Electric Car Conversion Made Easy
Hybrid Cars The Whole Truth Revealed
Hybrid Cars! Man! Is that a HOT topic right now! There are some good reasons why hybrids are so hot. If you’ve pulled your present car or SUV or truck up next to a gas pumpand inserted the nozzle, you know exactly what I mean! I written this book to give you some basic information on some things<br />you may have been wondering about.
The idea of an electrical powered vehicle (EV) has been around for almost 200 years. The first electric vehicle was built by Thomas Davenport in 1834. Until a few decades ago, batteries seemed to be the only device capable of storing the energy in a safe manner. Unfortunately batteries are still not able to store the amount of energy needed to fulfill the needs of an electric vehicle completely. They also have a low energy to weight ratio and problems with the recharging of the battery are not completely solved. Currently a lot of research is focused on the possibility of using fuel cells for producing energy from hydrogen. Results are promising and fully functioning fuel cells may be the missing link that will make the EV a competitive alternative to the standard internal combustion engine (ICE) that is used in today's cars. The customers' demand for an alternative to the combustion engine is, nonetheless, great. The environmental advantages of low emission and the possibility of...
As mentioned above, the hybrid electric vehicle needs an electrical machine to transform electrical power to mechanical torque on the wheels. The electrical machine needs to be controlled accurately (control of speed and or torque) and the only machine that initially could fulfill these demands was the DC motor 34 . Due to high weight and a short lifetime the DC motor was gradually replaced by the induction machine (IM). The induction machine is a robust, well-known device and, with the development of new power electronics (like the IGBT transistor), many new methods of controlling three phase machines have been developed. The induction machine is still used in many HEV concepts. In order to increase the energy efficiency of the HEV, all parts of it have to be very efficient and, as an alternative, machines of the permanent magnet type have become a serious challenger to the IM. Recent research has also shown that the reluctance machine can be used in hybrid electric vehicles with...
As well as intelligent interconnected buildings with distributed generation, electricity storage can be incorporated as a key element of micro-grid design in the form of plug-in electric vehicles (see Section 5). A strategy for delivering electricity is where these electric vehicles can become an efficient energy supply source during high cost, peak demand periods. Energy management of the vehicles can enable charging discharging to be controlled to suit the needs of the drivers and the grid (Gridpoint, 2009). For example, vehicles connected to the grid will be automatically detected and identified by the utility and managed in accordance with the owners' wishes. When undertaken at off-peak times, vehicle charging can commence, but at a timing and rate to avoid creating a peak load. When the system is operated during peak periods and as agreed by the driver based on any imminent need for use of the vehicle, the utility can discharge any remaining power from the batteries to the grid...
Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) typically combine the conventional internal combustion engine of the automobile with an energy storage device, such as a battery. However, there are many different arrangements for the HEV. The key components to an HEV are the energy storage system (batteries, ultracapacitors, and flywheels), the power unit (spark ignition engines, compression ignition direct injection engines, gas turbines and fuel cells) and the vehicle propulsion system (electric motor). The benefits of HEVs, much like the hybrid power plants, are increased efficiency and lower emissions.
You turn the key, and with a questioning look, wonder, Is it really turned on There's no sound, no movement, just a green light on the dash. Open the throttle carefully, and the electric vehicle (EV) springs to life. Five minutes later, you're back with windblown hair and a big grin. I've seen it happen time and time again with first-time EV drivers. Over the years, I've worked for five different EV companies, including two of my own, each building practical vehicles with diverse uses. I've witnessed the emergence of highway-ready EVs designed and manufactured by major automakers, the disappearance of these product lines, and the current resurgence in their interest. Most highway-ready, full-size EVs on the road today were originally internal combustion rigs, converted to run on an electric motor and batteries. It's my hope that soon, production electric cars will be readily available. Until then, several categories of light electric vehicles (LEVs), and an ever-growing share of...
Statistics show that if we replaced 1 million gasoline cars with electric cars, total emissions would be reduced by 150 million tons a year. According to PG&E, an electric mini-van would produce 85 less ozone producing emissions and 97 less carbon monoxide than a gasoline powered mini-van. Tests conducted by the California Air Resources Board in May 1989 combined with PG&E's annual off-peak electricity generation - electric vehicles reduce emissions of HCs by 99 , NOx by almost 80 , and CO by 97 .
Electric vehicles are a reality and are available today. Vehicles range from a 900 electric bicycle to a 20,000 luxury sports car. Several models are available for under 10,000 that are capable of carrying four adults. All the vehicles can be recharged simply by plugging into any standard 120 volt ac outlet. Some may also be adapted to solar trickle charging. An information update and an evolving list of available vehicles may be ordered for 30.00 per year from Solar Electric, 175 Cascade Ct., Rohnert Park, CA 94928, or by calling (707) 586-1987. ACCESS Gary Starr, President of Solar Electric has been driving, researching, and marketing electric vehicles for the past 16 years.
Northeast Solar Energy Association's (NESEA) 1990 American Tour de Sol, the American Solar Car Championship, was a great success. There were 15 entries from across the country, each unique, pushing solar electric vehicle technology to the limits. This second annual five day event was held from May 23 to 27, 1990. It involved 234 miles of travel and fourteen solar car exhibits from Montpelier, Vermont to Boston, Massachusetts. Besides numerous vehicles from colleges, universities, and one high school, the event attracted 3 conventional-looking solar production prototypes which were enthusiastically received by spectators and the press and made competition very stiff. Their designers hope to have them in production by the end of the year. electric vehicles for everyday use. Solar electric vehicles have photovoltaic panels, batteries and electric motors instead of gasoline engines. They are quiet, can travel up to 70 miles per day at normal road speeds, and are totally pollution free...
The next project here is the completion of the island's emergency radio repeater system (callsign VP2EA R, 147.81 mhz) which will be powered by an innovative twin turbine wind generator from Ted Baer of Enercraft. Planning for 1991 includes using surplus 200 watt Winchargers on 64 foot towers to power a local service station and installation of a Bergey 3KW synchronous, grid connected system for a local business. Future planning includes locating a surplus electric powered van in the USA and operating it here in a feasibility test, using a Wincharger or Enercraft system to charge the batteries at night. Considering that the island is only 16 miles long, an electric vehicle may be an interesting and very useful concept. Gasoline is about 2.50 per gallon, not to mention pollution.
EVT is short for the Electric Vehicle Technology program at Jordan College Energy Institute (JEI) in Michigan. After working with events such as the 1990 GM Sunrayce (Florida to Michigan) and the Ford Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge, JEI formed the 1994 Michigan High School Electrathon competition. A year after its conception, most of the 23 participating high schools scattered throughout Michigan have working under the watchful eye of Clark Beaseley. The site has seating capacity for 10,000 people and a fairgrounds to attract vendors and displays, and room for inspections and repairs. The Electrathon will run a daytime event on the same date as a nighttime stock car race, so that the track's single event insurance will cover both. Since spectators must traverse a large area between the parking lot and bleachers, owners of electric cars and trucks will be invited to display their vehicles to the general public in this area. Immediately prior to the Electrathon event, the display...
Electric Vehicles 52 Electric Car Batteries Placement & Containment Shari Prange discusses installing batteries in electric vehicles. Considered are placement, wiring, and more. Michael Hackleman discusses the refueling and recharging of electric vehicles. Anyone want to swap out batteries instead of filling the gas tank Transportation technology is complementary with independently-generated power. My exploration into electric vehicles and other transportation alternatives began in the 70's. My home and shop were both designed to be solar, and we aimed to generate all of our electricity from pre-REA windmachines. Our first EV was charged from wind power. We called it Ox a workhorse vehicle. Ultimately, I wish to empower HP's readers with the knowledge, ability, and confidence to realize their own alternative transportation ideas.
