Electromagnetic Radiation and Human Health

EMF Protection

This ebook is the complete guide to learning about electrical sensitivity and how to prevent getting it in your life. You will learn what electrical sensitivity is, and what causes it. Once you have started learning about it you will learn how to get rid of it and protect yourself from the dangers of electrical sensitivity. You will also learn how to heal yourself. This book is the product of careful research by the scientific and medical communities into the dangers and preventative measures of electrical sensitivity. ES is one of the most under-diagnosed conditions in the world right now, and this ebook is designed to education people as to how it works and how to prevent it. Do not let it take hold of your family; take control and prevent it now! Do not let yourself get any more hurt; learn about this condition and fight it! Continue reading...

How To Beat Electrical Sensitivity Overview


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Electro Magnetic Fields and Home Power Systems

The energy that surrounds us is part of our environment. Recently we've been made aware that the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) made by electric power present a potential health hazard. This article begins a series of two articles about electromagnetic fields. This first article discusses the potential health hazards involved. This first article also defines an electromagnetic field, describes how these fields are produced by electricity, and tells how to construct an ac magnetic field meter to measure the magnetic portion of the fields around our homes. The second article, appearing in our next issue (HP 24), details how to reduce man-made electromagnetic fields and our exposure to these fields. Life in Electromagnetic Fields The reason we became interested in electromagnetic fields was medical information about their effect on humans. This information suggests that there may be links between prolonged exposure to electromagnetic fields and diseases, specifically cancer, nervous...

Electric Field And Magnetic Field Become The Electromagnetic Field

The 4-vector concept also allows us to condense the mathematics of electromagnetics, and reveals the true nature of the electromagnetic field. By combining the magnetic vector potential with voltage into a four vector A Ax,Ay,Az,V c , a single electromagnetic potential is formed. Using this 4-potential, the electric and magnetic fields combine to form a single electromagnetic field, which can be represented by a mathematical object called a tensor. In the mathematical system called Clifford geometry, the electromagnetic field can be written simply as F E + icB, where i V 1. Within this mathematical system, Maxwell's equations condense to a single equation (Refer to Baylis 1999 .)

Longitudinal EM Waves and Undistorted Progressive Waves

There is a revolution in electrodynamics presently underway, due to the unique characteristics of longitudinal EM waves 05 and pseudolongitudinal EM waves. A summary by Rodrigues and Lu 625 is particularly revealing. A pure longitudinal EM wave has infinite energy and infinite velocity i.e., it appears everywhere at once. Propagation through space does not apply instead, one has stumbled into that weird region where spacetime is multiply connected. In the real world, one meets imperfect longitudinal waves or pseudo-longitudinal EM waves that still retain a transverse energy density variation residue. These waves are called undistorted progressive waves (UPWs). 305 We have pointed out a direct way to generate longitudinal EM waves, by simply oscillating the magnitude of the Lorentz self-regauging of a system.

Electromagnetic Interference

Wind turbines have the potential to interfere with electromagnetic signals that form part of a wide range of modern communication systems and so their siting requires careful assessment in respect of electromagnetic interference (EMI). In particular, wind energy developments often compete with radio systems for hilltops and other open sites that offer high energy outputs from wind farms and good propagation paths for communication signals. The types of system that may be affected by EMI, and their frequency of operation, include VHF radio systems (30-300 MHz), UHF Television broadcasts (300 MHz-3 GHz) and microwave links (1-30 GHz). The interaction of wind turbines with defence and civilian radar used for air traffic control has also been the subject of investigation (ETSU, 1995). The electrical generator and associated control gear and electronics can produce radio frequency emissions but these may be minimized by appropriate suppression and screening at the generator. Rather than...

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

For electrical engineers the word electromagnetics typically conjures up thoughts of antennas, transmission lines, and radio waves, or maybe boring lectures and all-nighters studying for exams. However, this electrical word also describes a broad range of phenomena in addition to electronics, ranging from X-rays to optics to thermal radiation. In physics courses, we are taught that all these phenomena concern electromagnetic waves. Even many nontechnical people are familiar with this concept and with the electromagnetic spectrum, which spans from electronics and radio frequencies through infrared, visible light, and then on to ultraviolet and X-rays. We are told that these waves are all the same except for frequency. However, most engineers find that even after taking many physics and engineering courses, it is still difficult to see much commonality across the electromagnetic spectrum other than the fact that all are waves and are governed by the same mathematics (Maxwell's...

EM Waves Imply Curved Spacetime

The oscillating energy of an electromagnetic wave is continuously changing its local spatial energy density. This is an oscillating change of spacetime curvature if one accepts general relativity (GR). Hence the EM wave in space is always moving in a locally curved spacetime else, no EM wave exists because no change in spatial energy density exists. To reject that, is to reject GR in its entirety as well as all the experiments consistent with GR. If one accepts GR, then the classical U(1) EM assumption of the EM wave moving in a fiat spacetime is a non sequitur. It is unscientific to be suspicious of a higher group symmetry 0(3) electrodynamics which does correct this known non sequitur in U(1) electrodynamics, while limiting oneself to U(1) electrodynamics with that known error. One might as well be suspicious of tensor algebra because it is more comprehensive than vector algebra.

Superconducting electromagnetic energy storage SMES

A superconducting electromagnetic energy storage (SMES) system is a device for storing and very quickly discharging large quantities of electric power, e.g. 10 MW for < 1 s. It stores energy in the magnetic field created by the flow of DC in a coil of superconducting material that has been cryogenically cooled to 4K). At these very low temperatures, certain materials have essentially zero resistance to electric current and can maintain a DC current for years without appreciable loss. SMES systems have been in use for some years to improve industrial power quality and to provide a premium quality service for those electricity users who are particularly vulnerable to voltage fluctuations. An SMES recharges within minutes and can repeat the charge discharge cycle thousands of times without any degradation of the magnet.

Frequency Dependence Of Materials Thermal Radiation And Noise

This the final chapter covers some miscellaneous but interesting topics that relate to electromagnetics. An often overlooked aspect of electromagnetics is the fact that all materials possess varying electromagnetic properties in different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. I also cover the basics of thermal radiation, which is the type of electromagnetic radiation responsible for radiative heat transfer, and thermal circuit noise. Both thermal radiation and thermal circuit noise are caused by the random motion of charged particles, most notably electrons, inside a material.

Free Space Inductance Is Infinite

Stcinmetz in his book on the general or unified behavior of eiectridty THE THEORY AND CALCULATION OF TRANSIENT ELECTRIC PHENOMENA AND OSCILLATION, points out that the inductance of any unit length of an isolated filamentary conductor must be infinite. Because no image currents exist to contain the magnetic field it can grow to infinite size. This large quantity of energy cannot be quickly retrieved due to the finite velocity of propagation of the magnetic field. This gives a non reactive or energy component to the inductance which is called electromagnetic radiation.

Bibliography And Suggestions For Further Reading

L., Optics of the Electromagnetic Spectrum, Englewood Cliffs, NJ Cambridge University Press, 1999. Elliot, R. S., Antenna Theory and Design, Englewood Cliffs, NJ Prentice-Hall, 1981. Heald, M., and J. Marion, Classical Electromagnetic Radiation, 3rd Edition, Fort

Quantum Physics And The Birth Of The Photon

Radiated energy goes to infinity at high frequencies. To resolve the ultraviolet catastrophe of the classical theory of thermal radiation, Planck hypothesized that matter can only radiate heat energy in quantized packets of energy. Five years later, Einstein postulated that all electromagnetic radiation is quantized into particles now called photons. The energy of each radiating quanta or photon is proportional to its frequency E hf, where h 6.6 x 10-34 joule-sec Planck's constant. These two seemingly innocuous hypotheses opened the Pandora's box known as quantum physics. Science has never been the same since. Electromagnetic waves exhibit a so-called wave-particle duality of light. In some aspects, electromagnetic radiation acts as a distributed wave of energy. In other aspects, radiation acts as a localized particle.

