Governance by authority

I Urban planning. Regulations imposed by a municipality on its planning (Linz), housing density, zoning, public transport and infrastructure can encourage the local generation and deployment of renewable energy including through distributed energy systems (New York) and electric vehicle use (Yokohama, Adelaide). Other factors to be considered include impacts on local air pollution and health (Mexico City, Ottawa), as well as on vehicle congestion (London) and travel time reductions. The concept of permitting an increased percentage of total land area for a building on a given plot of land if the building integrates a specified amount of renewable energy generation could also be a consideration.

I T uilding codes. A range of regulatory options is available for a city to promote changes in building design and orientation (Sao Paolo, Kitakyushu), and shading issues (Boulder), so long as they concur with national legislative requirements. Successful examples include solar water heating on new buildings (Lianyangang, Cape Town); uptake of zero and low-energy houses (Beddington, Goteburg); and a requirement for x% of total energy for a new building to come from integrated renewable technologies (Merton). The "Merton rule" (Case study 5) is of particular significance as it has been shown to encourage the architects, designers and developers of buildings to consider energy efficiency as a high priority in order to keep the share of renewable energy down to a manageable level.

I Tax exemptions. Within the compliance requirements of national tax regimes, there can be opportunities for local governments to create adjustments to local tax payments (Frederikshavn) such as a discount on property development fees (Caledon). For example, the annual charges against the rateable value of a property with a ground source heat pump installed could be lowered, or local property sales taxes, fuel taxes or permitting fees could be reduced where renewable energy technologies are involved.

I Ttandards and mandates. An appropriate specialist department within a municipality's administration structure (e.g. engineering or environment) could be selected and instructed by the chief executive to take responsibility for meeting energy or climate change targets and to plan for the uptake of renewable energy in the community (Munster). The department could also ensure that all renewable energy projects meet acceptable standards, possibly based on the local climatic and

energy resource conditions and constraints. This could be achieved by, for example, mandating for biofuel blending (Portland), using only biofuels with specified characteristics for cold weather use (Halifax), imposing a cap-and-trade system on large businesses (Tokyo), incorporating the trading of green electricity and/or heat certificates within a climate policy, or exceeding the national standards set for solar water heaters in regions of the country more likely to experience freezing conditions or hail damage.

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