The Seventh Annual Sustainable Transportation and S EV95 (Solar & Electric Vehicle) Symposium, Boston, MA, October 1995 (exact location and dates to be announced) will bring together a broad coalition of transportation planners, electric and hybrid electric industry representatives, business people, policy makers, ands engineers to foster the growth of a viable electric vehicle industry, and the development of a sustainable transportation vision for the nation. In-depth workshops, concurrently held sessions and an extensive trade show have made the event the major electric vehicle conference in the United States. For more information contact NESEA, 50 Miles St, Greenfield, MA 01301, 413-774-6051, fax 413-7746053.
The Sustainable Transportation and Solar and Electric Vehicle (S EV94), October 3-5, 1994, will be held at the Rhode Island Convention Center in Providence. The show provides transportation planners, auto, bus and train industry personnel, business people, fleet owners and operators, students and concerned citizens a forum to exchange information on EV technology, policy, and business, as well as transportation planning strategies to create a non-polluting, equitable and efficient multi-model transportation system. For more info contact NESEA, 413-7746051.
I met Jonathan for the first time when I was hiking around the Big Island in early 1987. For a long time, I walked along a stretch of highway, hoping for a ride. I finally got one from a young woman, who told me about a local source for solar panels and electric vehicles. When I reached the area and called the number she gave me, I gave my name, and the usual you don't know me but I'd love to visit. Jonathan drove down to pick me up. I rode back up through the volcanic shield in an electric pickup truck I was grateful for his Jonathan has pointed out the advantage of the Big Island of Hawaii in testing electric vehicle technologies. After all, seventeen of the world's twenty-one microclimates are represented there. Where else can you test a car in the tropics, in the desert, and in the snow all in the same day (This article is largely an excerpt from my upcoming book, The New Electric Cars Simple, Efficient and Reliable, by permission of Chelsea Green Publishing, available July 1995.)
Electric Vehicle Safety Survey In order to establish meaningful standards, the Electric Vehicle Industry Assoc. is seeking data on the safety of EVs already in actual use. Anyone who has had any experience with EV accidents is invited to share their information. The survey takes 10 minutes to complete. Final data will be made available for publication. To participate, contact Shari Prange, Electro Automotive, POB 1113, Felton, CA 95018-1113 408-429-1989
Our new Kilowatt-Hour+ Meter was created for the Department of Energy to provide instrumentation for one hundred electric vehicles that participated in competitions this summer. The data gathered from the Phoenix 500, the Atlanta Clean Air Gran Prix, the American Tour de Sol, and the Ford HEV Challenge, is the largest sample of energy performance data that has ever been collected. The final report on this data is yet to be published, but the preliminary analysis has established the benchmark of 4 miles per kilowatt-hour at 50 miles per hour. We are proud to have been selected as the metering standard for these exciting and leading edge competitions. I use mine on a daily basis and will recommend it to any electric car buffImeet Mark Parthe
The Third Annual Great Lakes Renewable Energy Fair, August 6-8, 1993, Traverse City Senior High School, Traverse City, MI. Designed to promote conservation & new energy technologies, the event will feature solar panels, windmills, electric cars and boats, biomass fuels, the latest in energy saving appliances, and a popular renewable energy home tour. Amory Lovins will be the keynote speaker and give workshops on Saturday. For more info contact GLREA, 11059 Bright Rd, Maple City, MI 49664, 616228-7159.
Electricity is considered an alternative fuel when it is used to charge an electric vehicle. Today, electric vehicles are available from most major automakers. Ford Motor Company, for instance, recently received an order from the U.S. Postal Service for 500 electric vehicles the largest U.S. order for electric vehicles in history. The real question for electric cars is, where does the electricity come from It's possible for the electricity to come from renewable energy sources, making the electric car a clean car in every way. The simplest way is to purchase 100 green power to recharge the car. Some cities have also installed recharging stations with roofs to shelter the cars as they refuel. These roofs are covered with photovoltaic solar panels, so that they actually generate the electricity to refuel the cars.
1994 American Tour de Sol, Solar and Electric Car Championship, New York to New Jersey to Pennsylvania. Over 50 electric and solar powered cars will drive from the Statue of Liberty to the Liberty Bell, May 21-28 on a five day quest for the national electric and solar vehicle championship title. The American Tour de Sol, now in its sixth year, follows the century long tradition of using car racing as a proving ground for technical advances and education. Production electric vehicles compete alongside two and four seater commuters and sleek solar racing cars built by entrepreneurs, students and individuals. The New York to Philadelphia event will have a carnival atmosphere at the many free displays of the cars along the route. For more info contact NESEA, 413-774-6051
Our reconditioned Ni-Cad batteries have a proven track record of Superior performance under various conditions. With Ni-Cads you can add to your system as your power needs increase. Don't worry about deep discharges and over charging. Ni-Cads are very forgiving. Our reconditioned Ni-Cads are being used for home power, electric vehicles, marine power, electric bicycles, travel trailers and other uses. Call or write us for more info. (See you at SEER)
Beginning in 1964, General Motors engineering staff started a program of building electric vehicles to determine the goals for research and development of the electric drive system, such as the motor, its controls, and the power source. One of the electrical power sources used for evaluation was the fuel cell because it was not limited in range as batteries were, and because it was not limited by the heat engine efficiency and, therefore, had the potential for higher fuel economy (Marks et al., 1967). An alkaline fuel cell system was used which had hydrogen and oxygen as reactants. In the 1980s, fuel cells were again considered as a power source for transportation vehicles. At this point, however, with the fuel selection constrained to methanol or gasoline, the phosphoric acid fuel cell system was the most advanced and the most likely to be suitable, except for its operating temperature. The solid polymer fuel cell was seen as having the best characteristics, but it was still in the...
Raser Technologies manufactures high-performance electric motor and controller technology for electric vehicles. This is what originally got us interested in this company, and ultimately one of the reasons we recommended it as an alternative transportation play. However, in January 2007, we got word that the company had decided to get into the geothermal game. A few days later, a press release appeared announcing that Raser Technologies had secured geothermal rights to a few properties in Nevada. A few months later, more properties were announced. Then a few weeks later, another property was announced. It became a trend. In fact, from late March through October 2007, Raser announced all of the following
We have assumed that PV's end-use sector is electric power. But in the future, PV electricity could also be used in electric vehicles or to make fuels, such as hydrogen for vehicular use. We have not assumed any contribution from these more speculative applications. However, they could be of great significance-even outweighing the impact of grid-connected PV electricity during the next 40 years. PV is not resource limited relative to these markets in any region. The required land area for all capacity needs in 2030 is about 60,000 km2, approximately 1 of U.S. land area. Therefore, PV could meet 100 of the market needs as an ultimate theoretical potential. Referring to peaking needs only, they are estimated to be 15 of these capacity needs for the Northeast and North Central areas, and 8 in the South and West. Electricity for peak power is expected to be the major market for PV during the next 5 to 15 years.