Photon absorption at the junction

So far, we have considered the junction 'in the dark' now let light appear. The dominant process causing the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in semiconductors is the generation of electron-hole pairs. This occurs in direct transitions of electrons across the band gap Eg when

Relativity Quantum Physics And Beyond

A common connection between the two theories is that they both developed from questions concerning electromagnetic radiation. Relativity developed from questions about the speed of light, and quantum physics developed from questions about thermal radiation. Perhaps the theory that completely reconciles the two will be just as groundbreaking as each theory was itself.

This Section Unusual And Therefore Difficult To Comprehend Please Have Patience

When the ARC occurs, The Electrons Give Up Quanta or Photons of Electromagnetic Radiation. This is evidenced by the flame like discharge of visible light. This release of EMR or Radiant Event induces a current in the collector plates. This is the Photoelectric Effect to which the discovery is accredited to A, Einstien,

Metalsemiconductor stack

Metals, on the other hand, are usually mechanically strong, good conductors and relatively cheap. They are also unfortunately good reflectors (i.e. poor absorbers) in the visible and infrared. When light (or other electromagnetic radiation) is incident on a metal, the free electrons near the surface vibrate rapidly in response to the varying electromagnetic field. Consequently, the electrons constitute a varying current, which radiates electromagnetic waves, as in a radio aerial. It appears to an outside observer that the incident radiation has been reflected. The power of the reflected wave is only slightly less than that of the incident wave (Born and Wolf, 1999), so for A > 1 m,pA 0.97 (i.e. aA eA 0.03, see Figure 5.9).

Environmental analysis

The operation of photovoltaic generators is also related to the transmittance of electromagnetic radiation (aspect of electromagnetic compatibility). Unlike common power generation plants, photovoltaic plants are generally provided with extensive direct current cabling and with regard to the solar generator a correspondingly large radiating surface furthermore, they are partly installed in the vicinity of residential area 6-40 . However, during the installation of such plants it is generally ensured that the wiring loops, acting as antennas, are kept as small as possible. This is a protective measure against both irradiance and receipt of electromagnetic radiation. The latter is particularly critical with regard to lightning strikes in the vicinity of solar modules and could create excess voltages and excess currents in case of a too large receipt area. The destroying of electric components could be a result. However, the low-frequency magnetic fields emitted by photovoltaic...

Storage Fields Versus Radiation Fields

First, it is important to define the terms involved. Unfortunately, there isn't a lot of consistency in terminology when discussing this subject. I will therefore explicitly define some terms. Electromagnetic fields can be divided into two basic types, storage fields and radiating fields. The main distinction between the two is that storage fields store energy in the vicinity of a source and radiating fields propagate energy away through free space. Storage fields can only exist in the vicinity (within

Explaining the Lawyers Claim

These examples illuminate the different characteristics of reactive and radiating electromagnetic fields, but they still do not answer the question of why or how radiation occurs. To understand radiation, it is best to start with the analysis of the field of a point charge.

Relativity And Quantum Physics

Relativity and quantum physics may seem out of place in a book on electromagnetics, but each is crucial to the foundations of how electromagnetic fields operate. To a large extent this chapter is an excursion from what is meant to be a practical handbook, but I think the topic is too interesting not to cover. Both relativity and quantum physics are quite fascinating and each will give you a whole new perspective on electromagnetics. Unbeknownst to many people, relativity is at work behind the scenes of many electromagnetic phenomena. Quantum physics may not be necessary for most applications, but it is crucial for understanding lasers, the basis of fiber optics. The photon is known by every technical person as a packet of light energy. What may not be known is that all electromagnetic energy consists of photons. Photons are exclusively the realm of quantum physics.

The Battery Revisited

Table 2.1 data adapted from Krauss and Fleisch, Electromagnetics with Applications, 5th Edition, Boston McGraw-Hill, 1999, and from Paul and Nasar, Introduction to Electromagnetic Fields, 2nd Edition, New York McGraw-Hill, 1987. Table 2.1 data adapted from Krauss and Fleisch, Electromagnetics with Applications, 5th Edition, Boston McGraw-Hill, 1999, and from Paul and Nasar, Introduction to Electromagnetic Fields, 2nd Edition, New York McGraw-Hill, 1987.

The Engineer and the Lawyer

A practical example will help to clarify these concepts. Consider the following fictitious disagreement. An electrical engineer is telling his lawyer friend about his latest home electronics project. The engineer lives near some high-voltage power lines and is working on a device that will harness the power of the 60 Hz electromagnetic field that permeates his property. The lawyer immediately states that what the engineer plans to do would, in effect, be stealing from the utility company. This statement angers the engineer who replies, That's the trouble with you lawyers. You defend laws without regard to the truth. Even without my device, the stray electromagnetic energy from the power lines is radiated away and lost, so I might as well use it. The lawyer stands his ground and says the engineer will still be stealing. Who is right The lawyer is correct even though he probably doesn't know the difference between reactive and radiating electromagnetic fields. The field surrounding the...

The Electric Force Field

To understand high-frequency and RF electronics, you must first have a good grasp of the fundamentals of electromagnetic fields. This chapter discusses the electric field and is the starting place for understanding electromagnetics. Electric fields are created by charges that is, charges are the source of electric fields. Charges come in two types, positive (+) and negative (-). Like charges repel each other and opposites attract. In other words, charges produce a force that either pushes or pulls other charges away. Neutral objects are not affected. The force between two charges is proportional to the product of the two charges, and is called Coulomb's law. Notice that the charges produce a force on each other without actually being in physical contact. It is a force that acts at a distance. To represent this force at distance that is created by charges, the concept of a force field is used. Figure 2.1 shows the electrical force fields that surround positive and negative charges.

Relativity And The Faraday Disk

Though the emf of the earth's SSOPFG is not measureable on the surface of the rotating earth, some scientists believe the emf effect is most noticeable in the aurora borealis 20 , In fact a few have calculated the voltage that should be measurable from the pole to the equator in the magnetosphere 21 . Furthermore, some have even attributed the same HPG effects to the electromagnetic fields of stars 22 .

The Need For Electromagnetics

Moreover, with computers and networking equipment of the 21st century running at such high frequencies, digital designs are now in the RF and microwave portion of the spectrum. It is now crucial for digital designers to understand electromagnetic fields, radiation, and transmission lines. This knowledge is necessary for maintaining signal integrity and for achieving EMC compliance. High-speed digital signals radiate more easily, which can cause interference with nearby equipment. Highspeed signals also more often cause circuits within the same design to interfere with one another (i.e., crosstalk). Circuit traces can no longer be considered as ideal short circuits. Instead, every trace should be considered as a transmission line because reflections on long traces can distort the digital waveforms. The Internet and the never-ending quest for higher bandwidth are pushing the speed of digital designs higher and higher. Web commerce and applications such as streaming audio and video will...

