biomass Figure Millions without electricity and relying on biomass for cooking

In almost every unelectrified village you can find a local trade in kerosene and kerosene lanterns for lighting, car batteries and battery-charging stations for black and white TV, dry cell batteries for radios, and, for the few who can afford it, diesel fuel and diesel generator sets for powering most modern Figure 1.4 Typical battery-charging station in village Figure 1.4 Typical battery-charging station in village

Historical Development

Windmills have been used for at least 3000 years, mainly for grinding grain or pumping water, while in sailing ships the wind has been an essential source of power for even longer. From as early as the thirteenth century, horizontal-axis windmills were an integral part of the rural economy and only fell into disuse with the advent of cheap fossil-fuelled engines and then the spread of rural electrification. The use of windmills (or wind turbines) to generate electricity can be traced back to the late nineteenth century with the 12 kW DC windmill generator constructed by Brush in the USA and the research undertaken by LaCour in Denmark. However, for much of the twentieth century there was little interest in using wind energy other than for battery charging for remote dwellings and these low-power systems were quickly replaced once access to the electricity grid became available. One notable exception was the 1250 kW Smith-Putnam wind turbine constructed in the USA in 1941. This...

Our Step Up Capacitor Inverter

First of all we start with 2 deep cycle marine batteries connected in series to get 24 volts dc. Now we must take that 24 vdc and step it up to 144 vdc, and we will do that by using our new method of using capacitors as batteries, put together in series, EXAMPLE Charging and using 2 capacitors ( see page 19 ) Charge 1 capacitor with 24 vdc and charge 2 capacitor with 24 vdc, Now remove the charge and each capacitor now has a full charge of 24 vdc. ( Each capacitor should be taped to your table for this experiment.) now using one alligator clip or wire, connect the + to the - as you would 2 batteries and you will now double the voltage from 24 vdc to 48 vdc. BE CAREFUL DO NOT TOUCH THE ENDS OF THE CAPACITORS. YOU MUST DISCHARGE ALL CAPACITORS WITH A WIRE BY SHORTING THEM OUT OR BY CONNECTING A LOAD SUCH AS A 100 WATT LIGHT BULB. Please read this it is very important YOU CAN NOT CHARGE EACH CAPACITOR WITH 24 VDC AND ALSO HAVE THEM CONNECTED IN SERIES You must do one or the other never...

System Application Benefits and Impacts

There are many examples of battery energy storage integrated with PV facilities at national parks and militar y installations. For example, Dangling Rope Marina on Lake Powell in Utah is the largest PV system ever installed a t a national park. The Dangling Rope PV system replaced an existing diesel generator and consists of a 115 kW P V array, a 250 kW power conditioning unit and a 2.4 MWh battery bank. The Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona ha s a grid-tied 441 kW PV system with 5.6 MWh of lead-acid batteries. During the summer peak season, the system ca n deliver 825 kW to the grid to help reduce peak demand. The system can also operate stand-alone in the event of an extended outage. Impacts There are no emissions, solid wastes, or effluent produced during the operation of PV battery energy storage systems. Flooded lead-acid batteries are closed, and VRLA and advanced batteries are essentially sealed. Electrolyt e leakage from batteries is a rare occurrence because each lead-acid cell...

Appliances Q vac via inverter Q VDC from Batteries

A Heliotrope CC-60 PWM charge controller is wired in series with the PV array. This unit assures that the batteries store as much of the PVs energy as possible without being overcharged. The Heliotrope controller was equipped with the optional thermostatically controlled fan for those hot Summer days in the Baja. For a complete Things that Work review of this controller and how it works, please see Home Power 8, page 31. Rancho Chatuco's battery pack is composed of twelve Trojan L-16W lead-acid batteries. The individual batteries, each 6 VDC at 350 Ampere-hours, are assembled into a pack of 24 VDC at 1,050 Ampere-hours. This battery pack is specified so that 20 of its energy is not routinely used. On this basis, the pack contains enough energy to power the system for almost four days. Energy Conversion- Inverter Battery Charger A Trace 2024 Inverter Battery Charger changes the 24 VDC, produced by the PVs and stored in the batteries, into 120 vac for appliance consumption. This...

