Learn How To Survive Energy Crisis
Energy security is a major concern worldwide. A large part of the world's oil is located in the Middle East and other politically unstable countries. The conflict between 'Western' and 'Islamic ' cultures is at present exacerbating the anxiety over reliability of energy supply. Russia is a major producer of gas but recent events in Ukraine have made European countries aware how dependent they are on this single source. The USA is the world's largest consumer of energy and is heavily dependent on imported oil. With economic growth seen as being intrinsically linked to cheap fuel it is difficult to imagine political parties, in the USA or elsewhere, proposing policies that require voters to drastically curtail their consumption and therefore alter their lifestyles.
In 1973, the oil embargo associated with the Yom Kippur war led many people to look at the technologies around energy and predict that radical change would occur. There were forecasts, taken very seriously, that by 2000 oil would be nearly gone. The internal combustion engine was seen as having reached the limit of its ability to develop. Environmental concerns over air pollution were also seen as driving the rapid growth of nuclear power, and there was considerable effort being expended on commercialization of solar energy. Yet even at that time, some futurists warned that 'energy crises' had occurred before, and rarely had the predicted outcomes. Examples were the energy crisis associated with the lack of sites for new water wheels, and those created in many places by lack of wood through deforestation. The main outcome of the 1973 'energy crisis' was efficiency. In the United States, as shown in Figure 1, the fuel economy of the car fleet doubled between 1973...
For any growing economy, energy security is crucial to assure its smooth development. Moreover the economy will also be very sensitive to the cost of energy imports. The mix of India's current installed capacity of over 100GW of power is approximately 70 per cent thermal, 24 per cent hydro, 3 per cent non-hydro renewables and 2 per cent nuclear. So for a country like India which is installing the bulk of its energy supply this century, both the short-term energy security exposure to importing energy and the long-term pricing expectations merit early consideration of alternative indigenous sources of energy. Renewables provide several good candidates that could address energy security issues.
You may fantasize about going off the grid disconnecting from the electrical utility completely and asserting your energy independence. And while thumbing your nose at the utility monopolies may have great appeal, if you're planning to install an RE system, and if you already have utility electricity at your site, it makes sense to tie your system to the grid, rather than cutting the cord. The primary reason for this has to do with energy production losses when off-grid systems are regulating. In off-grid systems, once the batteries are full, a controller throttles back the output of the RE sources to keep the batteries from being overcharged. Additionally, the battery charge-discharge cycle can consume up to 20 percent of your energy. If the same system is grid-tied, any excess energy gets exported back to the grid, which significantly increases the annual production of your system and puts those otherwise uncaptured electrons to use. Off-grid systems are usually cost effective...
If you have a choice between going off-grid and installing a PV intertie system, do not go off-grid. The economics are horrible, in a relative sense. Off-grid systems use batteries, which are operational and waste nightmares. Plus, you can't get a mortgage for an off-grid house. Nevertheless, a movement is afoot to go back to Mother Nature by going off-grid. This movement would be better titled, getting away from humanity while punching Mother Nature in the gut. You can save a heckuva lot more pollution by going intertie than off-grid in many ways. If you want to get away from humanity (I'm empathetic, believe me), go backpacking and remember to take biodegradable toilet paper. Then when you get back home, check your intertie PV system to see how much of a net surplus of energy you generated.
Looking at the pros and cons of living off-grid Specifying the right solar power systems Looking at a real-life scenario a W ff-grid means you're not connected to a public utility for your electrical power. The term usually also means you're not connected to utility gas, water, and sewer. However, in this chapter, I address only electrical power because that's the angle that solar can solve. (Myriad books and magazines are dedicated to going completely off-grid if you're interested.) Here are a few reasons for going off-grid i You just want to be off-grid because of the allure of independence. In this chapter, I tell you what to expect when you go off-grid, how to evaluate your system needs, and what an off-grid system may look like.
Off-grid wind-electric systems are battery based. People generally choose these systems because their home or other energy use is not connected to the grid, and connection would be expensive. Others prefer the independence of off-grid systems, or live where utilities and governments make it difficult to tie a renewable energy system to the grid. Off-grid systems are limited in capacity by the size of the generating sources (wind turbine, solar-electric array, fuel-fired generator, etc.), the resources available, and the battery bank size. Off-grid homeowners have to learn to live within the limitations of their system capacity.
Take a look at the components of the complete system. You can install a system like this yourself for around 14,000. In many off-grid applications, you don't need to get a county permit or have inspectors look at your system. You're pretty much on your own, although you should be aware of your local requirements. Note Peace signs are optional, although for some reason, they seem to go hand in hand with off-grid lifestyles. Using wind or water doesn't change things much. Just substitute a hydro generator or wind turbine for the PV panels. That energy source may be much less reliable, but on the other hand, it may be more reliable, particularly with water power. You can also use a combination, which is what a lot of off-grid home styles incorporate. (See Chapter 14 for more on wind and water.)
This project is good if you've got a remote cabin (off-grid enthusiasts ) and have access to a creek that's of dubious origin (all together now what do bears do in the woods ). Or if you just want to purify your local tap water, you can use this project for that purpose, too.
Part IV gets into larger projects that cost more money. I give advice on deciding whether to do a project yourself or to hire a contractor, and I give advice on how to hire someone. Greenhouses and solar rooms have some fundamentals that are consistent with all projects that you need to understand, so I cover the basics of what you need to know. I also detail how to specify a large-scale PV system and how to find and hire a contractor to do the installation for you. Going off-grid is sometimes necessary, and sometimes it's just a compelling desire to get away from it all I tell you how best to do it and under what circumstances it's merited.
Solar tracking greatly Increases the energy yield of your modules by up to 2035 per year depending on the location. LORENTZ provides solar tracking mounts for off-grid systems of up to 17m2 180sqft (approx. 2.5 kWp) size. No use of failure prone light sensors or wind sensors. For solar power plants LORENTZ offers a central control system to operate and monitor enough trackers to reach several MW size. Our wide range of different types of pump systems provides the optimum solution for every off-grid pumping situation - reliable, efficient, maintenance-free. We offer solar pumping solutions for 12V to 96V DC or 115 to 400V AC with helical rotor, centrifugal or rotary vane pump mechanisms.
Love your magazine Keep up the good work. My wife and I live off grid. Our electricity sources are PVs and a Jacobs wind generator. We have twelve Rolls batteries in three strings for a 24 V nominal, 1,050 amp-hour battery bank. While additional storage would be nice, you'd still have to refill the batteries after coming out of a sunless and windless period. Also, deeply cycling the batteries will shorten their lifetime. I've designed hundreds of off-grid RE systems, and I always put a backup generator in the system. It's not used very much, but when you need it, you really need it. Richard Perez richard.perez homepower.com
Solar Marine Kits Solar Supplies, Solar Things Grid & Off Grid Systems Solar Gear, Solar Stuff Solar DHW & Pool Systems Solar Bits & Pieces The slides so far illustrate our off-grid lifestyle on our rural homestead and how much we do for ourselves in terms of producing our own energy and growing our own food. Besides photos of our high-tech gear and low-tech gardens, I have one slide that always elicits an audible response. It is of a rattlesnake my friend Katcha found in her yard swallowing a rabbit. I assure them it is a rabbit and not a cat, as it is hard to tell. I tell the kids that we see three to nine rattlesnakes a year in our yard during hot weather. We have unknowingly walked over them on the porch steps, found them coiled around the vise in the carport, and surprised one in the The last half of the slides are of off-gridders I know who live with RE, and of the RE systems themselves. There are young couples just starting out and older retired couples, both beyond the grid. I...