The Possibility Of Chargeenergy Similar To Massenergy

Electron-positron annihilation reactions, using large electromagnetic fields to separate the charges spacially, thus rendering them visible in properly constructed environments. Although this new tachyonic energy will exhibit electromagnetic properties, we believe that in its energy dipole form, as opposed to its unipolar charge forms, this new energy form is really the graviton, or more properly, the magneto-graviton that energy form actually responsible for the force of gravity. In saying this

Considering The Process

This invention relates generally to the field of electromagnetic power generation. Specifically it relates to a totally new field of extracting additional electromagnetic energy in usable form from a permanent magnet dipole's potential energy, in addition to the electromagnetic energy extracted from its magnetic field energy, wherein the excess potential So any amount of energy can be collected from any nonzero scalar potential, no matter how small the potential's reaction cross section, if sufficient intercepting charge q and collecting points x, y, z are utilized. In short, one can intercept and collect energy from a potential indefinitely and in any amount, and in any form taken by the interaction, because the potential is actually a set of EM energy flows in longitudinal EM wave form, as shown by Whittaker 1 in 1903 and further expounded by Bearden 24, 26 . Subsequently, Evans and Bearden 43 have more rigorously interpreted Whittaker's 1 work and extended the principle into power...

How Gravity Affects The Virtual Resistance Of Spacetime Media

The space-time media has virtual resistance or impedance Z0, and therefore, isn't capable of absorbing or dissipating electromagnetic energy. Its REAL resistance is infinite or, R0 x . This media serves to impede the propagation of light and the motion of matter and is calculated as,

Shielding In The Far Field

The purpose of a shield is to prevent electromagnetic energy from penetrating through the shield. Conductors provide two mechanisms for shielding. The first shielding mechanism is reflection, which is most important for low-frequency shielding. The second shielding mechanism is absorption, which is caused by the skin effect. Absorption is most important at high frequency. At all frequencies, reflection is responsible for shielding the majority of power. However, it is the absorption caused by the skin effect that makes shielding so dramatically effective at high frequency. Figure 9.4 shows the relative signal power that is reflected,

Reflection Of Radiation At Material Boundaries

Figure 9.2 plots the reflection coefficient for a radiating wave incident upon a thick sheet of copper for a broad range of frequencies. Notice that the vast majority of the incident power is reflected at all frequencies. This result is valid only for radiating or far-field electromagnetic energy. As you learned in Chapter 5, the wave impedance (ratio of electric field to magnetic field) in the far field is equal to the intrinsic impedance of the medium in which the wave is traveling. This statement is not true in the near field.

The Uncertainty Principle

The basis for quantum physics is that all electromagnetic energy is transferred in integer quantities of a fundamental unit, Planck's constant. Mathematically we can state this as E hf, where E is energy, h is Planck's constant, and f is the frequency of the photon. To Einstein's dismay, it was this quantum theory that led directly to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. In 1927, Werner Heisenberg published a paper stating quantized energy implies that all measurements have inherent uncertainty. Einstein expressed his dislike of this uncertainty as, God does not throw dice, but was never able to disprove it. Specifically, the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle states that we can never know both the exact position and momentum of any particle. Mathematically, the bounds on the error of our knowledge of position (Ax) and momentum (Dp) are related as

Summary Of The Process From Various Aspects

A simultaneous interaction of a coil with both a magnetic field (curl of A) and a field-free A potential produces electromagnetic energy in the form of voltage and current in an external circuit connected to the coil, and the net voltage and amperage (power) produced by the coil is a result of the summation of both simultaneous interactions with said coil and its Drude electrons and of the iterative ping-pong interactions between the two simultaneous interactions, and therefore the summation provides a greater coil output energy than is produced by the coil 8. Whittaker's 1903 mathematical decomposition 1 of any scalar potential applies Whittaker decomposition to the magnetostatic scalar potential existing between the poles of the permanent magnet, revealing that the magnetostatic scalar potential of the permanent magnet is comprised of a set of harmonic longitudinal EM wavepairs, where each wavepair consists of a longitudinal EM wave and its phase conjugate replica wave. 9. The...

Use of the Aharonov Bohm Effect in the MEG

Evans, T. E. Bearden, and A. Labounsky, The Most General Form of the Vector Potential in Electrodynamics, Found. Phys. Lett, 15(3), June 2002, p. 245-261. See also M. W. Evans et al., The Aharonov-Bohm Effect as the Basis of Electromagnetic Energy Inherent in the Vacuum, Found. Phys. Lett, (in review).

Even a Stationary Charge Has a Magnetic Field

Let's say your friend Joe was standing by the side the whole time and your friend Bill stays in the wagon the whole time. For them nothing about the charge or its fields changed. Joe always observes the magnetic field, and Bill never observes it. When you were in the wagon you didn't observe the magnetic field, and then later you did. But nothing ever changed about the charge. The act of you jumping off the wagon didn't cause the charge to create a magnetic field. The act of you jumping off did not change anything about the charge, as witnessed by your two friends. The only way to reconcile this dilemna is to admit that the charge always had the magnetic field. You just couldn't observe it from your original perspective. The electric and magnetic fields are really different aspects of a single electromagnetic field. Here's an analogy. A three-dimensional cylinder looks like a two-dimensional circle from the end perspective and it looks like a...

Circuits That Store and Transport Energy

To further examine this situation, consider the circuit in Figure 5.1A. It is a simple circuit consisting of an AC power source driving an inductor. If the inductor is ideal, no energy is lost from the power supply. The inductor does, however, produce an electromagnetic field. Because no energy is lost, this field is purely a storage field. The circuit pumps power into the field and at the same time the field returns power to the circuit. Because of this energy cycling, the current and voltage of the inductor are out of phase by 90 degrees, thus producing a reactive impedance, ZL +jaL.

Transmission of electricity Normal conducting lines

For AC transmission, a superconducting line will not be loss-free, owing to excitations caused by the time-variations of the electromagnetic field (cf. Hein, 1974), but the losses will be much smaller than for normal lines. It is estimated that the amount of power that can be transmitted through a single cable is in the gigawatt range. This figure is based on suggested designs, including the required refrigeration and thermal insulation components within overall dimensions of about 0.5 m (cable diameter). The power required for cooling, i.e. to compensate for heat flow into the cable, must be considered in order to calculate the total power losses in transmission.

Waveguides And Shields

Waveguides and shields may seem like an odd combination for a chapter, but the two actually have a lot in common. The operation of both devices depends on the reflectivity of metals. Metals are highly reflective through most of the electromagnetic spectrum. They reflect radio waves as well as visible light. Although metals have different properties at visible light frequencies, and aren't conductors in this band, they still reflect most of the incident radiation if the surface is well polished and not tarnished. We take advantage of this whenever we look in the mirror. A mirror is just a piece of glass with a metal film deposited on the backside. The glass serves to protect the metal surface from tarnishing and provides a smooth substrate on which to deposit the metal. Because glass also has a higher dielectric constant than air, the glass also increases the metal's reflectivity. The simplest electromagnetic shield is just a conductor sheet. To learn how a shield works, assume for the...

Other Types Of Fields

Another example of a field is the stress field that occurs when elastic objects are stretched or compressed. For an example, refer to Figure 2.2. Two balls are connected by a spring. When the spring is stretched, it will exert an attractive force on the balls and try to pull them together. When the spring is compressed, it will exert a repulsive force on the balls and try to push them apart. Now imagine that you stretch the spring and then quickly release the two balls. An oscillating motion occurs. The balls move close together, then far apart and continue back and forth. The motion does not continue forever though, because of friction. Through each cycle of oscillation, the balls lose some energy until they eventually stop moving completely. The causes of fiction are the air surrounding the balls and the internal friction of the spring. The energy lost to friction becomes heat in the air and spring. Before Einstein and his theory of relativity, most scientists thought that the...

