Biomass Gasifier Stove Dealers Mail

In Chapters 7 and 8, the thermal conversion of biomass to energy by combustion and to liquid fuels by pyrolysis and a few nonpyrolytic liquefaction processes was examined. In this chapter, the subject of thermal conversion will be expanded further by addressing biomass gasification. Biomass gasification processes are generally designed to produce low- to medium-energy fuel gases, synthesis gases for the manufacture of chemicals, or hydrogen. More than one million small-scale, airblown gasifiers...

Tetrahydrofuran Dealers Mail

Farm animal wastes, 143-146 see also Waste biomass cattle distribution, United States, 145, 146 equivalent, human, 143 fuel gas from, 145 disposal problems, 142 equivalent, population, 143 hogs and pigs, human equivalent, 143 manures human equivalent, 143 generation, annual, 143 manure-commercial broiler comparison, 144 poultry, human equivalent, 143 sheep and lambs, human equivalent, 143 U.S. abundance, 143 U.S. livestock, 143 U.S. poultry, 143 U.S. uses, 145, 147 Fatty acids, from lipids, 530...

Buw

Dark reactions, see Photosynthesis Densification, biomass, see also Physical conversion applications, commercial, 177 baling, 177 benefits, 177 briquetting, 177 feedstock and moisture, 179 hardware, 178, 179 Biotruck 2000, 179 briquetting machine, 179 extruder, 179 extrusion press, 179 flat die press, 179 hydraulic press, 179 impact press, 179 pelleting machine, 179 pelletizers, 178 pelletizing, 177 agricultural crops, 180 cotton plant residues, 180 grasses and straws in field, 180 production...

Hydrogen Fermentation and Cell Free Enzyme Catalysts

The Embden-Meyerhof pathway via pyruvic acid is the normal route to fermentation products from biomass carbohydrates (Chapter 11). Enteric bacteria appear to have the unique capability of converting pyruvic acid directly to formic acid (Section II,D) CHjCOCOr + CoA -> CH3COCoA + HCOr So formic acid can be a major end product in sugar fermentations. Since some of the enteric bacteria also contain the enzyme system formic hydrogenlyase, which degrades formic acid to equimolar quantities of...

Bensopyruvic Acid Of

Oilseeds, see also Seed oils annual yields castorbean, 340 Chinese tallow tree, 340 corn, 340 cotton, 340 crambe, 340 flax, 340 peanut, 340 safflower, 340 soybean, 340 sunflower, 340 winter rape, 340 Oxygenates, properties, 383-443 azeotropes, hydrocarbon methanol, 403, 414 ethanol, 403 blending octane value, 400 blending Reid vapor pressure, 400 cetane number, 391-393 combustion chcracteristics, 395-398 comparison with diesel fuel, 391-394 comparison with gasoline, 392, 394, 395 distillation...

Integrated Systems A Definition and Fundamentals

An IBPCS is usually defined to be a system in which all operations concerned with the production of virgin biomass feedstocks as dedicated energy crops and feedstock conversion are integrated to provide a balanced operating system. Multiple feedstocks, including combined biomass-fossil feedstocks and waste biomass, may be employed. Feedstock supply, or supplies in the case of a system that converts two or more feedstocks, is coordinated with the availability factor operating time of the...

Properties Of Oxygenates

Examination of the properties of some of the oxygenates used in the United States is in order before discussing the processes for their manufacture. The efficacy of a particular oxygenate as a neat motor fuel, gasoline or diesel fuel extender, or motor fuel additive depends on its specific properties. The major automobile manufacturers and petroleum refiners and several government agencies and research institutions have carried out large research programs to evaluate oxygenates in spark- and...

Net Energy Analysis of Ethanol Production

As mentioned earlier, a controversial issue that developed when fermentation ethanol was first marketed as a motor gasoline component in modern times concerned the amount of energy consumed in the fermentation process. The basic problem with conventional yeast fermentation of corn sugars and purification was that more energy can be consumed to manufacture a unit of ethanol than the energy contained in that unit. The problem was compounded in the TABLE 14.11 Net Energy Production Ratios of...

Equipment And Applications A Hardware

The purposes of solid fuel-burning equipment are to proportion and mix the fuel and air, to initiate and maintain ignition, to volatilize the fuel, to position the flames in areas of useful heat release, and to supply fuel and air at the proper rates and pressures to facilitate each of these functions Reed, 1983 . The specific equipment appropriate for most biomass combustion and energy recovery systems depends on the types, amounts, and characteristics of the biomass fuel the ultimate energy...

References

A., Scheeline, H., Marynowski, C., and Louks, B. 1972 . Pyrolysis of Solid Wastes A Technical and Economic Assessment, NTIS PB 218231 9. Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, CA, September. Antal, M. J., Jr. 1978 . In Energy fromn Biomass and Wastes, D. L. Klassand W. W. Waterman, eds. , p. 495. Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago. Babu, S. P., and Bain, R. L. 1991 . A Review of Biomass Gasification in the United States, Solar Energy Research Institute Syn-Gas,...

Info

Densities of 0.920 and 0.790 t m3 are used for feedstock oils and products. Product yield is 80 wt of the feedstock used. Operating time is 320 days year feedstock consumption is 23,552 t year, production is 23,850,126 L year, and annual gross revenue at an assumed product sales price of S0.211 L is 5.03 million. All dollar values are converted from Canadian dollars in the original reference to U.S. dollars by a factor of 1.1875 CanAJ.S. , the exchange rate...