If the utility grid is already present at a property, disconnecting from it is a romantic notion that is often not terribly practical, mainly because off-grid systems do not typically collect additional renewable energy once the batteries are full. In grid-tied systems, all available excess energy is routed to the utility grid, increasing the overall system production, often significantly. But when Risa made the decision twelve years ago to not hook up to the electrical grid, little provision in the laws existed for grid-intertied systems, and no tempting city, state, and federal incentives were available. Risa says that she wanted to make the best choice at the time, and I believe I did, given what was possible. Risa and Pam's plans for the property have been evolving. They recently added a 2.4 KW grid-tied solar-electric system to the rental house that shares the lot, helped along by generous local incentives. Pam says, Now we are seriously considering a new concept achieving a...
I'd really like to buy a few PV panels, but I'm not about to buy hundreds of dollars' worth of batteries and controllers. However, if someone made an inverter that could tie into the grid AND function independently now that might be a worthwhile investment. The fellow at Trace Engineering said he'd asked about their making something like this, with an internal switch of some kind so one could dedicate the inverter to ON- or OFF-grid operation. Evidently the feeling is that it's not worth the money to develop. I have no idea as to their efficiencies and such, and I'm a dunce with electronics. However, I just don't see where it would cost all that much more to deyign and make a dual-function inverter. If Trace
In the early days of the magazine, Home Power's goal was to network a fledgling off-grid solar movement. Our efforts created an ongoing information exchange that helped build the foundation of today's solar industry. About a decade ago, our focus shifted to bringing these proven technologies out of the backwoods and into backyards by sharing information on the latest in grid-tied solar-electric systems. After all, the vast majority of Americans live on grid, and in this wired realm, the potential for solar energy borders on limitlessness. But where bringing the benefits of RE to off-gridders has been straightforward, interfacing solar technologies with the utility grid has been anything but simple. Some issues have been technical, but many have been related to policy, legislation, incentives, administration, and straight-out education about the impacts of PV technology on the grid-tied world. Just like in the early days, increasing communication between experienced and inexperienced...
The Law also specifically supports the use of renewable energy for remote rural areas. In 2002, NDRC initiated the Township Electrification program to electrify those remaining 1061 townships that lack electricity with PV, wind, and small hydropower 11 . Approximately, US 340 million was spent on the PV- and wind-powered townships. NDRC is now expanding this program to the village level and will electrify those remaining 25-30 million people in the 20,000 villages which do not yet have electricity. The Village Electrification program will cost an estimated US 5 billion and will be implemented over the next ten years. These off-grid users will be cross-subsidized by the grid-connected users so that they will pay a tariff equivalent to the provincial grid price. To fund the incremental costs of renewably generated power (above the provincial coal power price) as well as the operations and maintenance of the off-grid systems, a surcharge will be applied to all end users (except for those...
In contrast to remote area (off-grid) applications, where PV is often the least cost option, for grid-connected applications, electricity from PV is still relatively expensive, typically by a factor of 10,* depending on the level of the solar resource and cost of grid electricity supply. However, costs to the consumer are converging, aided by buy-down policies and other governmental support mechanisms, such as those offered in the UK, Germany, Japan, US and Australia. Most attention is currently focused on the reduction of costs of the PV modules. The building of larger automated continuous production units will drive down production costs, but in addition lower cost cell technologies are being explored. New low-cost devices such as those based on thin-film micro-crystalline silicon and dye-sensitized technologies are under development and commercially attractive products based on CIGS and CdTe (thin film direct bandgap materials) are being developed.
Grid-independent applications are further distinguished into stand-alone and off-grid applications 6-29 (for examples see Table 6.2). - Photovoltaic energy supply systems are referred to as off-grid systems, if the power grid is inaccessible for technical or economic reasons because of the distance to the closest grid connection point (e.g. alpine huts or households located in regions with a missing infrastructure for electricity supply). For larger systems also the terms of stand-alone applications or autonomous energy supply systems are commonly used. Also in this respect, the systems are further subdivided into industrial applications (the greatest market share accounting for wire-less telecommunication systems) on the one hand, and household supply on the other. Especially for developing countries, the borderlines are loose since economic activities are often only permitted by the power supply to households. Grid-connected decentralized applications Photovoltaic power plants_
A completely self-sufficient home that is off the grid so to speak is now possible. There are thousands of such homes around the world. This leads to homes still using partial power off the grid, or people cutting back on their energy consumption. Some common ways of cutting back on energy consumption would be to purchase energy efficient appliances, use a Lapp computer instead of a desktop, eliminate television or watch a smaller one, and eliminate the majority of air conditioner use. The largest barrier for most people is the price tag associated with moving off the grid. It depends heavily on what type of power you're going to use, but it still generally costs 100,000 or more to have Please do remember, after converting a home to completely run off grid will increase the value of the home. So take that into account if you are considering purchasing something like this on your next home.
You can use solar heated water to literally heat your home off-grid. Radiant heat, without solar, costs much less than forced-air heating for efficiency reasons. But when you supplement your radiant heat system with a solar water heater, you can drive your heating costs down to nearly nothing. Of course, sunshine isn't very reliable, particularly on the coldest nights when you most need heat, so you can't use solar heating exclusively it can only be a supplement. But it can be very effective.
Basically, solar thermal power plants compete with conventional, grid-connected fossil fuel-fired power stations -in particular, modern, natural-gas-fired combined cycle plants in mid-load or base-load operation mode. For small-scale, off grid solar power generation, such as on islands or in rural hinterlands of developing countries, competition stems basically from gas oil or heavy-fuel-oil-powered diesel engine generators.
Your property is the collateral for the loan, and it's critical in the risk-reduction process. To convince the bank that your property is ideal collateral, you have to convince the bank that if you default on the loan, it'll be able to sell your house quickly for a good price. Houses that are odd in character (off-grid home Beware see Chapter 18) or that require modifications prior to sale (purple and yellow paint ) can cause hiccups. Banks want vanilla flavors for the same exact reason that you see mostly vanilla ice cream at the grocery store because everybody wants it. i The property can't be off-grid.