Relativity And Maxwells Equations

I will now return to the story of Maxwell's equations and the aether. Maxwell's equations predict that electromagnetic waves exist and that their speed is 3 x 108m s, the speed of light. However, the equations From these two simple statements, all of special relativity can be derived. The first statement is a consequence of Maxwell's equations, so in some sense it is really only the second equation that defines special relativity. A reference frame is the coordinate system (including the three dimensions of space and one dimension of time) of the observer who is performing the measurement. The term inertial basically means that the observer is not being accelerated. Accelerated motion is very different from uniform motion. Newton's first law states that a body in uniform motion will continue in uniform motion unless a force acts upon it. Newton's second law states that the mass of an object times the acceleration of the object is equal to the net force acting on the object. The force...

Getting Creative with Fundamental Unis

First, we take EM energy in 3-space as EM wave energy, in the usual transverse EM wave model (see Figure 1-4 of Chapter 1) of a field entity. We choose, say, the vector E oscillating in the x-direction, and another field entity (say, the vector B) oscillating in the y-direction. If we then rotate each of these vectors into the time axis, then that is an orthogonal rotation for each, which is what the velocity c actually is. So we have to do two orthogonal rotations, and the two resulting c's multiply to give c2. With these two orthogonal rotations into the time axis, we have completely rotated the EM field wave energy vectors into the time axis. We have also compressed that EM field energy by c2. This sheds new light upon the scalar (time-polarized) photon of quantum field theory. Note that, prior to compression of the wave energy into time, the magnitude of the electric field E in the EM wave was oscillating lengthwise along its x-direction, which means that, with respect to x, it...

The zerosequence current in distributed power systems

In 72 , the supply rail voltage shift is analysed. First, the neutral to ground voltage variation for a diode rectifier three-phase converter combination is investigated. The neutral is in this case the star-point of the load at the converter output, which for example could be the star-point of an electrical machine. It is shown that the neutral to ground voltage varies as the negative supply rail to neutral voltage for the rectifier with the converter switching superimposed. Both simulations and measurements are shown. Second, the same investigation is made for a controlled rectifier converter combination, connected back-to-back. In this case the situation is even worse, at least in terms of high frequency content, since the negative supply rail to ground voltage variation is determined by the switching frequency of the rectifier. According to 72 , one way to partly reduce the problem is to synchronise the modulation carriers of the rectifier and converter. Note that synchronisation...

The Spectral Distribution of the Sun as a Radiation Source

In this chapter we briefly describe the solar spectral distribution, or distribution of energy with respect to wavelength, over the region of the electromagnetic spectrum of use to renewable energy systems. The sun radiates energy at wavelengths ranging from the X-ray and gamma ray spectral region out into the very long wavelength radio spectral region. We will restrict our discussion, for the most part, to solar energy in the wavelength region between the ultraviolet (UV) of wavelength 250 nanometers (nm) and the near infrared (NIR) with wavelength of 4000 nm or 4.0 micrometers.

Still Anomalous Aspects

Scalar stress waves are also sometimes produced, leading to anomalous effects. This is best regarded as a time-polarized EM wave, or more accurately, as a combination of scalar (time-polarized) EM waves and longitudinal EM waves in 3-space. For macroscopic waves in COP> 1.0 systems, the Mandl and Shaw 1 1 correlation between scalar photons and longitudinal photons can apparently be corrupted, so then one has abnormal (improperly correlated components which normally correlate to make ordinary EM waves). These abnormal EM scalar stress waves also exhibit the crawly phenomenon, and can be hazardous to one's instruments. In addition, some instruments such as ionization counters, Geiger tubes, etc. read in the presence of such waves as if nuclear radiation were present (which it is not). Also, the individual time-charge history of a given instrument determines or substantially influences how the instrument reacts in the presence of the corrupted scalar stress waves. Essentially, at a...

Resolving the Energy Conservation Problem in Cold Fusion

When transduction is involved, standard transverse EM waves only computations will seemingly yield violation of energy conservation e.g., from the emission of excess heat. That is an erroneous interpretation energy overall is conserved, but some of the unaccounted time-energy flow is transduced into 3-spatial transverse photon energy dissipation. Neither 3-spatial energy nor mass-energy nor time-energy alone, or in any pairing, need be individually conserved only the combined total energy of all three energy components is conserved. This resolves the present major sticking point between the cold fusion researchers and the conventional transverse wave nuclear and electrodynamic communities regarding energy conservation difficulties and perpetual motion accusations. Those making the accusations and those defending against them are both using only a special-case conservation of energy law, and a more general law is required.

The Vector Magnetic Potential And Potential Momentum

Magnetic Vector Potential

As the potential momentum of a charge. In fact, the units of the vector potential are those of momentum per charge. When Maxwell developed his theory of electromagnetism, he called the vector magnetic potential the electrodynamic momentum because it can be used to calculate the total momentum or total kinetic energy of a system of charged particles and their electromagnetic fields. In Chapter 6, you will learn more about the vector potential when we discuss quantum physics.

Summary Of The Invention

In accordance with the invention, a nuclear decay laser device is provided. The nuclear decay laser device in accordance with the invention includes at least a radioactive element, a magnetic field source associated with the radioactive element for generating and subjecting the radioactive element to a magnetic field external to the radioactive element. A source of radio frequency energy is provided for subjecting the radioactive element to a radio frequency energy tuned to the Larmor frequency of the precessing radioactive nuclei of sufficient intensity to flip the radioactive nuclei to a flip angle sufficient to allow the radioactive nuclei to release energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation and or particles upon relaxation of the radioactive nuclei caused by termination of the radio frequency energy. In accordance with another aspect of the invention, a nuclear decay laser imaging device, suitable for medical imaging and other imaging purposes is provided. The nuclear decay...

Chapter Aerial Systems

He developed various versions of the device, the latest of which did not need the aerial or earth connections, weighed 50 pounds and had an output of 50 kilowatts. This device was tested in both an aeroplane and a submarine, thus showing the device to be fully self-contained and portable. It was also tested in locations which were fully shielded from electromagnetic radiation.

Because the dimensions of the coefficient of dielectric induction or farads is given by the inverse of the square of

Many believe that this lost energy is radiated away from the tower in the same manner as light & heat radiation from a light bulb. While this theory seems plausible, there exists evidence that it may not be the correct interpretation of how the energy is lost. Nikola Tesla, the discoverer of radio, claimed repeatedly that the electromagnetic radiation theory (then known as the Hertzian wave theory) was inimical to the proper understanding of the wireless process as he conceived it.

Further Notes On Research

Electromagnetic waves very effectively. One must be careful, nevertheless, to make sure that there was no connection whatsoever with mains driven apparatus because of the risk of electrocution This experiment would have to wait until I had acquired a battery-driven Laptop computer.

Conducted Versus Induced Versus Radiated Interference

High Frequency Interference

In EMC literature and EMC regulations the mechanisms of electromagnetic interference are divided into two categories, conducted and radiated. Historically, this categorization has been used in the regulations and, unfortunately, it continues today. I use the word unfortunately because both near-field coupling and far-field radiation are lumped under the term radiated emissions. While experts in electromagnetics are quite familiar with the difference between near-field coupling and far-field emissions, the vague terminology in EMC regulations tends to confuse those who are trying to learn the basic concepts. As I explained in Chapter 5, near-field energy is stored, not radiated. Furthermore, when you couple to the near-field of a circuit, you not only pick up unwanted electromagnetic energy, you also alter the operation of that circuit by extracting and or redirecting energy that was otherwise being stored in the neighboring air. The Yagi-Uda antenna, as discussed in Chapter 11,...