Volt Battery Amphours

Inverter Battery Charger power when utility power is not available. This inverter should also have a built in automatic 65 to 110 Ampere battery charger with electronic regulation. The EPS may use any typical 200 Amp-hour deep cycle battery purchased locally. The battery is the energy storage reservoir that supplies the inverter with power during a blackout. The larger the battery the longer it can supply energy without recharging. Watt-Hours of use is how the utility determines your bill. If you use a 60 Watt light bulb for 1 hour you have used 60 Watt-Hours. Unfortunately batteries are typically specified by the voltage and the number of Ampere-hours (Ahr) that it can supply. To convert your Watt-Hour requirement to Amp-Hours use the following formula Amp-Hour Battery Capacity Required Watt-Hours Required Battery Voltage If you want to know the Watt-Hour capacity of a battery use the following formula Watt-Hour Battery Capacity Amp-Hour Capacity x Battery Voltage Making a load list...

The Suicidal Closed Unitary Current Loop Circuit

Taking into account Figure 2-4, Figure 2-8 shows a modified diagram of what is actually happening between the vacuum and the dipole to power the circuit. Figure 2-9 shows how a pair of conductors constitutes an extended series of parallel dipoles. Once the dipole is formed by dissipating some chemical energy in the battery, the dipole extracts energy from the surrounding vacuum and pours it out of the battery terminals, producing an energy flow filling space around the conductors of the external circuit. Only a very small portion (Figure 2-4) of the very large energy flow is intercepted by the external charges in the conductors, and diverged into the conductors to power up the Drude electrons.

Renewable Power Systems

Mini Maglite Exploded View

I was using Maglite brand Mini Maglite flashlights with two AA batteries in stock configuration. The standard bulbs are not shock resistant, which meant frequent replacements at about US 4 each. And they used a lot of energy, which led to short battery life. I determined that the best value with a new conventional bulb and two fresh AA batteries was about 130 ohms on my light meter. To determine if the LED could just replace the standard lamp, I trimmed the leads off to about 3 8 inch (10 mm) long, and carefully inserted them into the lamp holder. Using the same batteries, the LED produced a value of 192 ohms, and it was not very bright. After the hole in the reflector was enlarged to 1 4 inch, and the reflector replaced on the light body, it was time for the battery question. It just so happens that common 1.5 V calculator batteries (N cells) are slightly smaller in diameter, but significantly shorter than the standard AA batteries my flashlight was designed for. This allowed me to...

Free Energy From Air Circuit

Air Circuit Free Energy

Because the running power draw is so low, it is possible to run this motor from a standard battery-powered inverter, but the current draw at start-up is some 17 amps, so the mains is used to get the motor started and then the motor is switched from the mains to the inverter. The inverter also allows easy measurement of the power input and so makes for easier calculation of the overall power efficiency of the system. Here we have the same RotoVerter circuit as before, with high voltage being developed across capacitor C1. The battery-charging section is a free-floating circuit connected to point A of the motor. The high-voltage diode D1 is used to feed negative-going pulses to capacitor C2 which causes a large charge to build up in that capacitor. At the appropriate moment, the PC851 opto-isolator is triggered. This feeds a current into the base of the 2N3439 transistor, switching it on and firing the 2N6509 thyristor. This effectively switches capacitor C2 across the battery, which...

Chapter Pulse Charging Battery Systems

Free Energy Device

It is possible to draw substantial amounts of energy from the local environment and use that energy to charge batteries. Not only that, but when this method of charging is used, the batteries gradually get conditioned to this form of non-conventional energy and their capacity for doing work increases. In addition, about 50 of vehicle batteries abandoned as being incapable of holding their charge any longer, will respond to this type of charging and revive fully. This means that a battery bank can be created for almost no cost. However, while this economic angle is very attractive, the practical aspect of using batteries for any significant home application is just not practical. Firstly, lead-acid batteries tend to get acid all over the place when repeatedly charged, and this is not suited to most home locations. Secondly, it is recommended that batteries are not discharged more rapidly than a twenty hour period. This means that a battery rated at a capacity of 80 Amp-hours (AHr)...

Stand Alone Hybrid System

The charge controller is a relay type. Diversion loads are used to keep the batteries operating below 90 state of charge. The batteries are fully charged once a week. The 6-kW natural gas fueled, engine-driven generator provides back-up power and battery charging through the inverter. The 120 240-volt output of the generator is fed through a 6 kVA isolation transformer to step it down to 120 volts to deliver full power to the inverter and the house. Figure 1 presents the details. The output of the inverter can deliver 4000 watts ac (33 amps) in the inverting mode. It can also pass up to 60 amps through the inverter from the generator while in the battery charging mode.

