Learn How To Survive Energy Crisis

Blackout USA

This unique book tells you everything you need about how to survive a massive, nation-wide blackout. You will learn how to come out on the other side of the blackout totally unscathed, and keep your family safe and everyone you love protected. When a blackout hits, the way of life that we are used to in America is vastly affected; almost everything that we have come to rely on is hit. Are you currently able to prepare food without the aid of an oven or stove? Can you keep food edible even if there is no way to refrigerate it? How will you communicate if an EMP suddenly takes out every form of communication and renders cellphones and other means of communication useless? You will learn how to do all of these things and more, should the power fail on you and your family. Continue reading...

Blackout USA Overview


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Energy Security and Disparity of

Energy security is a major concern worldwide. A large part of the world's oil is located in the Middle East and other politically unstable countries. The conflict between 'Western' and 'Islamic ' cultures is at present exacerbating the anxiety over reliability of energy supply. Russia is a major producer of gas but recent events in Ukraine have made European countries aware how dependent they are on this single source. The USA is the world's largest consumer of energy and is heavily dependent on imported oil. With economic growth seen as being intrinsically linked to cheap fuel it is difficult to imagine political parties, in the USA or elsewhere, proposing policies that require voters to drastically curtail their consumption and therefore alter their lifestyles.

The Energy Crisis

In 1973, the oil embargo associated with the Yom Kippur war led many people to look at the technologies around energy and predict that radical change would occur. There were forecasts, taken very seriously, that by 2000 oil would be nearly gone. The internal combustion engine was seen as having reached the limit of its ability to develop. Environmental concerns over air pollution were also seen as driving the rapid growth of nuclear power, and there was considerable effort being expended on commercialization of solar energy. Yet even at that time, some futurists warned that 'energy crises' had occurred before, and rarely had the predicted outcomes. Examples were the energy crisis associated with the lack of sites for new water wheels, and those created in many places by lack of wood through deforestation. The main outcome of the 1973 'energy crisis' was efficiency. In the United States, as shown in Figure 1, the fuel economy of the car fleet doubled between 1973...

Energy security

For any growing economy, energy security is crucial to assure its smooth development. Moreover the economy will also be very sensitive to the cost of energy imports. The mix of India's current installed capacity of over 100GW of power is approximately 70 per cent thermal, 24 per cent hydro, 3 per cent non-hydro renewables and 2 per cent nuclear. So for a country like India which is installing the bulk of its energy supply this century, both the short-term energy security exposure to importing energy and the long-term pricing expectations merit early consideration of alternative indigenous sources of energy. Renewables provide several good candidates that could address energy security issues.

Going Out of Your Mind by Going Off Grid

If you have a choice between going off-grid and installing a PV intertie system, do not go off-grid. The economics are horrible, in a relative sense. Off-grid systems use batteries, which are operational and waste nightmares. Plus, you can't get a mortgage for an off-grid house. Nevertheless, a movement is afoot to go back to Mother Nature by going off-grid. This movement would be better titled, getting away from humanity while punching Mother Nature in the gut. You can save a heckuva lot more pollution by going intertie than off-grid in many ways. If you want to get away from humanity (I'm empathetic, believe me), go backpacking and remember to take biodegradable toilet paper. Then when you get back home, check your intertie PV system to see how much of a net surplus of energy you generated.

Divorcing the Grid Going Solo with Solar Power Systems

Looking at the pros and cons of living off-grid Specifying the right solar power systems Looking at a real-life scenario a W ff-grid means you're not connected to a public utility for your electrical power. The term usually also means you're not connected to utility gas, water, and sewer. However, in this chapter, I address only electrical power because that's the angle that solar can solve. (Myriad books and magazines are dedicated to going completely off-grid if you're interested.) Here are a few reasons for going off-grid i You just want to be off-grid because of the allure of independence. In this chapter, I tell you what to expect when you go off-grid, how to evaluate your system needs, and what an off-grid system may look like.

Offgrid Windelectric System

Off-grid wind-electric systems are battery based. People generally choose these systems because their home or other energy use is not connected to the grid, and connection would be expensive. Others prefer the independence of off-grid systems, or live where utilities and governments make it difficult to tie a renewable energy system to the grid. Off-grid systems are limited in capacity by the size of the generating sources (wind turbine, solar-electric array, fuel-fired generator, etc.), the resources available, and the battery bank size. Off-grid homeowners have to learn to live within the limitations of their system capacity.

Checking out the complete system

Take a look at the components of the complete system. You can install a system like this yourself for around 14,000. In many off-grid applications, you don't need to get a county permit or have inspectors look at your system. You're pretty much on your own, although you should be aware of your local requirements. Note Peace signs are optional, although for some reason, they seem to go hand in hand with off-grid lifestyles. Using wind or water doesn't change things much. Just substitute a hydro generator or wind turbine for the PV panels. That energy source may be much less reliable, but on the other hand, it may be more reliable, particularly with water power. You can also use a combination, which is what a lot of off-grid home styles incorporate. (See Chapter 14 for more on wind and water.)