An entrepreneur from the US started his work in solar as the director of a high-profile solar NGO. He first got the idea that there might be a big market for solar in the emerging markets while consulting for an American PV manufacturer. As he concluded at the time, 'The global market for solar was the off-grid stand-alone small system, and the PV manufacturer had no clue about that.'33 Without strong interest from the PV manufacturer in developing this market, he decided to try to do it himself
Photovoltaic energy systems are currently used wherever relatively small electrical loads (typically less tha n 100 kWh month) cannot be conveniently powered by an existing utility grid. As prices for PV technology declin e through technology improvements and increased manufacturing automation, PV energy systems will become a viabl e option for an increasing diversity of loads requiring more power than the typical off-grid small systems used today . The unique advantages of photovoltaics - modularity, good match to many diurnal load patterns, low O&M, environmentally benign, renewable energy source - are expected to be important factors in early cost-effectiv e applications of PV energy systems. PV solar energy provides a number of other benefits besides the value of the energy. Some of these benefits includ e the following no fuel or water consumption low maintenance improved national energy security economicall y important U.S. export technology and avoidance of CO2 generation. See...
Thin film PV devices are very different from today's common PV devices made from crystalline silicon. Thin film s use 1 20 to 1 100 of the material needed for crystalline silicon PV, and appear to be amenable to more automated, less-expensive production. For a review of thin film PV see References 16-32. There are three thin films that hav e demonstrated good potential for large-scale PV amorphous silicon (a-Si), copper indium diselenide (CIS), an d cadmium telluride (CdTe). Others are at somewhat earlier levels of maturity (film silicon and dye-sensitized cells) . The system in this document is a composite based on the three most mature thin films. It is generally believed that all thin films share similar characteristics the potential for very low module cost (under 50 m 2 of module area) and reasonable module efficiencies (13 -15 or more), implying potential module costs well under 0.5 Wp. See References 22-32 and a cost analysis below for an in-depth discussion of thin film module...
Just before starting to work on the Future Power article, Michael and Suzanne moved to an off-grid island near Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Needing electricity for their home and film production office, they installed a 1,500-watt solar-electric system with gasoline generator backup. So they know firsthand the problems that the world island faces how to power our needs with the resources available, without fouling our nest or sacrificing convenience and functionality.
Energy has a direct impact on the U.S. economy. Energy shortages, in particular, can have significant economic implications. With an energy crisis, there generally is a period of decreased spending and reduced confidence in the economy. For example, during a period of high oil prices or oil shortfalls, gasoline prices increase, and higher gasoline prices translate into higher transportation costs. Higher transportation costs affect not only the day-today living expenses of most citizens but the daily operational expenses of businesses. This effect leads to an overall increase in the price of goods and services and to decreased consumer spending, which then, in many cases, can lead to a recession, a period of slowed economic activity.
The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 is a U.S. law enacted in response to the 1973-74 energy crisis caused by the Arab oil embargo. Its purpose was to reduce U.S. dependency on high-priced oil imported from politically unstable countries, to prepare the United States for energy shortage conditions, and to improve energy efficiency and conservation. One of its measures for protecting the country from future oil shortages was the establishment of the SPR. It authorized the stockpiling of up to one billion barrels of petroleum in the SPR to tap into during energy emergencies. The law also gave the president of the United States the authority to withdraw crude oil from the SPR in response to an energy emergency and distribute it to oil companies by competitive sale. In addition,
One important factor to bear in mind about the prospects for the wind industry is that, as we've already mentioned in Chapters 1 and 2, as far as we have seen, nobody takes into account fossil fuel depletion in their projections. Studies do place certain constraints on fossil fuels in their models, based on assumptions about the future of emissions controls, geopolitical factors, climate change, historical production rates, industry investment, and so on, but it appears that most analysts have yet to fully grasp the coming energy crisis or if they do, they aren't saying so.
Amory Lovins coined the term negawatts in 1989 to describe the concept of energy you don't have to generate. An accomplished author and Chief Scientist at the Rocky Mountain Institute, Lovins is perhaps one of the most influential voices when it comes to conservation and efficiency. Over the past few years, the emergence of the energy crisis has sparked renewed interest in negawatts among the world's most forward-thinking investors.
Lessen the hardship that price increases may cause for citizens. The even- and odd-numbered license plate restrictions placed on gasoline buying during the 1979 oil crisis provide one example in this case, however, the measure backfired, exacerbating the energy crisis and its negative effects on the economy. And then there are others who flatly predict that the combination of rising oil prices and a mounting shortage of oil is precipitating a major economic crisis in the United States from which it will never recover. As Jeremy Leggett, an expert in renewable energy and chief executive of a large independent solar electric company in the United Kingdom, writes, When it becomes clear that there is no escape from ever-shrinking supplies of increasingly expensive oil, there will be a paroxysm of panic. Human society will face an energy crisis of unprecedented proportions, and that, plus the panic, will spark an economic collapse of unparalleled awfulness. 34 Whether such doomsaying can...
There are many reasons (and therefore many potential objectives) for accelerating renewable energy development. They include sustainability objectives, energy policy reform, renewable energy production, new generating capacity, indigenous fuel manufacture, greenhouse gases (GHGs) mitigation, distributed generation, increment size, energy cost and least-cost planning (internalization), energy security, new industry manufacturing development, development of intellectual property in new technologies, job creation, rural development and nuclear phase-out. and volatile world prices. So the government chooses renewables to lessen external dependence and improve energy security. Furthermore, with its small economy, it is very price conscious and not so concerned about favouring one technology over another. This government wants to avoid mega-projects that create big debts and it also wants low prices for electricity. It is especially pleased if prices fall below those of its current diesel...
The use of liquid biofuels could provide several benefits to the United States. Foremost would be an added measure of energy security by increasing energy self-sufficiency and substantially lessening dependence on foreign oil. The reduction of imports could result in an annual balance-of-payments savings of up to 100 billion while creating a domestic biofuels industry that would provide jobs, economic growth, additional tax revenue, and a potential export market. Additionally, liquid fuels from biomass can benefit the environment by recycling rather than adding C02 to the atmosphere, making biofuels a desirable option for reducing the impact of potential global warming. Expanded use of biomass in other applications would have similar effects in improving the environment and, to he extent imported petroleum is effectively replaced, in improving energy security and the balance of payments.
I Regardless of size, a city should undertake policy development to support renewable energy deployment in association with other policies, including national policies linked to sustainability goals and climate change, and local policies relating to energy security, energy access, health, employment, equity and reducing energy demands. Policies that are not directly energy-related, but could influence renewable energy uptake, can have direct or indirect impacts. I Support from citizens and local businesses for the greater deployment of renewable energy technologies is essential, based on a good understanding of the issues. The personal benefits that would result for individuals and businesses need to be identified and disseminated. Leaders can motivate residents, offer them enhanced pride in their community as a result of being an early adoptor, as well as provide them with greater energy independence, energy security, employment and social cohesion. Strong leadership based on clear...
As the voice of the methanol industry, AMI works with auto manufacturers and government agencies to accelerate the introduction of electric fuel cell vehicles powered by methanol. AMI helps inform elected officials and the public about the energy security, greenhouse gas and other environmental benefits of methanol fuel cell technology. Leading portable power equipment, telecommunications, and consumer electronics companies, with AMI s support, expect to introduce garden and camping equipment, cellular telephones and other methanol-powered fuel cell products in the near future.