Solar Power From Naps

The AC Genius inverters have a low-battery warning and shut-off to prevent complete discharge of your car's battery. They also contain an on off switch which controls the DC input. Thus you can leave the inverter connected to your battery, and simply switch the unit off when not in use.

History from windmill to wind turbine

Persian Vertical Axis Windmill

The historic development of using wind as a source of power shows an evolution from simple drag-type vertical-axis windmills generating mechanical power for local use, via stand-alone wind turbines designed for battery charging and single grid-connected wind turbines producing AC power using aerodynamic lift, to wind farms supplying electricity to the utility grid for distribution to the consumers. In this subsection we shall briefly review this transition from windmills to wind turbines. The next subsection presents an outlook on the future of wind power. Finally, the required improvements in both wind turbine design and operation to achieve and maintain cost-effective wind turbines are discussed. The first wind turbine to harness the wind for the generation of electricity was built by Charles F. Brush in Cleveland, Ohio, USA in 1888. The so-called Brush windmill was featured with a 17-m diameter multi-blade rotor mounted on an 18-m high rectangular tower as illustrated in Fig. 1.3....

TRIODE the cathode goes to the pos terminal of the battery and the plate goes to the CSET With a high current fast

If the intended purpose of the LOAD is to run a direct current system, the LOAD could be a deep cycle battery from which current is drawn to power a circuit. If the LOAD is standard type AC, 60 hertz, lights and electrical equipment then a step-down transformer that provides narrow pulsed direct current of a duration around .0005 sec. at a frequency of 120 pulses per sec. is suggested.

Photovoltaic inverters

Modulwechselrichter

Photovoltaic inverters differ from inverters for other applications. This is because they must operate the photovoltaic generator at the optimal operating point to generate the maximum power. Grid-connected inverters are therefore often combined with MPP trackers, i.e. DC-DC converters, to set a voltage at the generator that differs from the grid voltage. A battery charge controller is integrated into most stand-alone inverters.

Edwin Gray Cold Electricity

Edwin Gray Engine Image

The Tattler was given a thorough demonstration of Gray's impossible but-true methods for using electricity. The first demonstration proved that Gray uses a totally different form of electrical current - a powerful but cold form of the energy. A 6 volt car battery rested on a table. Lead

Backwoods Solar Electric Systems

Our own 30 amp Backwoods Charge Controller standard features Large amp and volt meters, trickle finishing charge, hand adjustable set voltage on automatic charge control, battery connection cable including main fuse, reverse current blocking diode, surplus power diversion, and manual override switches. All one unit for easy installation. Price is 305

Ampsvoltage Variation and Control

Unravel a thin strand of wire about 60 cm long from a piece of clothes line wire, then attach one end to the positive terminal of a 12v car battery, and the other end to the negative terminal. (Caution Use insulated pliers to avoid any 'arcing' burns.) The wire is thin enough and long enough to restrict and control the heavy amp output from the battery while it is only at 12 volts. (The wire will glow red, but not melt). Now connect two batteries in series. The battery output remains the same in amp power but the voltage doubles to 24 volts. When the 60 cm wire is connected to the two terminals, the wire will instantly melt and fall apart, due to the stronger current intensity of the higher voltage. Amp power has remained the same, while the higher voltage has melted the wire.

Bedinis Negative Resistor Process in a Battery

5.8.5.1 Some Pertinent Lead-Acid Battery Processes A lead-acid storage battery is a highly nonlinear device. The plates may be plante, pasted, or tubular etc. They are usually highly porous and have a thin oxide layer. They may have other coatings and the electrolyte solution may include additives to enhance operation. The plates consist of a mix of crystalline materials in most cases. The plate materials include acicular One of the most important phenomena is that the ion currents in the electrolyte are confined to the battery, and do not pass out into the external circuit. Much of the electron currents in the external circuit are blocked at the plates from moving within the electrolyte. Consequently, we will limit our discussion to two major currents of interest144 in a battery-powered system, and these currents are effectively isolated from each other (at least to first order). Those currents are (i) the ion currents in the electrolyte, confined to between the plates and therefore...