Short History of the Discarding of the Heaviside Dark Energy

This paper describes a hypothesis as to the connexion between current in conductors and the transfer ofelectric and magnetic inductions in the surrounding field. The hypothesis is suggested by the mode of transfer of energy in the electromagnetic field, resulting from Maxwell's equations investigated in a formerpaper (Phil. Trans., vol. 175, pp. 343-361, 1884). It was there shown that according to Maxwell's electromagnetic theory the energy which is dissipated in the circuit is transferred through the medium, always moving perpendicularly to the plane containing the lines ofelectric and magnetic intensity, and that it comes into the conductor from the surrounding insulator, not flowing along the wire.

Aharonov Bohm Effect Geometric Phase and the Motionless Electromagnetic Generator MEG

Aharonov-Bohm effect the Aharonov-Bohm effect is a local gauge transformation ofthe true vacuum which produces a vector potential from the true vacuum. This gauge transformation produces topological charge , the electromagnetic field, which carries energy, and the vacuum charge current density firstproposed by Lehnert anddeveloped by Lehnert and Roy . Evans and Jeffers 459 .

Teslas Self Sustaining Electrical Generator

Hendershot Generator

Tesla's most famous device was what he called a Magnifying Transformer, the principal tests of which were carried out in Colorado Springs during 1899. The device is described in his U.S. Patent as an Apparatus for Transmitting Electrical Energy 4 and claims some unusual characteristics among which were the propagation of waves faster than the speed of light, the transmission of signals, not around the earth, but through the earth, and doing this by eliminating as much as possible electromagnetic waves - the only electrically related waves known today capable of transmitting signals. bacuum wave for the amount of charge in motion at 7.5Hz. At 200 million volts there would be enough force to produce such a wave for a current of 1000 amperes at that frequency. The generation of a quantum wave by the magnifying transformer goes a long way in explaining some of the properties Tesla claimed for the device. For one, he said that electromagnetic waves were reduced to a minimum and, indeed, it...

Using the Uncurled Apotential as a Linear Energy Current

Motionless Electromagnetic Generator

A very simple equation allows utilizing the extra nonlocalized A-potential energy, even though it has no curl and therefore no magnetic B-field. That is cA ct - E. This equation means that, if one perturbs that large field-free A-potential outside the toroid, it produces an E-field, which we have argued must now be a longitudinal EM wave due to the perturbations ifthe B-confining operation is still imposed. By oscillating the A-potential perturbations, one produces an oscillating E-field that is also an oscillating longitudinal electric E-field wave without an accompanying B-field wave.

Clarification of above

In permanent magnet switched reluctance design, it is important to understand the windings are fundamentally demagnetizing windings, and NOT as many people intuitively assume - magnetizing windings. Important difference. This is not to say the windings can not with enough voltage be used as magnetizing windings, but this is not really the proper mental image to use to visualize how the motor functions. Try it this way - the units I am about to used are not intended to correlate to real values, simply to make a point. The rotor is attracted to the stator core. When in register, the core is energized by the pole face of the permanent magnet to a strength of (negative) -10. In order to totally neutralize the temporarily acquired magnetism of stator core, and enable the rotor to 'free wheel away,' an electromagnetic field of + 10 must be induced in the stator windings. The Lenz current precharge in full register where the greatest number of stator turns are cut, might be equivalent to,...

Chapter Moving Pulsed Systems

Rotoverter Free Energy Devices

Please remember that the coils must only be energised just enough (of the same polarity as the rotor magnets), to allow the rotor to continue spinning freely past the electromagnets. The coils must not be energised to a greater level than this. Once the magnets have passed, the electromagnets are switched off. This creates a surge of electrical power, and the diode recovery circuit collects the energy from the collapsing electromagnetic fields, which is Bonus 3.

Promises Of Worldwide Wireless Power Transfer

In 1986-1988, Nash, Smith, Craven and Corum of WVU utilized a 1 4 wave coaxial resonator to develop a high frequency Tesla Coil and proposed coupling this device to a Tesla single electrode x-ray tube to generate ionizing radiation with possible application to wireless power transfer 53 .

And Maxwell Said Let There Be Light

In addition to being a physicist, Maxwell was also an extraordinarily talented mathematician. When he added his new term to the existing equations for electricity and magnetism, he quickly noticed that the mathematics implied that propagating electromagnetic waves could be created. Such waves had never been observed. This was a monumental discovery. Furthermore, when he performed the mathematical derivations, the speed of these new waves was predicted to be that of the speed of light Before Maxwell, there had been no reason to believe that light and electromagnetism had anything to do with one another. But he had found an unusual coincidence too much of a coincidence to be ignored. (At the time of Maxwell's prediction, the speed of light had been measured many times and was known to an accuracy of about 5 .) At the end of the 19th century there was only one major question remaining to be determined concerning electromagnetics. What was the substance that the electromagnetic waves...

Effects Of The Magnetic Field The Dipole

How Narwhals Reproduce

The electric motor is the most common method for converting electromagnetic energy into mechanical energy. Motors work from the principle of a rotating dipole. An example is the DC motor. The DC motor consists of the stator, which is the stationary enclosure, and the rotor, which is the rotating center that drives the axle. In its simplest form, the stator is a permanent magnet, which sets up a strong ambient magnetic field. The rotor is basically a coil of wire that forms a magnetic dipole when a DC current is driven through the wire. The rotor acts like a compass needle and moves to align its dipole moment with the magnetic field. To get the rotor to rotate continuously, some ingenious engineering is used. Just before the rotor completely aligns itself with the field, the DC current in the rotor is disconnected. The rotor's angular

The Wireless Telegraphic Connection

Free Energy

No magnet can be placed near a current of electricity, or a static charge without making an oscillation. Every oscillation sends out a wave, like a stone falling in water. An electromagnetic wave from the Sun disturbs the Earth's magnetic field in the same way that an induction coil used in wireless telegraphy does. The Earth and coherer are both doing the same thing with the same kind of electromagnetic waves. The coherer in a distant receiving station will react to natural electromagnetic wave fronts from the Sun. It will likewise react to the artificial wave fronts coming from the induction coil. The electromagnetic wave makes the loose particles of metal between the knobs in the glass tube coherer generate dots and dashes.

Nuclear decay laser and method

How Make Free Energy

A nuclear decay laser that produces a stream of nuclear decay particles and or photons of electromagnetic radiation. The stream of nuclear decay particles and or photons is produced by subjecting radioactive materials to an external magnetic field which causes the radioactive nuclei to align with and precess around the external magnetic field vector. The precessing radioactive nuclei are then subjected to Radio Frequency (RF) pulses tuned to the Larmor frequency of the precessing nuclei which causes the nuclei to flip out of the plane of the external magnetic field vector into the X-Y plane. A refocusing RF pulse is then applied to the radioactive material which brings all of the magnetic moments of the flipped radioactive nuclei into phase. This can also be achieved with MRI gradient echo technology. When the initial RF pulse is discontinued, the flipped radioactive nuclei undergo T1 or spin-lattice relaxation which occurs when the radioactive nuclei relax back into phase with the...

Ionization Detectors Transduction and Em Lw Interferometry

Ionization processes obviously are processes where the partial transduction of LW time interaction into 3-spatial energy interaction would yield ordinary excited energy states of the affected electrons or ions. In turn, this would lead to ionization (e.g., of the atoms and molecules of a gas, liquid, etc.) Hence, ordinary ionization detectors such as Geiger Miiller tubes have the innate capability of detecting such transduction that generates ionization, and thereby have some capability of serving as detectors of longitudinal EM wave interactions (and time-charging) ongoing in the detector. In the usual situation, no excess time-charging results and no time reversal zones result. In that case, symmetry of energy flow in the time-domain exists, as does symmetry of energy flow in 3-space. Absolutely normal chemistry and nuclear chemistry results, and the nuclear detectors function normally, as familiar to every laboratory. As an example, a Geiger Muller tube will detect any ionization...

