Proposed Cellulosic Ethanol Refineries

Ethanol Subsidies 2018

Now I present at face value the stated energy efficiencies9 of the six proposed10 cellulosic ethanol plants awarded 385 million USD by the US Department of Energy. Figure 2.14 ranks the rather imaginary claims of 5 out of 6 award recipients. For calibration, after 87 years of development and optimization, the actual energy efficiency of Sasol's Fischer-Tropsch coal-to-liquid fuels plants is about 42 (Steynberg and Nel, 2004). The average energy efficiency of the highly optimized corn ethanol...

Subsidies to Factors of Production

Value-adding factors in biofuel production include capital, labor, land and other natural resources. Surprisingly, even labor related to biofuels production does not escape subsidization. The state of Washington, for example, allows labor employed to build biofuels production capacity, or to make biodiesel or biodiesel feedstock, to pay a reduced rate on the state's business and occupation tax.15 4.3.3.1 Support for Capital Used in Manufacturing Biofuels Scores of incentive programs have been...

About our Authors

Alves graduated in Agronomy from UFRRJ Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in 1987. He concluded the Master's Degree 1992 and PhD 1996 in Agronomy at the same University, specializing in techniques for the study of the dynamics of N in the soil and for the quantification of biological N2 fixation in legume and non-legume species. He is a researcher at the Brazilian Corporation of Agricultural Research Embrapa and a teacher-advisor in the post-graduation program in Agronomy at...

Peak Oil EROI Investments and the Economy in an Uncertain Future

Energy Consumption Pattern World

Hall, Robert Powers and William Schoenberg Abstract The issues surrounding energy are far more important, complex and pervasive than normally considered from the perspective of conventional economics, and they will be extremely resistant to market-based, or possibly any other, resolution. We live in an era completely dominated by readily available and cheap petroleum. This cheap petroleum is finite and currently there are no substitutes with the quality and quantity required. Of...