Evoking the Initial BediniNegative Resistor Effect

Free Energy Negative Resistor

Figure 5-9 shows the first phase of Bedini's negative resistor process. Consider the battery in normal load-powering operation. From the external circuit, a very sharp leading edge rise of a pulse of electrons and potential is sent to the battery plates in back-popping or battery charging mode. The back-popping electrons drive in nearly instantly, piling up on the negative plate 148 and trying to force the heavy ions to start moving in the battery recharging direction. The pile-up that results in the stopped electrons on the battery plate surface represents an increase in local current density, hence an increased potential. This produces the 100 volts potential, during the time that the ions have not yet responded to any appreciable degree. Figure 5-9 Phase I of the Bedim negative resistor process in a storage battery. Hence Bedini has invented a process for creating a true negative resistor inside a storage battery, and for suddenly thrusting the system out of equilibrium with both...

Learning The basics of our invention

You can convert the incoming dc current to ac by using a home made inverter (which we sell the plans to, 5 kw inverter plans 40 order 579 ) or you can purchase a 12 v to 115 vac inverter from a store or solar panel supply house If you are planing to make a 115 VAC system this Is the only way you can do it. You can not get AC current from the ground. You must use our system to charge a deep cycle 12 v marine battery, and then connect our 5,000 watt 120 vdc to ac inverter to the battery to run your home. ( we do not sell kits or inverters assembled, we only sell the plans at this time. )

The Fuelless Gravity Engine

By using a DC wind mill low rpm generator to charge a 12 volt DC deep cycle battery to run a 175 watt DC to AC 115 vac Inverter. The inverter is then used to power a homemade capacitor diode voltage multiplier to step the voltage up to the proper voltages used to run one of our Fuelless Engine motors ( Free Energy Electric Motors ) see our plans 362rc cost is 40 and can be downloaded or mailed. Shipping cost if mailed is 5.95, to send by e-mail download is only 3.95 for office service charges.

From Where to Get the Materials

Lead Acid Batteries Digital multimeter is ok but we should note that we are using pulse DC in the SSG so when you are measuring the amps, it is highly recommended to use an Analogue Amp Meter, which goes up to lamp or more. You will also need the meter to measure your input amps as well your battery voltages.

Earths Renewable Energy

Wardenclyffe Tesla Tower

Tesla's World System activates the Earth's renewable electrical storage battery, which normally sits dormant except during lightning strikes. Regarding simply the electrostatic energy storage capacity of the ionosphere, Dr Oleg Jefimenko, author of Electrostatic Motors, explains that during one electrical storm, the atmospheric electric field dissipates at least 0.2 terawatts (billion kilowatts), indicating that the entire Earth must have even more total available energy.

Requirement Of Circuit Of Rechargeable

Rechargeable Fan Circuit Diagram

(2) 1.2-volt AAA NiCad rechargeable batteries (included) (1) DC fan assembly (from the Solar Kit) V Be careful that the leads of the LEDs do not touch each other, or the leads to the resistors. If, after you have programmed your battery charger, you see some strange LED blinking behavior that is not described in the text, check your LED leads to make sure they are not forming unwanted connections Figure 2-3 Programmable Battery Charger Schematic V Connect the DC fan motor to the battery charger circuit as shown in the schematic (Figure 2-3) and wiring diagram (Figure 2-4). WARNING Do not leave your Programmable Battery Charger Unattended Commercial programmable battery chargers have many built-in sensors and safety features that are beyond the scope of this text. Please follow a few precautionary guidelines DO double-check your wiring before programming your battery charger DON'T leave your battery charger circuit unattended while the board's power supply or the batteries are...

History of windmill and wind turbine control

In the windmill era there was, in principle, thus no need to closely control the rotational speed. In fact, allowing the windmills to operate at variable speed was highly advantageous as it increased the total energy extracted from the wind. The same holds true for the turbines that harnessed the wind for battery charging at the start of the electric era. The majority of these turbines were equipped with a DC generator, had blades with a fixed pitch angle and were operated at variable speed. In the early to mid-1970's, the need for supplying AC power to the grid changed the demands on wind turbine control because of the the fixed relationship between the speed of the AC generators and the fixed utility grid frequency. Consequently, the majority of the machines were operated at constant speed and had pitchable blades to level off excess power.