The True Meaning of Wireless Transmission of Power

Fritz Lowenstein

Propagation of electromagnetic energy through the ether. There were three popular theories We shall concern our examination at this time to the latter two theories as they were both used by Dr. Tesla at various times to explain his system of wireless transmission of power. It should be noted, however, that the first theory was supported by Fritz Lowenstein, the first vice-president of the Institute of Radio Engineers, a man who had the enviable experience of assisting Dr. Tesla during the Colorado Springs experiments of 1899. Lowenstein presented what came to be known as the gliding wave theory of electromagnetic radiation and propagation during a lecture before the IRE in 1915. (Fig. 1)

The Field Of A Static Charge

Electromagnetic Static Field Cells

Lines point outward for a positive (+) charge and inward for a negative (-) charge. The field remains the same over time hence, it is called a static field. The field stores the electromagnetic energy of the particle. When another charge is present, the field exerts a force on the other object and energy is transferred. When no other charged particles are present, the field has no effect but to store energy. The fact that energy is transferred from the field only when another charged particle is present is a defining characteristic of the static field. As you will soon learn, this fact does not hold true for a radiating field.

Reinterpreting Whittakers Decomposition of the Scalar Potential

Giant Negentropy Common Dipole

As previously stated, we applied and re-interpreted Whittaker 1903 decomposition of the potential 85 between the ends of the dipole. The scalar potential is actually a harmonic set of bidirectional longitudinal EM wavepairs, where each wavepair consists of an outgoing EM longitudinal EM wave in real 3-space and an incoming EM longitudinal EM wave in the complex plane. Hence we have a new and novel EM energy flow symmetry in 4-space, where (as seen by the observer) the broken 3-symmetry of the dipole has removed the usual arbitrary imposition of an additional condition of 3-space energy flow symmetry as well. Simply making a dipole permissibly breaks the 3-space conservation of energy flow symmetry, and moves to 4-dimensional conservation of energy flow. Both EM energy conservation in 3-space and in the time domain are individually broken, but conservation of energy flow is now upheld between the time-domain and the 3-space domain. In blunt terms, we consume a little time to get any EM...

The Quantum Vacuum And Virtual Photons

Now what about the energy in nonradiating electromagnetic fields, that is, the static field and the near field Quantum physics states that any energy must consist of individual packets or quanta, but this implies that even the static field must consist of particles. In fact, the static field does consist of particles virtual photons. To explain virtual photons, let's step further into the strange world of quantum physics. Now back to electromagnetic fields. The stored energy in an electromagnetic field allows for these virtual particles to be created and transport energy. It is these particles that carry the electromagnetic force in nonradiating fields. They have all the properties of the real photons that make up radiating fields with the exceptions being that they are fleeting in time and can never exist without their source being present.

The Fraunhofer And Fresnel Zones

To be even more precise, each electromagnetic field can be divided into four zones the near zone, the intermediate zone, the far zone, and the plane-wave zone. The near zone is the portion of the field close to the source. It is defined as the region where stored energy is much greater than any radiating energy. The far zone is the region where 1) the stored field energy is much less than the radiating energy, 2) the wave impedance is approximately ho 120p, and 3) the electric and magnetic fields are perpendicular to one another. The intermediate zone is the region between the near and far zones. The plane-wave zone is the region in the far zone where the radiation can be approximated as plane waves. This last zone is different from the others because its definition depends on the size of the receiving antenna. Just as a basketball's surface appears curved to a human but relatively flat to a tiny microorganism on the surface, and the Earth's surface appears flat to a walking human,...

Suppression of Free Energy Systems Has Been Common

This is only one of many cases we know of where such suppression of overunity systems and inventors has been accomplished. Others are not so benign. Marinov was killed with a longitudinal EM wave shooter in Europe, and his body was thrown off a building to make it appear a suicide. The police allowed the body to lie on the pavement for a protracted time (it was emitting longitudinal EM waves from the time-charging action of the strike). When finally moved, the pavement glowed in that area that had been underneath the body. Only one weapon on earth will kill a person in that manner, and that is a longitudinal EM wave shooter.

Atmospheric electricity

The Earth is surrounded by a magnetic field, and from a height of about 80 km a substantial fraction of atmospheric gases is in an ionised state (cf. section 2.3.1). It is thus clear that electromagnetic forces play an important role in the upper atmosphere. Manifestations of electromagnetic energy in the lower parts of the atmosphere are well known in the form of lightning. Speculations on the possibility of extracting some of the electrical energy contained in a thunderstorm have appeared. An estimation of the amounts of energy involved requires knowledge of the electrical properties of the atmosphere.

Nitrides Oxynitrides and Oxysulfides

We have seen that introduction of nitrogen into the TiO2 lattice has a favorable effect in terms of sensitizing it to the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum (Table 6). The line between doping and new phase formation is one of degree and the studies on nitridation of a given parent oxide exemplify this point. Thus the band gap of Ta2O5 shrinks from 4.0 eV to 2.1 eV by nitriding it in a NH3 atmosphere to yield

Death Knell of the Speed of Light Limitation

Of course, our thesis developed in this book is that what we have long called EM radiation is in fact gravitational radiation, always involving paired scalar and longitudinal photons and hence time-density waves and longitudinal EM waves. We have pointed out that prior to observation there is no such thing as a separate photon, but there is such a thing as two correlated photons, one time-polarized and the other longitudinally polarized. We believe that there is sufficient meat in our proposed explanation of the anomalous cold fusion results and the anomalous instrument results at China Lake to warrant serious and strenuous investigation of these hypotheses and proposed mechanisms.

Electrodynamics is Still Developing

One of the rather horrid bad examples of ubiquitous errors in electrodynamics is the conventional illustration of a so-called planar EM wavefront moving through space, as shown in Figure 1-4. Figure 1-4 The erroneous but ubiquitous supposed illustration of the transverse EM wave in 3-space. Indeed, each point along the z-axis, is a momentary 3-space frozen slice of the d dt operator being applied to the ongoing 4-space interaction of the causal field in 4-space interacting with the previous observed effect (in this case, the previous 3-space slice) to produce a change to it. So the entire diagram is a set of frozen 3-space observations, in which nothing at all is moving, and where the fields shown are in the mass (detecting observing) medium. There is no such thing as a traveling EM wave in 3-space, because moving or changing or traveling a priori must involve time as well as 3-space. What we are looking at in Figure 1-4 is the iterative and very rapid results of continual 3-space...

The Supersystem and Remarks on Gravity Antigravity and Testing

the Aharonov-Bohm effect is a local gauge transformation ofthe true vacuum which produces a vector potential from the true vacuum. This gauge transformation produces topological charge , the electromagnetic field, which carries energy, and the vacuum charge current density first proposed by Lehnert and developed by Lehnert and Roy . M. W. Evans and S. Jeffers 556 . 4-current as given by Sachs Equation 1 is an elegant and deeply meaningful expression of the fact that electromagnetic energy density is available from curved spacetime under all conditions the distinction between field and matter is lost, and the concepts of point charge and point mass are not present in the theory, as these two concepts represent infinities of the closed-field theory developed by Sachs from the irreducible representations of the Einstein group. The accuracy ofexpression 1 has been tested to the precision of the Lamb shifts in the hydrogen atom without using renormalization ofinfinities. The Lamb shifts...

