Hydrogen Fermentation and Cell Free Enzyme Catalysts

The Embden-Meyerhof pathway via pyruvic acid is the normal route to fermentation products from biomass carbohydrates (Chapter 11). Enteric bacteria appear to have the unique capability of converting pyruvic acid directly to formic acid (Section II,D) CHjCOCOr + CoA -> CH3COCoA + HCOr So formic acid can be a major end product in sugar fermentations. Since some of the enteric bacteria also contain the enzyme system formic hydrogenlyase, which degrades formic acid to equimolar quantities of...

Bensopyruvic Acid Of

Oilseeds, see also Seed oils annual yields castorbean, 340 Chinese tallow tree, 340 corn, 340 cotton, 340 crambe, 340 flax, 340 peanut, 340 safflower, 340 soybean, 340 sunflower, 340 winter rape, 340 Oxygenates, properties, 383-443 azeotropes, hydrocarbon methanol, 403, 414 ethanol, 403 blending octane value, 400 blending Reid vapor pressure, 400 cetane number, 391-393 combustion chcracteristics, 395-398 comparison with diesel fuel, 391-394 comparison with gasoline, 392, 394, 395 distillation...

Integrated Systems A Definition and Fundamentals

An IBPCS is usually defined to be a system in which all operations concerned with the production of virgin biomass feedstocks as dedicated energy crops and feedstock conversion are integrated to provide a balanced operating system. Multiple feedstocks, including combined biomass-fossil feedstocks and waste biomass, may be employed. Feedstock supply, or supplies in the case of a system that converts two or more feedstocks, is coordinated with the availability factor operating time of the...

Net Energy Analysis of Ethanol Production

As mentioned earlier, a controversial issue that developed when fermentation ethanol was first marketed as a motor gasoline component in modern times concerned the amount of energy consumed in the fermentation process. The basic problem with conventional yeast fermentation of corn sugars and purification was that more energy can be consumed to manufacture a unit of ethanol than the energy contained in that unit. The problem was compounded in the TABLE 14.11 Net Energy Production Ratios of...

Equipment And Applications A Hardware

The purposes of solid fuel-burning equipment are to proportion and mix the fuel and air, to initiate and maintain ignition, to volatilize the fuel, to position the flames in areas of useful heat release, and to supply fuel and air at the proper rates and pressures to facilitate each of these functions Reed, 1983 . The specific equipment appropriate for most biomass combustion and energy recovery systems depends on the types, amounts, and characteristics of the biomass fuel the ultimate energy...

References

A., Scheeline, H., Marynowski, C., and Louks, B. 1972 . Pyrolysis of Solid Wastes A Technical and Economic Assessment, NTIS PB 218231 9. Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, CA, September. Antal, M. J., Jr. 1978 . In Energy fromn Biomass and Wastes, D. L. Klassand W. W. Waterman, eds. , p. 495. Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago. Babu, S. P., and Bain, R. L. 1991 . A Review of Biomass Gasification in the United States, Solar Energy Research Institute Syn-Gas,...

Kelp Thermal Diagram

FIGURE 12.8 Diagram of young adult giant brown kelp plant Macrocystis pyrijera . From Leese 1976 . A, holdfast B, primary stipe C, stubs of frond D, sporophyil cluster E, juvenile frond F, senile frond G, stipe bundle H, apical meristem. No root involved plant takes all nutrients direct from surrounding water. FIGURE 12.8 Diagram of young adult giant brown kelp plant Macrocystis pyrijera . From Leese 1976 . Other estimates indicated that the anaerobic digestion of anchored giant brown kelp...

Finnland Kemira Oy Gasification

Adapted from Graham and Huffman 1981 . The gasifier was rated at 0.84 GJ h. efficiency is cool gas energy dry wood energy . efficiency is cool gas energy dry wood energy . shut down, dismantled, or placed on standby. A survey of commercial thermal biomass gasification showed that few gasifiers have been installed in the United States Miles and Miles, 1989 . Most of the units in use are retrofitted to small boilers, dryers, and kilns. The majority of the existing units operate at rates of 0.14...

Size Reduction A Fundamentals

Reduction in physical size is often required before biomass is used as a fuel or feedstock. Size-reduction techniques are employed to prepare biomass for direct fuel use, fabrication into fuel pellets, cubes, and briquettes, or conversion. Smaller particles and pieces of biomass reduce its storage volume, facilitate handling of the material in the solid state and transport of the material as a slurry or pneumatically, and sometimes permit ready separation of components such as bark and...

Miscellaneous Liquefaction Methods

Aqueous and Non-aqueous Non-pyrolytic Conversion Note that the transformations described here, which take place in an aqueous or non-aqueous liquid medium that may or may not react with the biomass feedstock, are termed nonpyrolytic processes, as compared to pyrolysis processes in which the biomass feedstocks are directly heated. The direct conversion of cellulosic materials to liquids by heating in aqueous systems has been known for more than 100 years c . Ostermann, Bishop, and Rosson,...

Methane Fermentation A Early Work on Microbial Methane

The chemistry of methane, the simplest organic compound known, was first studied by Berthollet in 1786 cf. Roscoe and Schorlemmer, 1878 . He analyzed the gas quantitatively, but could not distinguish it from ethylene. This was literally the beginning of thousands of independent investigations of methane conducted over the next 200 years. The biological origin of methane, however, was recognized by Van Helmont, Volta, and Davy long before Berthollet's studies cf. McCarty, 1982 . In 1630, Van...

Densification A Fundamentals

Baling has long been used to densify hays, straws, and other agricultural crops such as cotton to simplify removal from the field and to reduce storage space and transportation costs. Baled straw has a density of 70 to 90 kg m3 at 10 to 15 wt moisture content, whereas the bulk density of piled straw is about 5 to 15 of this density range. When straws are compressed to form pellets, briquettes, or cubes in specially designed dies and presses, the density can be increased to 350 to 1200 kg m3. In...

421 Solar And Bike Or Bikescals Companies Contacts In Russia Mail

J., Jr., and Varhegyi, G. 1995 . Ind. Eng. Chan. Res. 34 3 , 703. Antal, M. J., Jr., Croiset, E Dai, X., DeAlmeida, C., Mok, W. S., Norberg, N., Richard, J., and Majthoub, M. 1996 . Energy amp Fuels 10 3 , 652. Appell, H. R Fu, Y. C., Illig, E. G., Steffgen, F. W and Miller, R. D. 1975 . Conversion of Cellulosic Wastes to Oil, U.S. Bureau of Mines Report Invest. 8013. Washington, D.C. Bagrova, R. K and Kozlov, V. N. 1958 . Trudy Ural'skogo Lesotekhnicheskogo Instituta 12 97. Bain, R.,...