Figure D Projected performance and cost and domestic electricity generation for Otec D Contributions to National Goals
The noneconomic benefits of OTEC, which facilitates achievement of environmental goals, are promotion of U.S. competitiveness and international trade, enhancement of energy independence and energy security, promotion of international socio-political stability, promotion of a significant presence of U.S. industry in Pacific and Asian-rim countries, and a potential for mitigation of greenhouse emissions.
As already explained in the previous sections and chapters, Denmark has conducted an active and innovative energy policy for many years. During the period from 1972 to 1990, the major objective of the policy was to decrease the dependency on oil imports, while during the 1990s, Danish energy policy mainly aimed at reducing CO2 emissions, as expressed by several national energy plans and further supported by the Kyoto Protocol. In the 1970s and 1980s, the strategic objective of protecting energy security was met by energy savings in combination with increased domestic production of oil and natural gas and the replacement of oil with other fuels, mainly coal and natural gas. Houses were insulated, and power stations replaced oil with
This case shows that, when the government enables a discussion of alternatives at a higher level and when such discussion is not linked to specific jobs in specific local regions, it becomes possible to describe, analyze, and discuss how to implement alternatives that fulfill the objectives of energy security, environment, and job creation.
The greatest investment opportunities are often spawned from extreme crisis. Our reliance on oil, coupled with decades of complacency and special-interest influence, has put the world in an extremely vulnerable position. Moreover, it has become increasingly clear over the past few decades that relying on our elected officials to make the tough decisions that need to be made when it comes to curtailing our reliance on imported oil will amount to little more than election-time promises and bipartisan bickering, neither of which seem to ever accomplish a damn thing. That is why we're convinced that it is capitalism, not bureaucracy, that will dictate the future of transportation. It will reward real solutions in fuel efficiency, energy security, and good-oldfashioned ingenuity. In contrast, it will penalize the business t as-usual mentality that got us into this mess to begin with.
Using geothermal energy can improve national energy security, dependability, and flexibility for utilities, industrial, and residential users while reducing the U.S. balance of payments deficit through displacing imported energy resources and providing a significant opportunity for U.S. industry to export technology and equipment.
Then something happened When sending out papers prior to the city council meeting, the two calculations of April 6 were not included. Instead, the municipality administration made a new calculation dated April 9, which was distributed to the committee at the meeting. This calculation came to the result that in terms of socioeconomics, coal was even slightly better than small natural gas fired CHPs. However, such calculations did not include all environmental and energy security benefits of the natural gas alternative. Consequently, even based on the new calculation, natural gas would still be best in an overall socioeconomic assessment as defined by the law. But the issue was not mentioned.
The leaders and council members of any city or town have the opportunity to develop visionary policies that will affect the manner in which the community evolves. These policies will be constrained by the current status and culture of the community and the aspirations of its members. Therefore the policy recommendations outlined below will need to be placed within the context of a city's current situation, together with any long-term goals it may already have for sustainable development, energy security, wider distribution of energy services, energy cost reductions and its contribution to climate change mitigation.
The overlapping interests of national governments, regional authorities, and local governments relating to climate change mitigation and adaptation, greater energy security, and wider energy access, imply that partnerships between policy-makers at all levels is warranted. National policy-makers can empower their cities and towns to become more effective in implementing policies that mitigate and adapt to climate change. An OECD study (Kamal-Chaoui and Corfee-Morlot, 2009) is aimed to help national policymakers answer the questions What role can and should city authorities play in the design and delivery of cost-effective and timely climate policies and How can central governments assist and encourage local governments to fulfil their potential to become effective players
The US Congress introduced additional measures to support the ethanol industry in 1980. The Energy Security Act of 1980 initiated federally insured loans for ethanol producers, and from 1980-86 alcohol production facilities could access tax-exempt industrial development bonds (Gielecki et al., 2001). Also in 1980, Congress levied a supplemental import tariff of 50 cents per gallon on foreign-produced ethanol (RFA, 2005), which was increased to 60 cents in 1984 (Gielecki et al., 2001) and now stands at 54 cents.
Often such an environmentally better solution would be more costly than other alternatives. However, if the costs of cleaning SO2 emissions from coal were included in the calculations, alternatives 1 and 4 came out equally cost-effective from an economic point of view. And since the natural gas CHP solution had further benefits with regard to energy security, balance of payment, and CO2 emissions, and such externalities according to the authorities were to be included in the overall assessment, it was concluded that alternative 4 was the best solution.
The case of the IDA Energy Plan 2030 is the story of how concrete descriptions of a technical alternative plan can provide information which macroeco-nomic models based on applied neoclassical theory are unable to identify. The IDA Energy Plan 2030 was made by the Danish Society of Engineers, as already described in Chapter 6. The plan proposed concrete technical measures to decrease CO2 emissions, maintain the security of supply, and exploit Danish business potentials. If implemented, the plan would imply more or less the same direct costs as the business-as-usual reference presented by the Danish Energy Authority. Consequently, the benefits achieved with regard to the environment, energy security, and business potentials were additional and did not involve costs from a pure economic point of view, when compared to the reference. However, the plan emphasizes the fact that such strategy will not be implemented by itself under the present institutional conditions. The Parliament and...
Whereas average investment costs of grid-connected photovoltaic systems exceeded 10,000 kWh at the beginning of the 1990s, these costs have been falling significantly. The cost reduction for photovoltaic systems has been nearly 50 per cent per decade over the past two decades. End user prices for single photovoltaic modules are now below 5 Wp. Inverters, support structures, cables and installation result in further costs. The specific investment costs decrease with the system size. The end user prices for grid-connected photovoltaic systems in the range of 5 kWp were about 7500 kWp in 2001, whereas prices close to 5000 kWp can be achieved for systems in the megawatt size range. Table 6.2 shows that the photovoltaic modules make up only about half of the total system cost. Figure 6.1 Global Photovoltaic Module Production and End User Prices for Small Grid-connected Photovoltaic Systems in Germany Figure 6.1 Global Photovoltaic Module Production and End User Prices for Small...
The term grid is often used loosely to describe the totality of the network. In particular, grid connected means connected to any part of the network The term national grid usually means the EHV transmission network. A renewable energy generator may be described either as standalone or grid-connected. In a standalone system a renewable energy generator (with or without other back-up generators or storage) supplies the greater part of the demand. In a grid- connected system, the renewable energy generator feeds power to a large interconnected grid, also fed by a variety of other generators. The crucial distinction here is that the power injected by the renewable energy generator is only a small fraction of that generated by the totality of generators on the grid. The distinction between standalone and grid-connected generators is a useful one but
The majority of wind turbines currently installed generate electricity. Whether or not these turbines are grid connected they need to produce an electricity supply which is of constant frequency or else many common appliances will not function properly. Consequently, the most common mode of operation for a wind turbine is constant rotational speed. Connected to the grid a constant speed turbine is automatically controlled whereas a stand-alone machine needs to have speed control and a means of dumping excess power.