Sources of Radiant Energy Figure

What is revealed within this publication should clear a path to the understanding of Moray's radiant energy device for the reader. It will be understood that ionic recombination can be directed to produce intense surges of electromagnetic energy. More clearly, ionic energy is converted into electromagnetic energy. The conversion from ionic to electromagnetic energy can then be transformed into useful electrical power by conventional radio circuitry.

Explanation Of The Magnetic Vector Potential

In Chapter 3, I promised to give a conceptual meaning to the magnetic vector potential. This explanation involves the electrons of a superconducting circuit. In a superconductor, the electrons can move freely without colliding with the positive ions of the metal. Suppose that a DC current is applied to a superconducting wire. Without collisions, the electrons form a collective system that has a wave nature. In other words, the wave nature of the electrons dominates over the particle nature. Keep in mind that they form matter waves, not electromagnetic waves. The electromagnetic field and the current that result are still DC in nature. It is the location of the matter itself that forms a wave. In such a system the total momentum of an electron can be expressed as

Circuits As Guides For Waves And Sparameters

Electromagnetic waves also travel extremely slowly in conductors where 5 is the skin depth in meters. In air, electromagnetic waves, whether 60 Hz power line waves, light waves, or radio waves, travel at about the speed of light in a vacuum, 3 x 108m sec or 670 million miles hour. In copper at 20 Hz, electromagnetic waves travel at about 2m sec or 4 miles per hour To be clear, I am talking about the waves, not the electrons. (As mentioned in Chapter 2, the electrons travel even slower, with average drift velocity of about 1.7 miles hour in copper.)

Intense Discharges in Ionized

In the case of plasmas, some are known to transduce an input transverse EM wave into an output longitudinal EM wave, and vice versa. We know now that such a longitudinal EM wave is also accompanied by a time-polarized (scalar) EM wave in the time domain. The connection with the Whittaker 1903 decomposition of the potential, and with the new 4-symmetry negentropy law, is apparent. Several C0P> 1.0 researchers notably Shoulders 381a-f and Paulo and Alexandra Correa 382a-e have performed extensive research into anomalous discharge phenomena, and also have developed experimental devices capitalizing on the novel Formation of longitudinal EM waves in the plasma forms in certain gas tubes, such as in Priore's gas-filled tubes 387 , may also occur in the Correa experiments and probably do. Longitudinal EM waves, of course, always involve their concomitant, accompanying time-polarized EM waves, since the combination comprises the scalar potential and hence the local curvature of spacetime...

The Key Elements Of Worldwide Wireless Power Transfer

A second method for coupling power into the cavity would be via direct conduction displacement with the conductive surfaces of the waveguide, which appears to be Tesla's original concept dating back to 1892. Several mechanisms could be considered as follows 1) Recall that, in 1900, he proposed using balloons at 30-35 thousand feet of elevation. Conceivably the power could be conducted to these via an ionization path, created by a single electrode x-ray tube driven by the transmitter. 2) The conducting path formed by ionizing radiation might be used to couple directly into the electro sphere without the elevated conductive sphere. 3) An approach might also be borrowed from those used in present ionospheric modifications experiments 68 . 4) Perhaps with the extremely high operating voltages that Tesla had proposed, the displacement coupling with the atmospheric conduction path would be direct, as apparent from an artist's rendition of wireless power distribution from Tesla's...

Unaccounted Transduction Extends the Conservation of Energy

Along with the re-emission of all the previously absorbed spatial energy, all the previously absorbed time-charge of the excited electron may be reemitted with a longitudinal photon scalar photon pair (a graviton) when the time-excited state decays. In that case, no energy-charging permanent change results to the electron's original energy state. Hence no electron wiggle will be created and our normal electron wiggle detectors performing such non-transducing longitudinal EM wave interactions will not exhibit an indication. In short, the pure time-charging EM LW interaction is unobservable to present instruments. All they see is the same electron sitting there and flowing through time. However, if two or more such gravitons are simultaneously emitted from various reactions in time-decays, the emitted scalar photons and waves may interfere at some little distance. In that case, transverse EM waves and ordinary EM energy will be produced in the interference zone 613 . To the external...

Transduction Between Time Charging and Spatial Energy Charging

The oscillating energy (spatial and temporal) in a moving EM wave in the vacuum represents a moving oscillation of spacetime curvature. Simply put, the so-called electromagnetic wave in space is actually a gravitational wave in space, since it is an oscillation of the local energy density of spacetime and therefore an oscillation of the curvature of local spacetime. It transports gravitons (scalar photon longitudinal photon pairs) rather than merely photons. So let us now consider it as a gravitational wave.

Synchronous generator parameter identification

Off-line identification experiments have been used for decades to identify electrical machine parameters. Two concepts are commonly used running machine, or standstill. Standstill tests are very attractive from a practical viewpoint - if it is permissible to take the machine out of operation - because driving the machine often creates serious complications of the measurement set-up 301 . Furthermore, the measured signals will have good signal-to-noise ratios due to the absence of disturbance signals (electromagnetic interference). All standstill tests reported in literature are variations on the same concept, they mainly differ in the kind of excitation signal applied (i.e. step, ramp, sinusoidal, or random excitation).

Detecting The Human Energy Field

Normally, high-frequency EM waves are damped out by the human body, that consists of 90 water. Low frequency EM waves can however, be passed, even through water. Though they would not be attenuated so much if there existed in the body a system of energy lines coining from acupuncture points (the existence of which orthodox science questions), or they could pass around the body as a 'skin effect', insulated from the internal body structures by the high resistance of dead skin cells.

Save Energy With Induction Cooking

Induction cooktops pulse electromagnetic waves directly to the food inside a pot or pan that acts as the conductor. Regular electric cooktops waste electricity by first heating up the element, then the glass ceramic top, then the pot or pan, then the food. When you're done cooking, it all has to cool off by dumping heat into the air.

Energy Dynamics in the Atmosphere

Briefly, radiation is the transfer of energy through matter or space by electric or magnetic fields suitably called electromagnetic waves. High-energy waves are emitted from the tiniest particles in the nucleus of an atom, whereas low energy is associated with larger whole atoms and molecules. The highest energy waves are known as radioactivity since they are generated by the splitting (fission) or joining (fusion) of particles, and low energy waves result from vibration and collision of

Energy balance of the earth

The energy released within the nucleus of the sun is initially transported by radiation to approximately 0.7 times the solar radius. Further transport to the surface of the sun takes place through convection. Afterwards, the energy is released into space. This energy stream released by the sun is differentiated as radiation of matter on the one hand and electromagnetic radiation on the other hand (see 2-1 ). - Electromagnetic radiation mainly released by the photosphere (Fig. 2.1) covers the entire frequency from short-wave to long-wave radiation. This type of solar

The Field Of An Alternating Current

Relating frequency to wavelength by l c f, we define slow oscillation as any frequency whose corresponding wavelength is much greater than the length of the wire. This condition is often called quasi-static. In this case, the current in the wire will vary sinusoidally, and the effective charge will experience a sinusoidal acceleration. Consequently, the oscillating charge will radiate electromagnetic energy at frequency, fo. The power (energy per time) radiated is proportional to the magnitude of current squared and the length of the wire squared, because both parameters increase the amount of moving charge. The radiation power is also proportional to the frequency squared since the charge experiences a greater acceleration at higher frequencies. (Imagine yourself on a spinning ride at an amusement park. The faster it spins, the greater the acceleration you and your lunch feel.)