The PMSM is fed by the voltage source inverter (VSI), which is powered by the grid through an AC DC converter. For the hybrid electric case, the VSI is fed by a DC source, such as batteries. The VSI is controlled by a digital signal processor (DSP). A combination of a fast DSP and a modern VSI can control the voltage in the three phases of the PMSM very accurately. Note also the feedback devices, which consist of current measuring devices and rotor position detection. The rotor position detection usually consists of Hall sensors or a resolver. The term sensorless control usually implies that the rotor position and or rotor speed is not measured but estimated from the currents fed to the machine. Using vector control, various parameters can be controlled, for example rotor speed, angular position and torque on the shaft. The torque on the shaft is controller in hybrid electric vehicle applications.
I To encourage the use of less gasoline and diesel for transport, a walkable community is being planned, with adequate pedestrian links making most of the main facilities easily accessible. Car-share programmes and recharging stations for electric vehicles are being developed.
First, the CHP stations should be operated in such way that they produce less when the RES input is high and more when the RES input is low. Such measures have already partly been implemented in Denmark. However, along with increasing the share of wind power, the measure will lead to an inefficient use of boilers instead of CHP. Such consequences have been seen in recent years in Denmark. Therefore, the next step is to add heat pumps and maybe additional heat storage capacity to the CHP stations and operate the system in such way that further RES can be efficiently integrated. Such measures will result in an integration of up to 40 percent of fluctuating RES into the electricity supply without losing the overall system efficiency. The economic feasibility of the investments in heat pumps proves very high for Danish society. Moreover, the investment in wind power is substantially improved. Third, electricity should be used in the transportation sector, preferably in electric vehicles....
The second study went a step further, especially with regard to energy conservation and the design of a coherent transportation solution. The study suggested the implementation of energy conservation measures at a high level, and, as a consequence, energy demands decreased compared to the first study. On the other hand, the transportation technologies applied in the second study were much more differentiated and included the combination of electric vehicles as well as biofuel technologies, which increased the energy demand compared to the first study.
Obama and Vice President Biden have already developed a plan to invest in alternative and renewable energy, reduce demand for foreign oil, address climate change and create millions of new jobs. The Obama-Biden 'New Energy for America plan' aims to help create five million new jobs by strategically investing US 150 billion over the next decade, ensure 10 of US electricity comes from renewable sources by 2012, and 25 by 2025 and implement an economy-wide cap-and-trade scheme to reduce greenhouse gas emissions 80 by 2050. Other aspects of the programme include putting 1 million Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) on the road by 2015, eliminating current imports from the Middle East and Venezuela within 10 years and make the US a global leader on climate change issues.
Provide credit for MFCVs in regulatory policies encouraging the use of electric vehicles. The State of California requires that 10 percent of the vehicles sold in Model Year 2003 must be zero emission vehicles (ZEVs). MFCVs qualify for the highest level of partial ZEV credits. Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) vehicles fully qualify as ZEVs. METHANOL (CH3OH) a convenient liquid fuel made from natural gas or renewable resources is a leading candidate to provide the hydrogen necessary to power fuel cell vehicles, the next generation of automotive technology. The commercialization of methanol-powered fuel cells will offer practical, affordable, long-range electric vehicles with zero or near-zero emissions while retaining the convenience of an economical liquid fuel. By 2004 or sooner, fuel cells operating on methanol will power a variety of vehicles in the United States and worldwide.
Regulations imposed by a municipality on its planning (Linz), housing density, zoning, public transport and infrastructure can encourage the local generation and deployment of renewable energy including through distributed energy systems (New York) and electric vehicle use (Yokohama, Adelaide). Other factors to be considered include impacts on local air pollution and health (Mexico City, Ottawa), as well as on vehicle congestion (London) and travel time reductions. The concept of permitting an increased percentage of total land area for a building on a given plot of land if the building integrates a specified amount of renewable energy generation could also be a consideration.
The X-Wing was my first attempt at a high speed experimental solar vehicle. This PV powered speedster has been driven at We need a vehicle sized in between the bicycle and the car. The solar assisted electric vehicle is the perfect solution with many added benefits. Virtually all the frame members in these electric vehicles are aluminum box beam. More complex parts such as front ends and rear axle swing arms are MIG welded steel assemblies which bolt up to the box beam hole pattern. Many vehicle frames can now be assembled in minutes instead of days or weeks of cutting and welding. ELECTRIC VEHICLE KITS & COMPONENTS Electric Vehicle Parts Electric Vehicle Parts SEND 20 for the 1990 Suntools' Electric Vehicle transmissions. All the hard-to-find electric vehicle components are in this book along with years of valuable hands-on information.
Example 9.4 Fair lsle multimode wind power system Fair Isle is an isolated Scottish island in the North Sea between mainland Shetland and Orkney. The population of 70 is well established and progressive within the limits of the harsh yet beautiful environment. Previously the people depended on coal and oil for heat, petroleum for vehicles, and diesel for electricity generation. The electricity co-operative installed first a 50 kW rated-capacity wind turbine that operates in the persistent winds, of average speed 8-9ms-1. The control system was mentioned in Chapter 1, see Figure 1.6. Lighting and power outlets receive electricity metered at larger price, and a reduced price controlled-supply is available (wind permitting) for hard-wired comfort heat and water heating, see Section 1.5.4. At the frequent periods of excessive wind power, further heat is available, e.g. for growing food in a glasshouse or for a small swimming pool. An electric vehicle was charged from the system to include...
However, this does not only apply to emerging markets. We might consider, for instance, how rapidly the automobile would have diffused throughout industrialized countries without the ability to acquire a loan or a lease on the vehicle. Certainly, it is the loan and the lease that will facilitate the uptake of innovations such as the hybrid electric vehicle, which has relatively high up-front costs but much lower running costs due to its lower consumption of fuel. price of a green machine', and it put forward the idea that the very essence of green innovations is that they tend to cost more up-front. Solar is a good example of this, as is the hybrid electric vehicle or electric wind turbine. The point is that when buying such resource-conserving innovations, the vast majority of the costs are paid at the point of purchase, with comparatively less during operation. This makes the availability of customer credit that much more important for green innovations, and doubly so when they are...
This special issue of Chemical Reviews covers the electrochemical storage and generation of energy in batteries and fuel cells. This area is gaining tremendous importance for powering high technology devices and for enabling a greener and less energy-intensive transportation industry. Whether the demand is from a cell phone, a computer, or an iPOD, consumers are demanding a longer life in a smaller package and at a lower cost with minimal if any wired connection. The consumer generally does not care whether the power source is a battery, a fuel cell, or something else, as long as it works. In the area of greener transportation, there has been a surge of interest in vehicles that are electrically powered, either totally, as planned for the green Beijing Olympic Games, or partially, as in hybrid electric vehicles. The present generation of such vehicles uses a combination of an internal combustion engine and a battery, today nickel metal hydride, as in the Toyota Prius, and tomorrow...
If the sun is shining or the wind blowing and your batteries are fully charged, I maintain that YOU are wasting energy because you are not using it. So I purpose using all that wasted energy to have some fun. Race your electric car. Light up the outside of your house. Pump water through your fountain. Impress your friends with the luxury and sanity of renewable energy. Have some fun, you deserve it.
The gas can be used as such (compressed or liquefied as discussed in Chapter 11) or in the form of a hydrogen carrier such as methanol (Chapter 10) or a metallic hydride (Chapter 11). Hydrogen carriers can be derived from fossil fuels (Chapter 10) or from biomass (Chapter 13). Fuel cell cars may need energy storage devices (batteries, flywheels, or ultra-capacitors) to provide start-up power and to accumulate the energy recovered from dynamic braking. This stored energy can be used to supplement the fuel cell during fast accelerations. Hence, the needed fuel-cell power might be closer to the average power required by the vehicle than to the peak power. This would cut down the size and cost of the cell stack. Under all circumstances, the total electrically stored energy would be only a small fraction of that of a purely electric car.