Sewing Machine Conversion

I used a car blower motor (used 15) and a universal horn button on a 2x4 scrap for the foot pedal. The motor was mounted in line with the hand wheel on a block of wood in the portable base. It was put in the holder for the cord and pedal (when not in use). Blower motors can turn either way, just reverse the wires, so you can put it in the back where the original motor was or out the side. Use the lines on the old motor to give you an estimate for the 12 volt wire lengths to the pedal and and outlet. You can even put a small on off switch near the machine, right on the wires, if you want to get fancy. Attach the wires to a suitable plug for your system. (Make sure the pulley off original motor will fit the 12 volt motor shaft). Blower motors do use a lot of electricity, but sewing involves a lot of starting and stopping, even in production work, while you line up the pieces or turn things around. I ran my machine off the car battery before I got a PV panel.

Solar Powered Water Pumping

One solution to these problems involves the use of storage batteries and a conventional ac pump. Energy accumulates over time in the batteries and is discharged quickly to run the pump for short periods. A battery system complicates the installation, operation and maintenance of a system (unless it is needed for other home applications) and loses 20 of the stored energy. Operation of ac pumps with DC power requires an inverter. The inverter adds cost and complexity and increases energy requirements by an additional 10 . Battery storage and ac inverter pumping systems sometimes are appropriate. As more and more remote homeowners use PVs for their electrical needs, we find battery storage and inverters already in place or planned for. The conventional ac submersible powered by inverter is a viable option for domestic water requirements. The storage battery system allows pressure pumping on demand, day or night. A water conserving home using low-water toilets (1 to 1 1 2 gallons per...

Activity Charging The Batteries

In this experiment, we'll be charging our two AAA NiCad batteries. The battery's fully charged operating voltage is 2.4 volts when the two batteries are connected in series. The key word here is operating, since this is the voltage that the batteries should be at immediately after a full charge to provide power to a load. In this case our load is a small DC motor-fan. The purpose of our battery charger circuit and PBASIC program is to charge the batteries until they are at full capacity, which will actually cause the battery voltage to go beyond the 2.4 volt level, but not overcharge them. For now, let's get to the state where the batteries are charging and the Green LED is flashing. Your StampPlot plot will look something like the one below. As the batteries charge, you will observe the blue plot, BV, or battery voltage, rising. Figure 2-6 Plot of Programmable Battery Charger No-Load Voltage Output Figure 2-6 Plot of Programmable Battery Charger No-Load Voltage Output While the...

Communication Perspective Is it Attractive

Compared to other alternatives, such as kerosene for lighting and battery charging for radio and television, we find that the perceptions in favour of solar are stronger still. The primary use of electricity by formerly unelectrified homes is lighting and entertainment (see, for example, the findings from Indonesia in Table 3.1).

Ile Energy Gel Batteries

East Penn recycles 100 of scrap lead-acid batteries at our state-of-the-art, E.P.A. permitted recycling facility. In fact, we safely recycle 20,000 batteries a day on site. We are the world's largest and most modern single-site battery manufacturer offering premium quality valve regulated lead acid batteries in both Gel and AGM types to exceed the solar industry high standards.

Trojan 6v Tampoo Battery In Nepal

The optional TS-1 Battery Temperature Sensor extends battery life by allowing you to program separate high and low temperature charging parameters. The optional TS-1 Battery Temperature Sensor extends battery life by allowing you to program separate high and low temperature charging parameters. This solar lantern is a good example of appropriate technology. Recharging the battery pack right in the unit using solar energy is a great idea. It eliminates wasteful throw-away batteries, and the need for a separate battery charger. Two models of lead-acid batteries are being used in safa tempos in Nepal. They are Trojan T-105s and Trojan T-125s, both manufactured in California, USA. The T-105 gives a range of 55 to 60 km (34-37 miles) per charge, and the T-125 gives 65 to 70 km (40-43 miles) per charge.

DIY Battery Repair

DIY Battery Repair

You can now recondition your old batteries at home and bring them back to 100 percent of their working condition. This guide will enable you to revive All NiCd batteries regardless of brand and battery volt. It will give you the required information on how to re-energize and revive your NiCd batteries through the RVD process, charging method and charging guidelines.

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