A model-based controller is derived for a grid connected voltage source converter. The controller is model-based in the sense that the controller parameters are dependent on the grid parameters, i.e. L (Llin) and R (Rine). The current controller for three-phase converters discussed here is based on the synchronously rotating (dq) reference frame. Synchronously rotating refers to that the reference frame is rotating with the same speed as the grid voltage vector ea. The rotating reference system has two axes denoted d and q. The grid voltage vector ea coincides with the q-axis in this case, which means that ed 0 (Figure A.5). The transformation expressions are written
For many years, China's national and local governments have encouraged the use of renewables. Over the last decade, many provinces and autonomous regions established local subsidies and tax credits 7 . The national government established ambitious targets. Although small-scale technologies flourished under this support, utility-scale technologies like grid-connected wind power did not. For example, in 1994, a national regulation required utilities to allow interconnection of wind power and to purchase the power at cost plus a reasonable profit, with the incremental costs shared by the grid. However,
Regrettably, the impressive improvements of module performance and reliability have not been matched by progress with the balance of system components. Inverters, particularly those for grid-connected PV, have been identified as a common cause of poor system performance.2 Surprisingly, the grid connection of PV has already raised issues of impact on the electricity supply system, despite the minimal penetrations. Electricity companies have raised concern about the potentially negative impact of grid connected inverters on power quality and safety, pointing out that the combined effect of numerous PV systems connected to the same section of the network might be significant. As a result, considerable research has been undertaken to examine The 3rd and 5th harmonics created by inverters tend to dominate, and it can be seen that the phases are fairly consistent across the different inverters, indicating that only limited cancellation can be expected. For these reasons, strict limits are...
Battery energy storage can be integrated with renewable energy generation systems in either grid-connected or stand -alone applications. For stand-alone systems, batteries are essential to store electricity for use when the sun is no t shining or when the wind is not blowing. For grid-connected systems, batteries add value to intermittent renewabl e resources by facilitating a better match between the demand and supply.
Utilities require homeowners to insure their grid connected systems. We told our insurance agent that our PV system was an electrical improvement approved by the building inspector, the utility, and the California Energy Commission. Our insurance rate remained unchanged.
Table 1 below highlights the key features of the three solar technologies. Towers and troughs are best suited for large, grid-connected power projects in the 30-200 MW size, whereas, dish engine systems are modular and can be used i n single dish applications or grouped in dish farms to create larger multi-megawatt projects. Parabolic trough plants are the most mature solar power technology available today and the technology most likely to be used for near-ter m deployments. Power towers, with low cost and efficient thermal storage, promise to offer dispatchable, high capacit y factor, solar-only power plants in the near future. The modular nature of dishes will allow them to be used in smaller, high-value applications.
We have assumed that PV's end-use sector is electric power. But in the future, PV electricity could also be used in electric vehicles or to make fuels, such as hydrogen for vehicular use. We have not assumed any contribution from these more speculative applications. However, they could be of great significance-even outweighing the impact of grid-connected PV electricity during the next 40 years. PV is not resource limited relative to these markets in any region. The required land area for all capacity needs in 2030 is about 60,000 km2, approximately 1 of U.S. land area. Therefore, PV could meet 100 of the market needs as an ultimate theoretical potential. Referring to peaking needs only, they are estimated to be 15 of these capacity needs for the Northeast and North Central areas, and 8 in the South and West. Electricity for peak power is expected to be the major market for PV during the next 5 to 15 years.
The availability of low-cost fuel has been the principal limiting factor in the use of wood or other biomass in power generation. Nearly all current operations are fueled by waste or by-product materials. The cost of collecting biomass materials for power plant use ranges from 1.00 to 3.00 MilBtu, or as much or more than the total delivered cost of coal. Few biomass power plants have been built that rely solely on purchased materials the economics are very different where waste or by-product material is available on a reliable basis at no cost (or possibly a credit if disposal is otherwise required). Therefore, the use of biomass-based generating plants has been pursued primarily by nonutility, industrial entities. In 1988, almost 8000 MW of nonutility-owned, grid-connected, biomass-based generation capacity was operating. Of this, more than 70 was in cogeneration systems. Wood-fired systems accounted for 77 of the total capacity followed by MSW (11 ), agricultural waste (7 ),...
The generator of a horizontal-axis wind turbine is housed in the nacelle and converts the mechanical power into electrical power. Until recently, the classification into constant or variable rotational speed wind turbines was determined by the choice of the electrical generator. For the grid-connected wind turbines, two types of generators were commonly used, asynchronous (or induction) generators and synchronous generators with AC-DC-AC converter. Asynchronous generators were used by many Danish wind turbine manufacturers during the 1980's en 1990's and had no possibility to influence the electrical conversion system. The result being that the rotational speed of the generator was almost constant. The synchronous generator plus AC-DC-AC converter offers the possibility to influence the electrical conversion directly (i.e. by means of controlling the power electronics and or the field excitation), making variable rotational speed possible.
When Brint's RV is not on the road, it sits in his driveway with a power cord stretching into Brint's grid connected home. Brint has taken many of his downtown appliances off of the grid and powers them from solar electricity made by the resting motorhome. Some of the appliances powered at home by the RV are a 24 inch Color TV for 16 hours daily, a 900 Watt microwave oven for 45 minutes daily, three Osram compact fluorescents five hours each daily, three ceiling fans for ten hours daily, and occasional use of a clothes iron, a washing machine, a sewing machine, and a vacuum cleaner.
Most wind turbine capacity is associated with commercial wind farms for grid connected power, and therefore large machines 3 MW) are the most common now. However small machines of capacity between about 50 W and1 kW are common for boats, holiday caravans and houses, small power public service (e.g. rural bus shelters) and small meteorological and other measurement sites. Slightly larger, but still 'small' are 5-100 kW wind turbines installed for household, farm and institutional use. Cost-effective operation is most likely in locations where other energy supplies are expensive (e.g. oil) and grid electricity not available. However, where there is a grid and if excess electricity can be sold to a utility grid at a price of at least half the buying price, grid connection is no discouragement for wind power projects.
The most productive hours of sunlight for PV systems are from 9 AM to 3 PM. Before and after these times, electricity is generated, but at much lower levels 8 . In addition, an afternoon thunderstorm will severely reduce local PV output before it will indirectly reduce the load by cooling ambient temperatures and suppressing solar heat gains. This ha s profound technical impacts that can negate some of the benefits associated with distributed, grid-connected PV. A n hour of energy storage can alleviate this problem 9 .
The bulk of current grid-connected PV is located on domestic building roofs. Japan and Germany between them have installed over a million such roof systems, primarily as a result of generous market support mechanisms. A similar programme is now planned in the USA. Earlier installations in the main made use of traditional looking modules, although there is now increasing use of so-called PV roof tiles. These can be laid more or less in the same way as traditional tiles and lend the roof a more traditional appearance. Alongside domestic roofs, commercial buildings also provide attractive locations for PV where flat roofs and facades lend themselves to PV installation. There are numerous examples of architecturally appealing PV facades to be found around the cities of Europe. There are thermal issues associated with such building integration of PV. If not carefully designed, the mounting systems can inhibit natural ventilation of the modules, leading to overheating with possible damage...