Daimler-Benz demonstrated the NECar (New Electric Car) in 1994, using solid polymer fuel cells developed by Ballard Power Systems (Prater, 1994). The vehicle was a Mercedes-Benz transporter van (MB180), with the cargo section containing 12 stacks of the Mk5 design (50 kW gross power) and holding the compressed hydrogen gas cylinders.
Hellsing, Design and Optimization of a Permanent Magnet Motor for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle, Lic. thesis, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden, 1998. 24 J. Malan and M. J. Kamper, Performance of a hybrid electric vehicle using reluctance synchronous machine technology, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 1319-1324, Sept. Oct. 2001. 32 V. Wouk, Hybrid electric vehicles, Scientific American, no. 10, Oct. 1997. 33 F. A. Wyczalek, Hybrid electric vehicles year 2000, Proceedings of the Energy Conversion Engineering Conference and Exhibit (IECEC) 35th Intersociety, vol. 1, pp. 349-355, July 24-28, 2000.
No, electric cars cannot fill everyone's needs all the time. But there are a huge number of vehicles on the road that could be pure electric, without cramping the owner's style in the least. If we only replaced those cars with electrics, it would make an enormous difference in our air quality and our petroleum dependence. By the way, since you are in Canada, I hope you will contact the Vancouver Electric Vehicle Association listed in the Access section of my article in this issue. Even if you live on the other side of the country, they can supply useful information, and may be able to put you in touch with an EV club near you. Shari Prange electro cruzio. com Keep your vehicle in top shape. Drive only when necessary. Drive slowly. Keep your tires pumped up. Use an electric vehicle. Demand automakers produce emission-free vehicles. Then buy one and smile as you drive it. Green certainly, but this is no dream. Look at the articles in this issue alone. These are people who are living the...
This technology is very promising since either in a vehicle or in a stationary unit the gas generator can be run by a battery which is charged by alternative energy methods. It is obvious that it can also be charged by the device it supplies, such as an engine generator unit or a hydrogen fuel cell. This technology also provides a viable alternative to an all-electric vehicle since it takes much less stored battery energy to produce the hydrogen fuel from
While Toyota remains fuel neutral, the company has showcased a prototype MFCV based on the popular RAV4 SUV, with a range of 500 kilometers (310 miles). Toyotas fuel cell RAV4 employs a 25-kW fuel cell that works in conjunction with a downsized electric vehicle battery pack. The batteries are constantly recharged from the fuel cell. Regenerative braking provides additional electric power to charge the batteries. Toyota s design draws extra power from the batteries to supplement the fuel cell during acceleration. The batteries also enhance the vehicle by providing instant power, avoiding the short warm-up that prototype fuel cell reformers require to reach maximum power output. Due to its high fuel economy, Toyota believes that once in production, the fuel cost to the consumer will be half that of conventional gasoline vehicles, and it is likely this estimated cost will decline even further with improved design and manufacturing experience.
Goodyear pioneered tires designed specifically for electric cars by working with General Motors on the Impact. Their research also produced the low rolling resistance Invicta GAL and Invicta GLR tires. Firestone, Bridgestone, Goodrich, and Michelin have also produced low rolling resistance tires. The electric car is an entire system including many different parts. No portion of the system should be ignored. Even though tires have nothing to do with the drive system of the car, they can have a significant effect on its performance.
Electric Car Batteries The battery pack is one of the electric car's biggest components, in many senses of the word big . It is the bulkiest and heaviest component. It is one of the most expensive. And it is one of the most important to performance. Higher battery voltage gives the resulting EV a higher top-end speed. However, you can't simply add as many batteries as you want. Each one is the size of a toaster and weighs close to 70 pounds (32 kilograms). Both space and weight are limited and carefully planned for in a successful electric vehicle. Most electric cars now have a 96 Volt system, which means sixteen 6 Volt batteries. This seems to be an optimum weight power balance. A typical steel-bodied conversion will have a range of 60 to 80 miles (96 to 129 kilometers) in average commute conditions mostly flat roads, some freeway time, some stop-and-go in-
Dear Sirs, This is a recap of a letter I already sent to Windpower Monthly magazine. In the Techwatch section of the June 2000 issue of Popular Mechanics, they have an article entitled Wind Recharger for EVs, which is about the Automotive Rotor Blade System developed by the Genesis Engineering Group of Hemet, California (maybe that company folded, I cannot find it anywhere). This is a horizontal windmill that is installed atop electric cars and vans, and automatically adjusts its blades to accommodate wind from diverse directions to power a generator that recharges the vehicle's batteries.
Book Reviews, cookbook, solar cooking, 37-109 Book Reviews, electric vehicles, Bob Brant's Build Your Own Electric Vehicle , 41-54 Book Reviews, electric vehicles, Convert It by Mike Editorial, electric vehicles, introduction of education sources, 30-72 Education, electric vehicles, building a high school Electric vehicles, building a solar vehicle, 14-30 Electric vehicles, education, Jordan Energy Institute, 21-32 Electric vehicles, EV crash tests, 40-50 Electric vehicles, EVs in Europe & renting an EV in Geneva, 38-64 Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, 8-5 Electric vehicles, hybrid solar electric natural gas prototype, 31-108 Electric vehicles, parts, access data, 19-54 Electric vehicles, performance testing 1992 American Tour de Sol, 34-62 Electric vehicles, reasons for owning, 18-11 Electric vehicles, batteries, EV fueling techniques, 36-57 Electric vehicles, boat, solar powered, 26-30 Electric vehicles, boats, powering boats with electricity, 37-70 Electric vehicles,...
Such cells have a very good energy density. Zinc air batteries are very widely used in applications that require long running times at low currents, such as hearing aids. Several companies are also developing higher power units for applications such as electric vehicles. This is because they can also be 'refuelled' by adding more metal to the anode - which is why they are sometimes called fuel cells. The fact that the cathode reaction is exactly the same as for a fuel cell, and that the same electrodes can be used, is another reason. However, the electrolyte also has to be renewed to remove the metal oxide. Thus, they consume both the anode and the electrolyte, and cannot really be described as fuel cells. They are mechanically rechargeable primary batteries.
Electricity is a high quality form of energy, and therefore great effort is made to find cheap and efficient means for storing it. A device that has electricity both as input and output is called an (electrical) accumulator or (electrical) storage battery. Batteries are an essential component of most autonomous power systems (especially with photovoltaic and small wind turbine generation), of standby and emergency power systems, and of electric vehicles. There is also a research expectation that solar energy could be stored directly in commercial photochemical cells (Section 10.7.3).
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) can serve as a transitional technology to the all-electric cars of the future, by supplanting some of their liquid fuel needs with grid electricity. Even better, electric trains offer a huge opportunity to offset an enormous portion of our fuel demand.
Music and dancing is scheduled for Friday and Saturday night with Greg Brown, a contemporary folk musician, opening the show on Friday night. Tom Pease will be staging a children's concert during the day Saturday. Plans for an alternative vehicle rally have been modified to an exposition. There will be a showcase of not only solar electric, but also super high mileage and electric vehicles. A Solar Cook-Off is scheduled on Saturday . Booths are being reserved by businesses and schools representing PV, windpower, controllers, batteries, solar vehicles, and electric cars.