B

With bagasse moisture content, 166-168 Benzene, toluene, xylenes feedstock, see BTX synthesis Biochemical pathways CAM biomass, 60 C3 biomass, 58 C4 biomass, 59 celluloses, 61 hemicelluloses, 61 lignins, 61 proteins, 62 terpenes, 63-65 triglycerides, 62 Biocrude oil economics, 370, 371 productivity barriers, 354 recovery methods, 366, 368 Biodiesel fuels, 335-344 see also Triglycerides Liquefaction, natural ASTM specifications, 337, 338 catalytic hydroconversion, triglycerides, 374 cetane...

Sources A Glycerides

Natural glycerides have been investigated as alternative fuels for the compression-ignition engine since the late 1800s. Rudolph Diesel, the inventor of the engine that bears his name, demonstrated a diesel-cycle engine fueled with peanut oil in 1900 at the Paris Exposition. In 1912, Diesel wrote The use of vegetable oils may become in the course of time as important as petroleum and the coal tar products of the present time. This obviously has not happened, since the majority of heavy-duty...

Feedstock Composition Impacts

As alluded to in Chapter 8, the ideal biomass feedstock for thermal conversion, whether it be combustion, gasification, or a combination of both, is one that contains low or zero levels of elements such as nitrogen, sulfur, or chlorine, which can form undesirable pollutants and acids that cause corrosion, and no mineral elements that can form inorganic ash and particulates. Ash formation, especially from alkali metals such as potassium and sodium, can lead to fouling of heat exchange surfaces...

Kelp Thermal Diagram

FIGURE 12.8 Diagram of young adult giant brown kelp plant Macrocystis pyrijera . From Leese 1976 . A, holdfast B, primary stipe C, stubs of frond D, sporophyil cluster E, juvenile frond F, senile frond G, stipe bundle H, apical meristem. No root involved plant takes all nutrients direct from surrounding water. FIGURE 12.8 Diagram of young adult giant brown kelp plant Macrocystis pyrijera . From Leese 1976 . Other estimates indicated that the anaerobic digestion of anchored giant brown kelp...

Finnland Kemira Oy Gasification

Adapted from Graham and Huffman 1981 . The gasifier was rated at 0.84 GJ h. efficiency is cool gas energy dry wood energy . efficiency is cool gas energy dry wood energy . shut down, dismantled, or placed on standby. A survey of commercial thermal biomass gasification showed that few gasifiers have been installed in the United States Miles and Miles, 1989 . Most of the units in use are retrofitted to small boilers, dryers, and kilns. The majority of the existing units operate at rates of 0.14...

Chi

Positions in molecules that offer several sites. Recent advances appear to provide solutions to the problem of synthesizing oligosaccharides c . Rouhi, 1996 . New oligomers and biopolymers are expected to result from this effort. Commodity lignin chemicals and their salts and derivatives are complex mixtures of compounds obtained from the spent liquors of the wood pulping industry. As previously described, the three basic pulping processes are the sulfite, sulfate kraft , and caustic soda...

Size Reduction A Fundamentals

Reduction in physical size is often required before biomass is used as a fuel or feedstock. Size-reduction techniques are employed to prepare biomass for direct fuel use, fabrication into fuel pellets, cubes, and briquettes, or conversion. Smaller particles and pieces of biomass reduce its storage volume, facilitate handling of the material in the solid state and transport of the material as a slurry or pneumatically, and sometimes permit ready separation of components such as bark and...

Miscellaneous Liquefaction Methods

Aqueous and Non-aqueous Non-pyrolytic Conversion Note that the transformations described here, which take place in an aqueous or non-aqueous liquid medium that may or may not react with the biomass feedstock, are termed nonpyrolytic processes, as compared to pyrolysis processes in which the biomass feedstocks are directly heated. The direct conversion of cellulosic materials to liquids by heating in aqueous systems has been known for more than 100 years c . Ostermann, Bishop, and Rosson,...

C

Calvin-Benson cycle, see C3 biomass Calvin cycle, see C, biomass CAM biomass, 60, 65 see also Photosynthesis abundance, 60 characteristics, 60 biochemical intermediates malic acid, 60 oxaloacetic acid, 60 phosphoenolpyruvic acid, 60 examples, 60 species, 60 Carbon dioxide atmospheric, 22, 34 build-up, 22 compensation point, 58 emissions biomass 34 carbon dioxide, 22, 34 carbon equivalents, 34 methane equivalents, 34 primary sinks, 33 errors and uncertainties, 33, 35 sources, 34 fossil fuel...

Methane Fermentation A Early Work on Microbial Methane

The chemistry of methane, the simplest organic compound known, was first studied by Berthollet in 1786 cf. Roscoe and Schorlemmer, 1878 . He analyzed the gas quantitatively, but could not distinguish it from ethylene. This was literally the beginning of thousands of independent investigations of methane conducted over the next 200 years. The biological origin of methane, however, was recognized by Van Helmont, Volta, and Davy long before Berthollet's studies cf. McCarty, 1982 . In 1630, Van...

Densification A Fundamentals

Baling has long been used to densify hays, straws, and other agricultural crops such as cotton to simplify removal from the field and to reduce storage space and transportation costs. Baled straw has a density of 70 to 90 kg m3 at 10 to 15 wt moisture content, whereas the bulk density of piled straw is about 5 to 15 of this density range. When straws are compressed to form pellets, briquettes, or cubes in specially designed dies and presses, the density can be increased to 350 to 1200 kg m3. In...