Providing an Endless Source of Purified Drinking Water

This project is good if you've got a remote cabin (off-grid enthusiasts ) and have access to a creek that's of dubious origin (all together now what do bears do in the woods ). Or if you just want to purify your local tap water, you can use this project for that purpose, too.

Home Solar Projects Getting a Little Help from Your Friends

Part IV gets into larger projects that cost more money. I give advice on deciding whether to do a project yourself or to hire a contractor, and I give advice on how to hire someone. Greenhouses and solar rooms have some fundamentals that are consistent with all projects that you need to understand, so I cover the basics of what you need to know. I also detail how to specify a large-scale PV system and how to find and hire a contractor to do the installation for you. Going off-grid is sometimes necessary, and sometimes it's just a compelling desire to get away from it all I tell you how best to do it and under what circumstances it's merited.

Solar Tracking Solar Pumping Systems

Solar tracking greatly Increases the energy yield of your modules by up to 2035 per year depending on the location. LORENTZ provides solar tracking mounts for off-grid systems of up to 17m2 180sqft (approx. 2.5 kWp) size. No use of failure prone light sensors or wind sensors. For solar power plants LORENTZ offers a central control system to operate and monitor enough trackers to reach several MW size. Our wide range of different types of pump systems provides the optimum solution for every off-grid pumping situation - reliable, efficient, maintenance-free. We offer solar pumping solutions for 12V to 96V DC or 115 to 400V AC with helical rotor, centrifugal or rotary vane pump mechanisms.

Basic And Advanced Biodiesel

Love your magazine Keep up the good work. My wife and I live off grid. Our electricity sources are PVs and a Jacobs wind generator. We have twelve Rolls batteries in three strings for a 24 V nominal, 1,050 amp-hour battery bank. While additional storage would be nice, you'd still have to refill the batteries after coming out of a sunless and windless period. Also, deeply cycling the batteries will shorten their lifetime. I've designed hundreds of off-grid RE systems, and I always put a backup generator in the system. It's not used very much, but when you need it, you really need it. Richard Perez richard.perez homepower.com

See Our Extensive Line Of Renewable Energy Products

Solar Marine Kits Solar Supplies, Solar Things Grid & Off Grid Systems Solar Gear, Solar Stuff Solar DHW & Pool Systems Solar Bits & Pieces The slides so far illustrate our off-grid lifestyle on our rural homestead and how much we do for ourselves in terms of producing our own energy and growing our own food. Besides photos of our high-tech gear and low-tech gardens, I have one slide that always elicits an audible response. It is of a rattlesnake my friend Katcha found in her yard swallowing a rabbit. I assure them it is a rabbit and not a cat, as it is hard to tell. I tell the kids that we see three to nine rattlesnakes a year in our yard during hot weather. We have unknowingly walked over them on the porch steps, found them coiled around the vise in the carport, and surprised one in the The last half of the slides are of off-gridders I know who live with RE, and of the RE systems themselves. There are young couples just starting out and older retired couples, both beyond...

If I want to be current and continue being sustainable I have to be willing to change

If the utility grid is already present at a property, disconnecting from it is a romantic notion that is often not terribly practical, mainly because off-grid systems do not typically collect additional renewable energy once the batteries are full. In grid-tied systems, all available excess energy is routed to the utility grid, increasing the overall system production, often significantly. But when Risa made the decision twelve years ago to not hook up to the electrical grid, little provision in the laws existed for grid-intertied systems, and no tempting city, state, and federal incentives were available. Risa says that she wanted to make the best choice at the time, and I believe I did, given what was possible. Risa and Pam's plans for the property have been evolving. They recently added a 2.4 KW grid-tied solar-electric system to the rental house that shares the lot, helped along by generous local incentives. Pam says, Now we are seriously considering a new concept achieving a...

Step by Step Oct Nov HP

I'd really like to buy a few PV panels, but I'm not about to buy hundreds of dollars' worth of batteries and controllers. However, if someone made an inverter that could tie into the grid AND function independently now that might be a worthwhile investment. The fellow at Trace Engineering said he'd asked about their making something like this, with an internal switch of some kind so one could dedicate the inverter to ON- or OFF-grid operation. Evidently the feeling is that it's not worth the money to develop. I have no idea as to their efficiencies and such, and I'm a dunce with electronics. However, I just don't see where it would cost all that much more to deyign and make a dual-function inverter. If Trace

Getting A Grip On The Grid

In the early days of the magazine, Home Power's goal was to network a fledgling off-grid solar movement. Our efforts created an ongoing information exchange that helped build the foundation of today's solar industry. About a decade ago, our focus shifted to bringing these proven technologies out of the backwoods and into backyards by sharing information on the latest in grid-tied solar-electric systems. After all, the vast majority of Americans live on grid, and in this wired realm, the potential for solar energy borders on limitlessness. But where bringing the benefits of RE to off-gridders has been straightforward, interfacing solar technologies with the utility grid has been anything but simple. Some issues have been technical, but many have been related to policy, legislation, incentives, administration, and straight-out education about the impacts of PV technology on the grid-tied world. Just like in the early days, increasing communication between experienced and inexperienced...