Do you have ideas or examples of how we can live without fossil fuel that you would like to share with other people I am making a video program about fossil-free living and am looking for people who would like to participate, either through being interviewed or by showing me their solar home, gridless electrical system, electric vehicle, etc. With regard to the OOZIE backwoods electric vehicle project We are surprised to hear how many of you share the same concept. Don Harris is into the wheel motors and will be making the prototypes on is hydro-powered lathes. We are starting a design newsletter around the project (as if we didn't do enough publishing) and will circulate it to all interested. Our design objective is a low speed, four-wheel drive solar electric buckboard. 30 mph tops with a 50 mile range. Payload around 1,000 pounds with rough terrain capability. If you want in on OOZIE, write Home Power and say you want to get the OOZIE Design Newsletter.
Electric vehicles, maybe even driven one. Now it gets personal. How can you put an EV into your garage Yes, you can get a ready-to-drive electric car with full factory support. Every major manufacturer has at least one electric vehicle in the lineup. There are, however, a few restrictions which may put some of these cars out of the running for you. Other vehicles, like the Ford Ranger or GM S10 pickup, are only available to fleets. And most of the electric vehicles offered are not available for sale, but only for lease. The lease payments can be several hundred dollars a month. On the other hand, this does include a full warranty (even the battery pack) and may also include insurance. The next easiest option is buying a used electric car. Fleets turn over their rolling stock every few years, and these vehicles are available at auction to any buyer. Also, private EVs get sold for the same reasons used gas cars get sold the owner had a baby and needed a back seat, got issued a company...
Electric Vehicle Chargers One of the most critical components for good electric vehicle performance doesn't even function while the car is being driven the charger. It is also the component most likely to stimulate debate about appropriate specifications. While there is no consensus on the right answers, I can at least help you to ask the right questions, and evaluate the choices yourself. No single charger combines the best of all features. Which combination you consider the best will depend on how important each feature is to you. The important points can be boiled down to the few basic qualities effectiveness, safety, reliability, and convenience. The charge you get out of your electric car will only be as good as the charge you put into it.
Ever since watching the movie Who Killed the Electric Car , I have seen a trend. Concerning electric-only motor vehicles of all types, I have found restrictions on use and the lack of availability in the United States evolving into a clear pattern, including in recent Home Power articles on electric cars (HP117) and electric bikes (HP118), and elsewhere. In The New York Times, NYC's new restrictions on pedicabs are bad enough, but to specify bans on electric assist pedicabs was over the top. It seems the advantages of electric vehicles, specifically electric-only, as an option will be restricted in the United States. Electric-only vehicles are extremely cheap to run and maintain and a threat to the status quo of centralization.
The time is right for the American Tour de Sol, an exciting 5 day solar electric car race, which will run from Montpelier Vermont to Boston, Massachusetts May 23-27, 1990. Conventional gasoline and diesel vehicles burn 68 of all the oil used in this country, and contribute 30 of the air pollutants such as hydrocarbons, nitrous oxides and carbon dioxide, which cause environmental problems such as the greenhouse effect, acid rain and smog. Solar electric vehicles are completely non-polluting state the organizers of the race, the Northeast Solar Energy Association. No exhaust, no greenhouse effect, no smog. How a solar car works First and foremost the car must be a very efficient electric car, with an electric motor and batteries to store the fuel, electricity. In the case of the solar car batteries are recharged by photovoltaic panels which convert sunlight into electricity. The panels can be located either on the car, or at home or work. Battery capacity and cost are the limiting...
One approach to increasing automotive efficiency is the hybrid electric vehicle. These vehicles are powered by both an engine and an electric motor, and include a battery pack large enough to continue providing power to the electric motor under most normal driving conditions. The electricity needed to maintain the charge of the batteries is generated by the engine, so unlike elec- DaimlerChrysler and Toyota are among automakers developing hybrid electric vehicles. DaimlerChrysler and Toyota are among automakers developing hybrid electric vehicles. tric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles do not need to be plugged in. The year 2000 marked a turning point for hybrid electric vehicles in the United States, with the first sale of hybrid electric cars by Honda. The Honda Insight, initially released as a two-seat vehicle, combines a three-cylinder gasoline engine with an electric motor that provides an extra boost while accelerating and climbing hills. The Insight achieves a remarkable 70...
'95 Jade Mountain Denver Electric Vehicle Council Electrathon Challenge Schedule Electrathon Challenge '95 events will be held the third Sunday of the month. Vehicle inspection will begin at noon with competition starting at 1 00 pm. The future is electric Join the fun at the next Electrathon. June 25th, 12 00-3 00, 33rd and Arapahoe, Boulder, CO. July 23rd, 12 00-3 00 6th Ave and RD93, Golden, CO. All event locations are tentative. August 27th and September 24th locations to be announced. For more information call Bill Williams 303-449-6601 or write DEVC, 2940 13th St, Boulder, CO 80304 1995 Sun Sprint of the Rockies is an electric, hybrid and solar electric vehicle race. For its inaugural year, the race will be run from Aspen, CO to Moab, UT crossing some of the world's most beautiful scenery during the days of July 11-21, 1995. All contestants must be present on July 10, for the pre-event technical testing in Aspen. On the morning of the 11th we will begin the 550 mile road trek to...
A little electric car for kids. Then the car stops, its roof no higher than your knees. The canopy opens, and a six-foot-tall man steps out, like some kind of stage magic trick. You've just encountered your first Electrathon racer. In 1978, EV enthusiasts in Great Britain formed the United Kingdom Electric Vehicle Association (UKEVA), and decided to hold an EV competition, with the assistance of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers. The vehicles they built would compete in an electric marathon an electrathon. This competition was the Lucas Electric Vehicle Endurance Run. All vehicles were supplied with identical 25 kg packs of Lucas batteries, and the race was on. In 1979, John Stevens, president of the Australian Electric Vehicle Association (AEVA), saw the Lucas competition in the UK, and decided to start a similar event back home. The first Australian race ran in 1980 in a shopping centre carpark (shopping center parking lot), with a course laid...
With every trip to the pump, converting your gas-guzzling car into an electric vehicle (EV) may sound better and better. The benefits seem obvious freedom from rising fuel prices, the satisfaction of a do-it-yourself project, and best of all, a clean, quiet ride. But before you get totally swept away by the idea, there are some realities that you should consider this kind of project is not for everyone.
ELECTRIC VEHICLE KITS & COMPONENTS SEND 20 for the 1990 Suntools' Electric Vehicle Catalog &Sourcebook. Everthing from high and low speed front ends to four speed transmissions. All the hard-to-find electric vehicle components are in this book along with years of valuable hands-on information.
SEI 2007 workshops. Oct. 6 Intro to RE Oct. 8-13 Solar-Electric Design & Installation Oct. 15-17 Grid-Tied Solar Electricity Oct. 19-20 Successful Solar Businesses Oct. 22-24 Solar Hot Water Nov. 5-10 Electric Vehicle Conversion. Info See SEI in Colorado listing. Local coordinator Ian Woofenden 360-293-5863 ian.woofenden homepower.com
Arcata, California will host Humboldt County's Third Annual Renewable Energy Fair, at Arcata High School on April 23, 1994. This Fair will display renewable energy and energy efficiency small-scale hydro power, solar power (solar electric, solar cooking, water heating, and active and passive home heating), energy efficient lighting and refrigeration, alcohol and hydrogen fuels, electric vehicles, and more. Many workshops will be held on a variety of topics related to renewable energy. Music and guest speakers will be interspersed throughout the day using a solar powered sound system. Richard Perez will be a keynote speaker, along with Dennis Weaver (invited). Our fair is will be a family event and will include Earth Games and other organized activities for kids. For information contact Renewable Energy Fair, PO Box 4179, Arcata, CA 95521 707-822-3481. Auditorium Complex in downtown San Jose California. The Northern California Solar Energy Association (NCSEA) sponsored exhibition is an...