The fact that grid connected converters might give rise to high common mode currents is well known. This causes problems like bearing currents and insulation problems in electrical machines 48 . The common mode current results from the variations in voltage potential of the DC side supply rails, depending on the actual switch state. Consequently, the fundamental of the common mode current appears at switching frequency. The capacitive coupling between the supply rails and ground provides a path for the common mode current. Due to the capacitive nature of the current path, the common mode current magnitude increases with increasing switching frequency.
International markets also provide opportunity for solar thermal technology. Small systems, like the Stirling, have potential to be competitive in either grid-connected or stand-alone applications in many third-world countries. However, other developed countries are threatening to challenge the United States in tapping these markets. European countries are significantly increasing their investments in solar thermal research. At the same time, the U.S. budget has steadily declined over the past decade. This situation may make it difficult for U.S. industry to exploit its current leadership in marketing solar thermal technology in foreign markets.
CSP systems have been used since the early 1980s to generate electricity and to provide heat. The investment of US 1.2 billion between 1984 and 1991 in nine commercial parabolic trough solar power plants in the California Mojave desert, totalling 354 MWe, (known as the SEGS plants) and their successful continued operation and performance, demonstrate the readiness of CSP. Today, these California plants are still operating reliably and have produced more than 50 of all solar electricity in the world. The CSP industry anticipates that solar electricity generation costs will be fully competitive with fossil-based, grid-connected power generation costs once an initial 5,000 MWe of new CSP solar capacity is installed globally.
Real Goods Renewables is the largest supplier of Renewable Energy Systems in the world. We can take you off-the-grid little by little with our 100 watt Sun Plug solar system for less than 1,000- or all at once, enabling you to create all of your own power. Starting with conservation and energy efficient appliances we can shave up to 75 off your utility bill. And with solar power, you'll be completely exempt from worries about the Year 2000 (Y2K) computer problem. Call one of our 8 full time technicians at Real Goods Renewables or request our free 100 page catalog.
After ten years off the grid, Humboldt State University's Campus Center for Appropriate Technology switched to 2.4 KW of utility-intertied PV. Now they're a model for decentralized generation pitching their green energy into the mix. John Bertrand shares his homework on finding an energy efficient laptop that doesn't work his RE system too hard. His off-grid, wireless Internet and LAN system is pretty slick too check it out
An example of urgent opportunities is within the now seemingly calm California energy markets the undercurrents that led to huge price spikes and considerable customer pain in recent years are yet to be fully addressed and alleviated. Such perfect storms may appear once again during another cycle of California economic recovery and growth. The California power crisis in 2000 was only the most visible parts of a larger and growing U.S. energy crisis that is the result of years of inadequate investments in the infrastructure. Develop the portfolio of advanced power generation technologies to assure energy security
Energy conservation received greater attention in India since the mid 1970s. Structural changes in the economy during the last few years have led to the expansion of the industrial base and infrastructure in the country, and subsequently to increase in demand for energy. Any effort to enhance energy generation brings issues of available energy sources and systems. India recognizes, as anywhere else, a need to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and transition to an era where many cost-effective and efficient energy choices are available. There has been a vigorous search during the last three decades for alternatives to fossil fuels that would ensure energy security and eco-friendly sustainable development.
DC Power Systems, Inc. is proud to be the exclusive distributor for Kestrel and Iskra wind turbines in the Western Hemisphere, as well as a distributor for Energie, PGE. We also offer guyed and free-standing towers, controllers, off-grid and grid-tied inverters for most models.
When people think of grid-connected hydro electricity, images of something really big like Hoover Dam come to mind. But on a residential scale, high-power AC-direct hydro turbines in the 10 to 25 KW range have been feeding electricity to the grid for decades. What is new in the hydro world is coupling batteryless inverters to low-power microhydro turbines generating anywhere from 500 to 4,000 W for grid-tied applications.
I live in a canyon near Santa Barbara that suffers from power failures from winter winds. Since California deregulated their utilities, the time it takes for downed power lines to be repaired has increased. I recently installed a pair of Trace DR1524 inverter chargers as an emergency backup system in my grid-connected home. The next logical step was to set up a low-cost propane generator.
This section describes the effort of the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD) to implement a 100 percent renewable energy system for each of its college campuses. LACCD is the largest college system in the United States, with nine campuses serving over 180,000 students and two new satellite campuses. The map in Figure 6.1 shows the locations of the nine college campuses. All of the campuses are dependent on a central power grid. However, by the end of 2009, all of them will be off the grid. The strategy is to change from fossil fuels to renewable energy and storage while meeting most of the energy demand of the college community. Renewable energy is a critical component of LACCD's sustainable building program, which has the objective of making all nine colleges energy-independent. This will be achieved by reducing overall energy consumption, increasing energy efficiency, and producing energy through a combination of alternative energy methods namely, solar, wind, biomass,...
Energy is a mainstay of an industrial society. As the population of the world increases and people strive for a higher standard of living, the amount of energy necessary to sustain our society is ever increasing. At the same time, the availability of nonrenewable sources, particularly liquid fuels, is rapidly shrinking. Therefore, there is general agreement that to avoid an energy crisis, the amount of energy needed to sustain society will have to be contained and, to the extent possible, renewable sources will have to be used. As a consequence, conservation and renewable energy technologies are going to increase in importance and reliable, up-to-date information about their availability, efficiency, and cost is necessary for planning a secure energy future. The timing of this handbook also coincides with a new impetus for the use of renewable energy. This impetus comes from the emergence of renewable portfolio standards RPS in many states of the U.S. and renewable energy policies in...
It seems to me many elderly and retiring people invest their hard earned savings in the large, spacious house they've long dreamed to own when they no longer may need it, so let me give a plug for the compact, solar electric home as a choice for retirees. My own Social Security benefits are projected to be 522 month, scheduled to begin late next year and me intending to live within my means. I moved off the grid and into my small, but light and airy, 840 square foot house on 8 acres in the central California foothills about six months ago. The next project here is the completion of the island's emergency radio repeater system (callsign VP2EA R, 147.81 mhz) which will be powered by an innovative twin turbine wind generator from Ted Baer of Enercraft. Planning for 1991 includes using surplus 200 watt Winchargers on 64 foot towers to power a local service station and installation of a Bergey 3KW synchronous, grid connected system for a local business. Future planning includes locating a...
But Eskom and Shell were part of a much bigger Government initiative. As early as 1997, the Department of Minerals and Energy (DME) had identified a number of unserviced areas for off-grid electrification of 300,000 rural dwellings.30 At this time roughly a third of the population - 15 million people - still had no access to electricity. The Government's target was to ensure that by 2010 it had achieved universal access to electricity, and solar took on a 'saviour-like status as the perfect solution for ensuring that electricity would be available in areas where the grid would not'.31 In January 1999, the Government put out a call for proposals, and six concessionaires were chosen to implement the off-grid solar programme. Each selected concessionaire would in theory have a 20-year concession, including a 5-year exclusive right to sell up to 50,000 solar home systems in their area. The chosen concessionaires included an impressive line-up of local and international players the...