The Universal Origin Of Radiation

All electromagnetic radiation, be it RF radiation, thermal radiation, or optical radiation, is created this way by changing the energy of electrons or other charged particles. This general statement includes not only changes in energy of free electrons due to acceleration deceleration, but also the change in energy of electrons bound in atoms due to change in orbitals (quantum energy state changes).

The Field Of An Oscillating Charge

A charge moving in a circle experiences sinusoidal acceleration. In fact, sinusoidal acceleration will occur for a charge moving in any oscillatory manner. In this case, the kinks in the field will be continuously varying and sinusoidal and the electromagnetic radiation will occur only at the frequency of oscillation. As shown in Figure 5.6B, an oscillating charge produces a rippling of waves that propagate outward, in some ways similar to the water waves produced by tossing a rock into a pool of water.


Every person, whether technical or nontechnical, is quite familiar with electromagnetic radiation. We directly experience radiation as light and heat radiation, and we also rely on radio, TV, cell phones, and other devices that make use of this property of nature. But what is electromagnetic radiation and how is it produced How is radiation different from the static fields we find around a charged object or permanent magnet Intuitively we know that radiating fields are far-reaching, whereas nonradiating fields like those of a refrigerator magnet are concentrated near their source. This intuitive notion is a good start for learning the details. Understanding antennas and electromagnetic radiation is obviously important in RF engineering, in which capturing and propagating waves are primary objectives. An understanding of radiation is also important for dealing with the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) aspects of electronic products, including digital systems. EMC design is concerned...

Curious Kink

To understand why bent field lines of a charge correspond to radiated energy, consider a charged particle that starts at rest and is kicked into motion by an impulsive force. When the particle is accelerated, a kink appears in the field immediately surrounding the particle. This kink propagates away from the charge, updating the rest of the field that has lagged behind, as shown in Figure 5.5C. Part of the energy expended by the driving force is expended to propagate the kink in the field. Therefore, the kink carries with it energy that is electromagnetic radiation. Fourier analysis shows that since the kink is a transient, it will consist of a superposition of many frequencies. Therefore, a charge accelerated in this manner will radiate energy at many simultaneous frequencies.

PIds pf

The energy not produced in association with neutrinos is in the form of electromagnetic radiation ( -rays) or kinetic energy of the particles involved in the nuclear reactions. Most of the kinetic energy is carried by electrons or positrons. The positrons annihilate with electrons and release the energy as electromagnetic radiation, and also part of the electron kinetic energy is gradually transformed into radiation by a number of processes. However, the electromagnetic radiation also reacts with the matter, notably the electrons, and thereby converts part of the energy to kinetic energy again. If the distribution of particle velocities locally corresponds to that predicted by Here F is the power radiated per unit area and into a unit of solid angle, V is the frequency of radiation, h 6.6 x 10-34 J s is Planck's constant and c 3 x 108 m s-1 the velocity of electromagnetic radiation (light) in vacuum.


Marion, Classical Electromagnetic Radiation, 3rd Edition, Fort Worth, Tex. Saunders College Publishing, 1980. Jordan, E. C., and K. G. Balmain, Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems, 2nd Edition, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Prentice Hall, 1968. Paul, C., and S. Nasar, Introduction to Electromagnetic Fields, 2nd Edition, Boston McGraw-Hill, 1987.

Zeropoint Energy

When the formalism for the zero-point energy is introduced, some of these issues may be better understood and resolved. Callen18 demonstrates that the vacuum fluctuations manifest themselves even at a classical level The existence of a radiation impedance for the electromagnetic radiation from an oscillating charge is shown to imply a fluctuating electric field in the vacuum.18 Candelas19 shows that pressure fluctuations associated with these energy fluctuations


The ether is a universal medium, which fills all space. It appears to be dynamic relative to an earth moving thousands of miles per hour through space. The ether is normally electrically neutral, ultra-fine, and penetrates all solid matter. There is also an ultra high frequency, ubiquitous radiation, normally in equilibrium, called Zero Point Radiation (ZPR), which interpenetrates the ether, and represents electromagnetic radiation in its finest, densest form, which, in conjunction with the ether, conserves universal perpetual motion.

Solar Energy

Solar energy is referred to as renewable and or sustainable energy because it will be available as long as the sun continues to shine. Estimates for the life of the main stage of the sun are another 4-5 billion years. The energy from the sunshine, electromagnetic radiation, is referred to as insolation.

Section Five

The function of this satellite is to keep the Soviet electromagnetic radiation pulsing (at ELF frequencies) aimed at the inner proton belt in order to maintain peak power through resonance. Einaudi, F., and Wait, J.R., Analysis of the excitation of the earth-ionosphere waveguide by a satellite-borne antenna. Parts II and CANADIAN J. PHYSICS, 49 11, No. 4, 1971.

Transmission Lines

As wireless designs become more prevalent and as digital designs reach higher and higher frequencies, a thorough understanding of transmission line theory is becoming increasingly important. With the aid of graphical representations of analog and digital signals, you can gain a solid intuitive understanding of transmission lines. Moreover, this approach requires little mathematics. Unfortunately, many engineers leave school having been exposed to transmission lines only during a few lectures in an electromagnetic fields class. In such classes, transmission line theory is taught with wave equations and a lot of difficult calculus. You have probably heard that transmission line effects become apparent at higher frequencies, but rarely does anyone explain why. Why are transmission line effects usually noticeable only at high frequencies What happens at low frequencies What are the definitions of high and low In practice, you can more easily and completely grasp transmission line theory...


Lightning is always a problem for electronics, especially for wind turbines connected to the grid, as lighting strikes on the grid will send spikes a long ways. A wind turbine is generally the tallest lightning rod around, so lightning protection, a path to ground, is imperative. Manufacturers' instructions on grounding and number and connection of copper rods (size and length) must be implemented, plus all other measures for lightning protection of controllers and inverters, from varistors to blow-out cans. Even then lightening can still cause problems with damage to controllers, electrical systems, blades, and generators. Apart from lightning current, the induced electromagnetic fields may damage the pitch control systems inside the hub. Damage due to lightning is the most costly repair, as replacement of blades and generators may require a crane.

Salinity differences

Useful chemical energy may be defined as energy that can be released through exotermic chemical reactions. In general, chemical energy is associated with chemical bindings of electrons, atoms and molecules. The bindings may involve overlapping electron wavefunctions of two or more atoms, attraction between ionised atoms or molecules, and long-range electromagnetic fields created by the motion of charged particles (notably electrons). In all cases, the physical interaction involved is the Coulomb force. Examples of chemical energy connected with molecular binding structure have been given in section


Lightning presents a potential hazard for systems with exposed conductors and aluminum framing mounted on rooftops or adjacent to a building. Direct and close-in strikes can damage sensitive electronic circuitry through the presence of static charges and electromagnetic fields. These forces can induce voltage surges and may damage the system's wiring and components, particularly if your system is not properly grounded and protected.

Economic theory

The problem is, however, that the government-enforced limits on pollution usually decrease with time, because they were initially chosen too leniently and because additional long-term adverse effects keep appearing (an example is radiation exposure standards). Thus, the socio-economic impacts of environmental offences are constantly underestimated in this approach, and industries and consumers are indirectly stimulated to pollute up to the maximum permitted at any given time. By contrast, the approach whereby environmental impact must be considered earlier, in the production-planning phase, and whereby governments may determine the cost of polluting to be at such a high value that long-term effects are also included, has the effect of encouraging firms and individuals to keep pollution at the lowest possible level.

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