SunDay Challenge AE Vehicle Rally on June 14, 1992 sponsored by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) in conjunction with the 21th American Solar Energy Society Annual Conference, from Orlando to Coco Beach, FL. The rally will include electric commuter and solar electric vehicles and other alternative fueled vehicles. For more info contact FSEC.(see below).
A fuel cell converts chemical energy of a fuel into electricity directly, with no intermediate combustion cycle. Since there is no intermediate 'heat to work' conversion, the efficiency of fuel cells is not limited by the second law of thermodynamics, unlike conventional 'fuel heat work electricity' systems. The efficiency of conversion from chemical energy to electricity by a fuel cell may theoretically be 100 . Although not strictly 'storage' devices, fuel cells are treated in this chapter because of their many similarities to batteries, Section 16.5, and their possible use with H2 stores, Section 16.3.2. In a 'hydrogen economy', fuel cells would be expected to be used not only for stationary electricity generation but also for powering electric vehicles. Therefore we shall discuss only fuel cells using H2, although other types exist.
Electric Car Conversions Since 1979 Books Videos Kits Components Catalog Send 6.00 for our catalog, or visit our web site. Convert It We wrote the book on electric car conversions - literally Send 30.00 postage paid for this hands-on how-to conversion manual, written in plain English for the home hobbyist mechanic.
April 21, '01 Columbia Gorge Earth Day, Renewable Energy Fair, Earth Day Run downtown, Hood River electric cars, electric bikes, hybrid cars, & other enviro info Columbia Gorge Earth Network, PO Box 276, Hood River, OR 97031 earthnetwork gorge.net www.gorge-earth-network.org
Between a Willits police car and an amped up electric car Although Bill had never been in an electric car, he was one hundred percent supportive and enthusiastic from the start. He had ideas for suspension modifications and suggested that we get the vehicle to his shop for work and testing.
I did some research, and learned that my utility, Pacific Gas & Electric, was obligated to offer net metering (E-NET, the PG&E tariff schedule that deals with net metering). Now, that was interesting. As the owner of an electric car, I'm on the E-9 tariff schedule. This is a three-tier time-of-use (TOU) rate. The two lower priced tiers are offered in the winter, and the third, highest priced tier is for the summer months during the afternoon. A system like mine shows that PV power is no longer just for tree huggers and those who live far from the grid. If this system did not promise to be reliable and cost effective, I would not have installed it. Getting the E-NET and TOU helps to make the payoff even more attractive, but the economics are there even without it. If you don't have an electric vehicle to qualify you for the E-9 rate, you can get E-7. Right now, the cheapest E-7 rate is US 0.085.
The previous work on off-board battery chargers for electric vehicles, also part of the research work, is reported in P. Karlsson, M. Bojrup, M. Alak la and L. Gertmar, Efficiency of Off-Board, High Power, Electric Vehicle Battery Chargers with Active Power Line Conditioning Capabilities , European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, EPE '97 Conf. Rec., Trondheim, Norway, Sept. 8-10, 1997, vol. 4, pp. 4688-4692. M. Bojrup, P. Karlsson, B. Simonsson and M. Alak la, A Dual Purpose Battery Charger for Electric Vehicles , IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, PESC '98 Conf. Rec., Fukuoka, Japan, May 17-22, 1998, vol. 1, pp. 565-570.
Beginning in 1998, it's expected that 40,000 electric vehicles per year will be registered in California alone. Even if someone is patient enough to wait, the selection available to consumers may be poor. Major auto makers will steer clear of affordable commuting vehicles lest they compete with internal combustion engine vehicles. Fleets are the most likely recipients for vehicles that would fall into this category. Fortunately, there are alternatives in two general categories conversion and purpose-built EVs. The conversion of a standard automobile to electric propulsion is the most common way to obtain an EV today. Converted vehicles are available from or performed by a number of companies like Solectria, Solar Car Corporation, ElectroAutomotive, Burkhardt Turbines, KTA Services, MendoMotive, Electric Vehicles of America and others. Kits and components are also available for the DIY (Do It Yourself) crowd. Conversion manuals make it easier to understand what's involved. Do your own...
ELECTRIC CARS AND BICYCLES, electric car parts for the builder, solar electric tricycles. Send S.A.S.E. for info or call 707-961-0459, 1258 N. Main St., unit B2B, Fort Bragg, CA. 95437 CONSIGNMENT LIQUIDATION All sorts of PV equipment, below dealer cost. M65s, 4x4 cells, 2K & 5K inverters, Sunlites, Patiolites, Batteries, 10K Generator, Electric Car, more most new, some demo. Send 1 and SASE for description and prices. To view items, send VHS tape and 3, or just 7 (we'll send a VHS tape) to Mark Gilbert, Box 424, Colwich, KS 67030
If the voltage on a battery under load actually increases, it is reasonable to assume that the battery is receiving more power than that delivered to the load (a load is a motor, a pump, a fan, lights, or any other electrical equipment). As this is so, and the circuit is not connected to any visible outside source of energy, it will be realised that there has to be an outside source of energy which is not visible. If the circuit is provided with powerful enough components, it is perfectly capable of powering an electric car at high speeds, as has been demonstrated by Ronald Brandt. This indicates that the invisible source of outside energy is capable of supplying serious amounts of additional power. It should also be remembered that a lead-acid battery
Jordan folks not only attended the Fair, they also brought their solar car, the Sunseeker, with them. Jordan continues with their fine renewable energy and electric vehicle programs. I spent some time crawling around their solar car and was amazed at the level of technology displayed there. By the time Detroit gets their EV act together, the Jordan crew will be flying around in PV-powered heliocopters.
The new battery's energy density (output per unit of weight) is 35 percent better than the previous world record for a battery. To maintain a constant charge, the battery is discharged or receives charging energy from the generator and the motor, so it does not require external charging, as do electric vehicles.
November 11,1990 - 2nd annual SOLAR ELECTRIC VEHICLE SYMPOSIUM, sponsored by the American Tour de Sol of the Northeast Sustainable Energy Assoc., Manchester, NH Contact NESEA 413-774-6051 May 21-25, 1991 - 3rd annual AMERICAN TOUR de SOL, The solar & electric vehicle championship, sponsored by NESEA, Albany, NY to Boston, MA. Contact NESEA 413-774-6051
9 00 Fair opens to public-exhibit booths, displays, demo house, food booths, electric and solar vehicles, and children's activities. 10 30 to 6 30, on going one hour workshops 9 00 Fair opens to public-exhibit booths, displays, demo house, food booths, electric and solar vehicles, and children's activities. 9 30 to 6 00, on going one hour workshops 6 30 Speaker 10 00 Fair opens to public-exhibit booths, displays, demo house, food booths, electric and solar vehicles, and children's activities. 10 30 to 5 30, on going one hour workshops 6 00 Fair closes Left One of the electric vehicles at last year's Midwest Renewable Energy Fair. During the 1990 MREF, thousands of people visited, learned, and enjoyed each other's company. This year's fair promises to be bigger and better than ever A New Generation of Wood Stoves Gerard Hemmes, Vermont Castings, Grand Rapids, MI Recycling and Repowering a Conventional Car into an Electric Vehicle Ray Oviyach, Fox Valley Electric Auto Assoc., Oak Park,...