While pricing laws establish the price and let the market determine capacity and generation, mandated targets work in reverse the government sets a target and lets the market determine the price. Typically, governments mandate a minimum share of capacity or electricity generation (generally grid-connected only), or a share of fuel, to come from renewable sources. The share required often increases gradually over time, with a specific final target and end-date. The mandate can be placed on producers, distributors or consumers. The simplest form of quota system is one in which the government imposes a mandate on one producer supplier. For example, during the 1990s the Minnesota Public Utilities Commission ordered the electric utility Northern States Power to install successive amounts of wind energy capacity, thereby helping to open up the wind market in that US state (Sawin, 2001). Quotas have also been used to promote the use of renewables off the grid, including alternative fuels....
During the last nine months we've been experimenting with over 100 wet, pocket plate, nickel-cadmium cells. These cells are made by a variety of manufacturers. None of them are new and all were supplied by Pacific West Supply in Oregon. Some were reconditioned, others were not. Some cells are high rate cells and others are medium rate cells. These experiments have been carried out in four different test systems. Two of the systems are PV generator sourced, one is stand-alone PV with no generator at all, and one is grid connected.
If the scientific community will fund the necessary research on permissible COP 1.0 Maxwellian systems, the quick results will solve the energy crisis, clean up the biosphere including much cleaner air in our cities for the populace to breathe provide cleaner streams, and result in far less polluted oceans. It will stop the pollution-caused destruction of species, and dramatically reduce the hydrocarbon combustion contributions to global warming. There will no longer be a necessity to consider burying in the bottom of the sea the excess CO2 from massive hydrocarbon combustion to provide the much-needed electrical power, because it will no longer be necessary to burn the oil, coal, and gas to get the power. And there will no longer be any necessity for expensive and highly vulnerable nuclear power plants with their resulting nuclear wastes that will remain radioactive for thousands of years.
Keeping standby losses to a minimum is extremely important in off-grid RE systems. Any electricity demand beyond what the RE system can generate is typically provided by an engine generator, which is noisy, polluting, and expensive to run and maintain. One design approach for large off-grid PV systems (3 KW array and greater) is to simply add additional modules to offset standby energy use by appliances and inverters in idle mode. This approach is most convenient, but requires a larger cash outlay up front. For small off-grid systems (1 KW array or less), unchecked standby losses can quickly become one of the largest loads on the system. Comparing PV output and initial costs to energy consumption helps drive home the benefits of minimizing standby energy use. Let's assume that you have installed an array with 100-watt PV modules at a location with 5 daily peak sun-hours, and appliance and inverter standby losses amount to 1,200 WH per day. For a batteryless, on-grid system, an overall...
There is not an energy crisis, as energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed to another form. We have an energy dilemma in the use of finite energy resources and their effect on the environment, primarily due to the burning of fossil fuels. The first and primary objective of any energy policy must be conservation and efficiency. It is the most economical form for alleviating our energy problems. Amory Lovins, who was emphatically right about the soft energy path in response to the first energy crisis 3 , is strongly advocating hybrid cars and light-weight cars. And guess what Hybrid cars entered the market in 2000. Just think what large numbers of hybrid cars could do to alleviate the present energy dilemma of too much imported oil for the United States. Again, the question is Where should the federal government place its incentives It might be cheaper to subsidize higher-efficiency cars than to subsidize drilling for oil. What is the cost for oil if the costs for the...
Solar Unlimited, Inc. serves Nevada's Renewable Energy design, sales, service, and installation needs, including PV, wind, net-metering and off-grid systems. We are authorized dealers for Solarwall, Gillette, Xantrex, Outback, African Wind Power and more. Licensed and insured. Call toll free 866-SOLAR99 or visit www.solarunlimited.net. Solar Wind Works specializes in consultation, sales, design, service, & installation of complete RE systems. US Distributor for Proven Wind Turbines. We supply all components. Grid-connected or grid-independent. Truckee, CA 530-582-4503, 877-682-4503, NABCEP Certified Installer. NV Contractor's Lic 59288. chris solarwindworks.com, www.solarwindworks.com Suntric Renewable Electric Systems, Experienced, qualified installers of photovoltaic, wind, and micro-hydro stand alone systems. Located on the western end of the Adirondack Park in northern New York State. Site evaluations, design consultations, sales and service. Off grid since 1976. Edwin & Pamela...
Indicative only as they are based on a very simple representation of the induction generator and even then it is difficult to obtain reliable data for the saturation characteristic of the machine. However, as self-excitation is a most undesirable condition for grid-connected wind turbines, precise calculations of the voltage rise are seldom required.
You have choices when you go off-grid. Propane works well for heating and cooking and refrigeration. Wood stoves are popular for remote houses and cabins because there's usually a ready supply of firewood. But at some point, you're going to want to plug in your television, and the choices are more limited. Gas-powered generators are inexpensive and can put out a lot of power when needed. But they're noisy, cumbersome, and smelly, and they pollute quite a bit. If you're out in the middle of nowhere, a gas generator is inherently contradictory with the peaceful coexistence you've chosen. The majority of off-grid homes use some form or forms of solar, whether it be wind turbines, hydropower, hot water heaters, or PV systems. Batteries are an inevitability because it's impossible to arrange a lifestyle to use power as it becomes available, so some means of storage is needed. Inverters transform the voltages output by wind turbines, hydro alternators, and solar PV panels into voltages that...
To initiate a new business activity, an off-grid RE entrepreneur needs various sources of capital and business-development support.15 The capital needs can also be shown along a finance continuum (see Figure 8.3) Owing to the various barriers and market failures cited earlier that inhibit financier participation in the (particularly off-grid) RE markets, there are many gaps today in this continuum, both financial and non-financial. Ultimately these gaps make it difficult to launch a new off-grid RE business or even to expand an existing proven business. To start a new off-grid RE business, or expand an existing business into RE, the entrepreneur needs a significant amount of time and capital resources. Innovators are needed that have the capital, the capacity and the entrepreneurship to take risks in developing and testing new business approaches and service offerings. For the entrepreneur it is not so much about understanding a new technology, but rather understanding a market need...
An attractive alternative to active control of blade pitch to limit power is to design the blade and or its hub mounting to twist under the action of loads on the blades in order to achieve the desired pitch changes at higher wind speeds. Unfortunately, although the principle is easy to state, it is difficult to achieve it in practice, because the required variation in blade twist with wind speed generally does not match the corresponding variation in blade load. In the case of stand-alone wind turbines, the optimization of energy yield is not the key objective, so passive pitch control is sometimes adopted, but the concept has not been utilized as yet for many grid-connected machines.
PV modules were connected to, or mounted on, buildings that were usually in remote areas without access to an electric power grid. In the 1980s, PV module add-ons to roofs began being demonstrated. These PV systems were usually installed on utility-grid-connected buildings in areas with centralized power stations. In the 1990s, BIPV construction products specially designed to be integrated into a building envelope became commercially available.
Since a real energy revolution is still waiting to happen, a decade after the First ISONCET, the Integrity Research Institute was formed to scientifically research and develop viable NCET inventions with private support for public benefit. Disasters such as the Challenger Space Shuttle, compared to an overgrown roman candle, and the Mideast war, reclaiming oil reserves, have driven home the primitive state of energy and propulsion in which we find ourselves as every major city chokes in its self- created smog. NCET research is no longer a speculative curiosity. It is a necessity required to provide clean transportation and avert the next energy crisis when conventional energy becomes scarce and unaffordable.