Electric Cars Human Powered Vehicles System Design Alcohol Fuel Solar Hot Water Energy Efficient Agriculture Appropriate Home Efficiency International Development A few months later, six of these students got to drive different Electrathon vehicles at a builders' workshop hosted by Gene Karas at Analy High School. When we got back to our own class (I teach Auto Mechanics and Computer Applications), their excitement was contagious. In early 1992, we formed our club, the Willits High School Electric Car Club (WHSECC), to build an Electrathon race vehicle. Electrathon vehicles and events are growing fast. There are dozens of Electrathon events annually along the west coast, from San Diego to Seattle, including the Phoenix races, the International Electric Grand Prix in Los Angeles, and at SEER. High schools and colleges alike are catching on, building Electrathon class racers as a kind of rolling textbook on the basics of electric vehicle design. Join the fun Maybe I'll see you at a race...
Born from its traditions of autosports and a beautiful environment, the first Monte-Carlo Rendezvous of Electric Vehicles will occur October 19-22. The Salon portion will bring together manufacturers, distributors, dealers and servicers of EVs with press, schools, municipalities, etc. The Rallye portion will feature sports entertainment personalities and leading EV drivers for a media-filled event of the latest technologies. To participate, drive or exhibit, contact Sylvie Boutinot, Editions & Promotions Internationales, 11, Boulevard Albert-I-ER , Phone 92-16-03-76, Fax 93-15-03-13
Electric Vehicles Electric Vehicles For solar vehicles to operate completely independently, a large area of highly efficient photovoltaic (PV) panels is required for example, 8 square meters (26 ft2) of 20 percent efficiency solar-electric panels. This is an expensive application that can cost at least US 40,000 per vehicle. Even with all that PV, at best the system only peaks at 2 or 3 kilowatts, and achieving high speeds with so little power requires a specially designed vehicle, like a sunracer. Last year, out of the twelve electric vehicles entered in the race, only three were sunracers. The other nine were electric scooters and bicycles, some homebrew vehicles, and even some conventional cars that had been converted to electric vehicles. These vehicles use electricity to recharge their batteries it cannot be provided by onboard solar-electric panels, since they don't carry any. A car's rooftop lacks the space to accommodate the large number of PV panels that would be required to...
However, there is a light at the end of the tunnel. Manufacturers are gradually taking strides in promoting EVs outside the Kathmandu valley. Green Electric Vehicle (Pvt.) Limited has begun operation of safa tempos in the Lumbini area, the birthplace of the Lord Gautam Buddha, where diesel tempos are also banned. In Biratnagar, a city in eastern Nepal, one safa tempo has already been used to carry solid wastes for the municipality. Manufacturers are trying to introduce safa tempos for public transport there as well. Author Anil Baral, Coordinator, Electric Vehicle Advocacy Project, Martin Chautari, Thapathali, Kathmandu, Nepal 977-01-246065 Fax 977-01-240059 b120 rocketmail.com Green Electric Vehicle (Pvt.) Limited, Pulchowk, Lalitpur, Nepal 977-01-532419 Fax 977-01-534789 grev wlink.com.np Nepal Electric Vehicle Industry (Pvt.) Ltd, PO Box 8975, EPC 5154, Lazimpat, Kathmandu, Nepal 977-1-436000 Fax 977-1-427111 pandey mos.com.np Electric Vehicle Company, Bhatbhateni, Kathmandu, Nepal...
Electric Cars in Switzerland Electric car rentals are apparently possible in Zurich as well. Box Mobil's address can be found listed with others at the end of this article. Fiat Pandas or Panda look-alikes dominate other Swiss electric car programs. LARAG, a Mercedes and IVECO truck agency in Wil, has built and sold about 150 such cars over a period of two years, the most recent more than a year ago. In 1990 they determined that their selling price had to be about 35,000 Swiss francs (about 20,000 US). They concluded that they couldn't sell enough at that price. LARAG is no company-come-lately in the electric vehicle business. They have had a number of winning entries in European electric car races, and they built 12 electric buses and trucks for the 1992 Olympics in Barcelona. They have also tested sodium-sulfur batteries, which require insulation to keep them hot at all times. They still use lead-acid batteries for most of their cars. Bruno Jager of LARAG noted that although their...
Roger Billings' hydrogen-powered automobile. Of the myriad electric vehicles at SEER '91, Billings' EV was unique. This auto stores hydrogen as metal hydrides and retrieves the energy through a fuel cell to power this electric vehicle. This machine was
The setting The energy supply of some urban communities in the future could have a far higher dependence on renewable energy than today, even reaching 100 in some cases. It would necessitate the greater use of many technologies, distributed and decentralised energy, embedded energy storage, demand side management, electric vehicles and modern communication technologies (Fig. 3). It could also include importing green electricity and biofuels. The role of local governments to help achieve this transition will be significant.
MINNESOTA SUNFEST 93, A three day renewable energy exposition will be held June 25-27 1993. Events include the finale of the SunRayce 93, featuring 36 solar vehicles designed by college students from across the US, Solar Boat Regatta at Lake Nokomis, Student Science Contest, Kids Programs, a non-polluting commuter vehicle demo, solar powered hot water exhibit, entertainment featuring strolling musicians and a live radio show, solar workshops and a variety of exhibitors featuring commercial solar products, ecological exhibits, and food booths. Most of the activities will be held at the Minnesota Zoo. For more info contact Stephen Dess, PO Box 36, Crosby, MN 56441 218-546-5369
In the early competition between steam, internal combustion, and electric automobiles, the electric suffered (as do modern electric cars) from a limited range. These cars had a large fraction of their weight in lead-acid batteries. Thomas Edison, (1847-1931), using his usual empirical approach, tested many materials in search of elements for a battery that would outperform the ones currently being used. He finally settled on an iron-nickel oxide combination which had a moderate success, being quite robust in terms of resistance to overcharge and to prolonged times of idleness.
Tucson Solar Potluck and Exhibition, 16th Annual, May 9 at Catalina State Park. Join 1,000 people for a day in the sun with lots of solar cooked food. See exhibits of PV, cool towers, water pumping, electric cars, and more. Free fair, but the park has a 4 per car fee. Camping available. Info Toby Schneider, 520-292-9020 Citizens for Solar, PO Box 36744, Tucson, AZ 85740 The Southwest Energy Fair, September 19-20, 1998, Flagstaff Arizona will offer technical, general public, and children's workshops as well as project, debate, and essay contests for students. An electric car race and EPCOT center solar exhibit. Commercial booths will be available and we are looking for individuals and companies to give demonstrations, hold workshops, or have ideas to contribute. On-site camping will be available as well as numerous free recreational opportunities for vendors. For more information call the Greater Flagstaff Economic Council at 1-800-595-7698 email gfec primnet.com
My wife and I make 150 of our household electricity with sunshine, we heat 99.95 of our water with a solar thermal system, we drive fuel-efficient cars and buy green tags to offset our car and air travel, and we buy local food. We plan to install a solar air collector to supplement a high-efficiency wood heater, and to buy an all-electric car fueled by our solar-electric system. Yet even after all of that individual effort, I feel that we are not close to living a sustainable lifestyle.
The use of to many magnets to close together will result in creating a more powerful resistance, using the least amount of magnets per array is best, make sure each array is far from the other or it will create problems. For more horse power you can make the rotor longer and apply more arrays just as long as they are not to close to each other to cancel each other out. if you buy very strong and larger ceramic magnets you will get more horse power also. This Motor can be made up to 15 Hp and we believe beyond that if you have the money. a small inexpensive 10 hp motor can be designed to fit into a electric car to a 2 60 amp alternators to keep up the battery's to run the electric motor to run the car. a 1 to 2 hp motor can run your home
On January 1, a set of federal energy efficiency tax credits went into effect, making it easier for American families and businesses to reduce energy costs at home, at work, and on the road. These credits are designed to improve our nation's energy efficiency, while helping you offset the costs of purchasing and installing energy efficient appliances, renewable energy systems, and fuel-efficient vehicles, such as hybrid electric cars and trucks.
For a free 16-page brochure, write to Omni-HPV, Box 96, Albion, CA 95410 or fax your address to 707-937-0603. The first 400 respondents also receive My Mom Drives An Electric Car, a 20-page book that introduces the young people in your life to battery-powered transportation.
Cocconi left the joint GM-Aerovironment project because he felt that GM was going to sit on the technology. He's put thousands of miles on a next generation ac drive that he has built and installed in a Honda CRX. With a tiny generator pod in tow, he drove his electric non-stop from Los Angeles to the Phoenix electric car races earlier this year. He has systems for sale. been driving nothing but an electric car for the past 18 months. It's content to sip power from a wall socket. The conversation wasn't over. I was told it will cost more to buy an electric car. And operate it, too. How much more operating cost over a gas car , I asked. 1,000 per year average, came the reply. That's funny. My experience has been just the opposite. Some EV owners have been documenting their use and costs over very long time periods. Why Wait For Detroit (Steve McCrea, editor) has printed this information. Can this data be ignored When it comes to EVs, the U.S. lags behind other countries in design and...
A statewide solar electric car race, ecological exhibits and demonstrations of solar and other forms of alternate energy will be featured at the First Annual Sun-Day, sponsored by the California Solar Energy Industries Assoc. (CALSEIA). SUN-DAY will also be the site of the finish line for the California Clean Air Race, a race of solar electric cars from Sacramento, through Palo Alto, Fresno, San Luis Obispo, to Los Angeles. The 760 mile car race will highlight the development of alternate energy vehicles, and is the first of its kind in California.
First, I will bring to bear a range of theories on innovation diffusion to help us understand and explain the solar phenomenon. The starting point for all of these theories is that an innovation rarely diffuses through a society as quickly as is anticipated, and all of them try to explain this phenomenon. By integrating these theories into one coherent framework, I hope to provide a tool for those interested in the diffusion of other renewable energy and energy-efficient innovations, such as small hydro, solar water heaters, wind turbines, fuel cells, LED lights and electric vehicles. I also hope the framework will be relevant for those interested in green innovation and innovation diffusion more broadly. The book is intended to be of use to those who are studying diffusion from an academic perspective, as well as those who are more proactively trying to expedite the rate at which an innovation spreads.
A good design of smart meter should also be able to control and verify a number of separate circuits, typically those dedicated to large load devices such as air conditioners, refrigeration stores, motor drives, water pumps, electric vehicle charging and water heaters. The energy user can then select the optimum time-of-use based on varying tariffs and thus enable utilities to undertake load demand response actions and compensate customers for doing so. In addition, intelligent thermostats can communicate to allow utilities and or customers to automatically adjust heating cooling systems based on a balance between comfort, cost and power system requirements including peak load shaving.
Of course, it may well be that energy storage appears in the system for other reasons. As discussed by Barrett (see Chapter 9), it may well be that a significant proportion of transport needs will be provided by electric vehicles. Whether these are powered by batteries or fuel cells is immaterial if the energy is supplied by the electricity system. In both cases, substantial energy storage is involved and this can be used to improve the utilization of the renewable resources. In fact, this storage may be essential for stable dynamic operation of the electricity supply system, and this critical issue is not addressed in either Barrett's (see Chapter 9) or Streater's (2002) studies.
In Table 4.3, the hour-by-hour simulation models applied to the regional national level have been grouped according to their optimization and their operation levels. Again, such grouping is not 100 percent accurate for all models. The LEAP model is left out. It is characterized as a simulation model rather than an optimization model because other models optimize the operation of the system. In principle, the two models SIVAEL and Balmorel do not include all sectors, as individual heating and transportation are left out. However, they do comprise the aspect of electricity grid involvement in the case of micro-CHP or electric vehicles.
This issue of Home Power is being printed by a new printer. We decided that it was worth the extra cost for a magazine that was not over-inked, cut crooked, and delivered late. We are learning. Neither Karen nor I have published a magazine before and the learning curve looks like a wall, even after three years of actually doing it. We get by with a little help from our friends (Thanks to all of you ). We are actively researching electric vehicles and will soon be building prototypes. In Karen's words, I want an EV more than I want indoor plumbing So we are starting design and construction of a four wheel drive backwoods solar electric buckboard. Steve Borgatti of Yreka CA will be doing the metal work, I will be doing the overall design & the electrics (leaning heavily on microprocessors) and the Wiz will be writing the computer code that makes it go down the road. Our design criteria is a totally PV powered vehicle, 30 mph tops, 50 mile range, and 800 to 1,000 pound payload. This will...
Mike Brown's Electric Vehicle Components Primer Over 40 cars, powered by the sun, will race from Albany, NY to Boston, MA May 18-23 1992, 4th Annual American Tour de Sol, Solar and Electric Car Championship. There will be ten free educational displays of these innovative non-polluting cars along the route. For information about the display nearest you, please contact NESEA, 23 Ames FSEC is also co-sponsoring a SunDay Challenge AE Vehicle Rally on June 14, 1992 in conjunction with the 21th American Solar Energy Society Annual Conference & Solar 92 in Coco Beach, FL. The rally will include commuter and solar electric vehicles. The Rally will be limited to 40 cars with a limit of 10 cars per each of the four classes. The registration fee is 10 per vehicle. Prizes will be awarded. For more info contact FSEC.
Conversion technologies, such as heat pumps and electric vehicles, may improve the efficiency of the system, and they also entail the possibilities of cost-effective and efficient storage options. On the other hand, pure electricity storage technologies, such as CAES and hydrogen fuel cell systems, only contribute marginally to the integration of fluctuating RES and also have a low feasibility. 3. Electricity should be used in the transportation sector, preferably in electric vehicles. Such measures will serve as an efficient improvement of the integration of fluctuating RES.
I replaced all my light bulbs years ago with energy-saving fluorescents. Still there are many power-hungry appliances in my home, including a pool pump, forced air heater (gas) with a fan motor, refrigerator, freezer, electric range, microwave, computer, fax printer, shop garden tools, and of course the electric vehicle. I also have an electric rototiller, which I use in the spring on weekends. I built it myself from an engineless frontend tiller over twenty years ago.
The National Environmental Trust's Pollution Solutions Tour highlights the latest renewable energy technologies including fuel cells, wind generators, solar power water heaters, PV panels, energy efficient appliances, and alternative fuel vehicles, including the Honda Insight and a variety of light electric vehicles from scooters to electric cargo bikes. The tour will stop in 43 cities in 16 states. Come learn about easy pollution solutions that help stop global warming. 888887-8234 Photos and reports go to the NET Web site (www.hotearth.org) and click on the Pollution Solutions icon. Tour schedule Louisiana March 13, New Orleans March
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