The straw-bale home of Mark Hawes is located in the Sangre De Cristo mountains of northern New Mexico. The house is post-and-beam construction with straw bales used as fill for the walls. Because it is in a remote location and off-the-grid. a photovoltaic system provides the electricity. The 1,400 square-foot structure was engineered by DeLapp Engineering of Santa Fe and built to code in 1992 by Hawes, a building contractor. The interior of the house contains custqm southwestern features that added to the cost, which was approximately 46 a square-foot. In Arizona, straw-bale construction is steadily increasing. Pima County and the City of Tucson are expected to adopt straw-bale construction into their building codes in the near future. The straw-bale demonstration home of Mary Diamond, approximately 1,200 square-feet (exterior measurement), is in southeast Arizona. The house is off-the-grid, using photovoltaic power. It has a wind cooling tower, a composting toilet, and a greywater...
The historic development of using wind as a source of power shows an evolution from simple drag-type vertical-axis windmills generating mechanical power for local use, via stand-alone wind turbines designed for battery charging and single grid-connected wind turbines producing AC power using aerodynamic lift, to wind farms supplying electricity to the utility grid for distribution to the consumers. In this subsection we shall briefly review this transition from windmills to wind turbines. The next subsection presents an outlook on the future of wind power. Finally, the required improvements in both wind turbine design and operation to achieve and maintain cost-effective wind turbines are discussed. During the period 1945-1970 new growth in wind turbine technology development took place mainly in western Europe, but at a very modest pace 279 . By 1970, there was little or no activity world-wide for producing electricity using wind turbines. The energy crisis of 1973 renewed interest in...
We also wish the reader good results and success in his or her research and experimenting. The energy crisis is not going to go away, and the demand for oil will double in the lifetime of many of our middle-aged or younger readers. The cheap oil peaks shortly and declines in availability forever thereafter 342 this alone will drive up the price of oil and seriously impact the economies of the nations of the world. To keep from destroying the world economy and the biosphere, it is absolutely essential that C0P 1.0 electrical power systems including self-powering systems taking their input energy from the seething local vacuum be developed to produce the necessary electrical energy needs of the world, cheaply, cleanly, and easily.
Figure 4.38 Basic grid-connected PV inverter Figure 4.38 Basic grid-connected PV inverter Basic Grid-connected PV Inverter The grid-connected PV inverter shown in Figure 4.38 is based on the transistor bridge circuit of Figure 4.29. It is required that the DC voltage of a PV array is inverted and connected to a grid of, say, 230V. For such a simple, e.g. domestic application, the array voltage would have to be well over 350 V DC at the maximum power point, which would be impractical in many cases. The transformer is therefore required in order to raise the output inverter voltage. The control could be implemented as described earlier under the heading 'Output control in a grid-connected inverter' in Section 4.5.6. Control of the AC output current would provide control of the DC current drawn from the array and hence allow maximum power point tracking. The main drawback of the circuit is the size, weight and cost of the output 50 or 60 Hz transformer.
Photovoltaic inverters differ from inverters for other applications. This is because they must operate the photovoltaic generator at the optimal operating point to generate the maximum power. Grid-connected inverters are therefore often combined with MPP trackers, i.e. DC-DC converters, to set a voltage at the generator that differs from the grid voltage. A battery charge controller is integrated into most stand-alone inverters.
There is interest in exploring the mechanism by which power is injected into the grid by a synchronous generator. This can be done by means of the concept of complex power developed in Appendix A. The grid connected synchronous generator of Figure 4.7 will be considered. The complex power at end B of the line is given by Equation (4.9a) confirms the trivial fact that as the system is lossless, power PB coming out of terminals B is equal to power PA fed into terminals A. The scalar equations (4.8) and (4.9) are important in power systems technology as they describe the flow of active and reactive power of grid-connected synchronous generators.
In 2001, the Bush-mandated National Transmission Grid Study (NTGS 2001) was designed to identify the major transmission bottlenecks across the United States and identify technical and economic issues resulting from these transmission constraints. With deregulation of US utilities and the lack of jurisdiction for the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), the US is fighting an electrical energy crisis which, right now, costs consumers hundreds of millions of dollars annually due to interregional transmission congestion. There is no longer any economic incentive nor any FERC eminent domain for states to provide rights-of-way, besides the lack of Federal compensation to utilities to build new transmission lines.
The first article is by Bernard Bulkin, Chief Scientist at BP plc. Taking as its starting point an analysis of the changes resulting from the last 'energy crisis' of 1973, this reviews 'The Future of Today's Energy Sources' and so provides a basis for evaluation of the emerging alternatives, including renewables. The future supply and demand for coal, oil and gas in the various sectors in which they are used, viz. transport, power generation and industrial domestic agricultural applications, are examined. This review concludes that shortage of supply will not be a driver for change in the near future and that increases in the efficiency of use and the development of effective methods for carbon sequestration will prolong the role of fossil fuels.
The majority of the wind turbines now in operation are three-bladed, stall regulated constant speed turbines 1 172 . It must be stressed that in this case the blade pitch angle is fixed and, as a consequence, no control possibilities exist at all. Recall that stall utilizes the inherent aerodynamic properties of a rotor blade to limit the aerodynamic power. In the sequel, however, we will focus our attention on the closed-loop control of grid-connected, variable speed pitch-regulated turbines since this configuration has the highest potential to reach cost-effectiveness in the (near) future.
Hugh's book is a distillation of more than two decades of mostly off-grid wind power experience on a remote windswept peninsula in far northwestern Scotland. Many of the homes, schools, and workshops in the vicinity use wind power and Hugh has either built the turbines himself or services them. Hugh packs his TirFor with him to service wind turbines at remote Youth Hostels and railway stations in Scotland. Anything that Hugh can't carry gets left behind. If you have to buy any tool for your off-the-grid wind system, Hugh recommends buying the grip-hoist winch.
Figure 7.29 Examples of grid-connected photovoltaic installations. (a) An office building at the University of Melbourne, Australia, with an envelope of PVs on its north-facing wall. This building also includes many other features of 'sustainable design' - see Section 6.3. Photo courtesy of University of Melbourne. (b) A service station in Australia with PVs on its roof. Note the juxtaposition of renewable and non-renewable energy sources. Photo by courtesy of BP Solar. Figure 7.29 Examples of grid-connected photovoltaic installations. (a) An office building at the University of Melbourne, Australia, with an envelope of PVs on its north-facing wall. This building also includes many other features of 'sustainable design' - see Section 6.3. Photo courtesy of University of Melbourne. (b) A service station in Australia with PVs on its roof. Note the juxtaposition of renewable and non-renewable energy sources. Photo by courtesy of BP Solar. Figure 1.30 Schematic of a grid-connected...
|Off Grid Survival System||offgridsurvivalsystem.com|
Living Off The Grid
Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Be A Success At Living Off The Grid. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To When Living Within The Grid Is Not Making Sense Anymore.