Implementing Regulations

The Law also specifically supports the use of renewable energy for remote rural areas. In 2002, NDRC initiated the Township Electrification program to electrify those remaining 1061 townships that lack electricity with PV, wind, and small hydropower 11 . Approximately, US 340 million was spent on the PV- and wind-powered townships. NDRC is now expanding this program to the village level and will electrify those remaining 25-30 million people in the 20,000 villages which do not yet have electricity. The Village Electrification program will cost an estimated US 5 billion and will be implemented over the next ten years. These off-grid users will be cross-subsidized by the grid-connected users so that they will pay a tariff equivalent to the provincial grid price. To fund the incremental costs of renewably generated power (above the provincial coal power price) as well as the operations and maintenance of the off-grid systems, a surcharge will be applied to all end users (except for those...

Number of inverters n

In contrast to remote area (off-grid) applications, where PV is often the least cost option, for grid-connected applications, electricity from PV is still relatively expensive, typically by a factor of 10,* depending on the level of the solar resource and cost of grid electricity supply. However, costs to the consumer are converging, aided by buy-down policies and other governmental support mechanisms, such as those offered in the UK, Germany, Japan, US and Australia. Most attention is currently focused on the reduction of costs of the PV modules. The building of larger automated continuous production units will drive down production costs, but in addition lower cost cell technologies are being explored. New low-cost devices such as those based on thin-film micro-crystalline silicon and dye-sensitized technologies are under development and commercially attractive products based on CIGS and CdTe (thin film direct bandgap materials) are being developed.

Gridindependent systems

Grid-independent applications are further distinguished into stand-alone and off-grid applications 6-29 (for examples see Table 6.2). - Photovoltaic energy supply systems are referred to as off-grid systems, if the power grid is inaccessible for technical or economic reasons because of the distance to the closest grid connection point (e.g. alpine huts or households located in regions with a missing infrastructure for electricity supply). For larger systems also the terms of stand-alone applications or autonomous energy supply systems are commonly used. Also in this respect, the systems are further subdivided into industrial applications (the greatest market share accounting for wire-less telecommunication systems) on the one hand, and household supply on the other. Especially for developing countries, the borderlines are loose since economic activities are often only permitted by the power supply to households.

Taking a Quick Peek at Radiant Heat Floor Systems

You can use solar heated water to literally heat your home off-grid. Radiant heat, without solar, costs much less than forced-air heating for efficiency reasons. But when you supplement your radiant heat system with a solar water heater, you can drive your heating costs down to nearly nothing. Of course, sunshine isn't very reliable, particularly on the coldest nights when you most need heat, so you can't use solar heating exclusively it can only be a supplement. But it can be very effective.

Turning Solar Heat Into Electricity

Basically, solar thermal power plants compete with conventional, grid-connected fossil fuel-fired power stations -in particular, modern, natural-gas-fired combined cycle plants in mid-load or base-load operation mode. For small-scale, off grid solar power generation, such as on islands or in rural hinterlands of developing countries, competition stems basically from gas oil or heavy-fuel-oil-powered diesel engine generators.

Buying an energyproducing plot of land

Your property is the collateral for the loan, and it's critical in the risk-reduction process. To convince the bank that your property is ideal collateral, you have to convince the bank that if you default on the loan, it'll be able to sell your house quickly for a good price. Houses that are odd in character (off-grid home Beware see Chapter 18) or that require modifications prior to sale (purple and yellow paint ) can cause hiccups. Banks want vanilla flavors for the same exact reason that you see mostly vanilla ice cream at the grocery store because everybody wants it. i The property can't be off-grid.

Notfor Profit Pioneers Go Commercial

An entrepreneur from the US started his work in solar as the director of a high-profile solar NGO. He first got the idea that there might be a big market for solar in the emerging markets while consulting for an American PV manufacturer. As he concluded at the time, 'The global market for solar was the off-grid stand-alone small system, and the PV manufacturer had no clue about that.'33 Without strong interest from the PV manufacturer in developing this market, he decided to try to do it himself

System Application Benefits and Impacts

Photovoltaic energy systems are currently used wherever relatively small electrical loads (typically less tha n 100 kWh month) cannot be conveniently powered by an existing utility grid. As prices for PV technology declin e through technology improvements and increased manufacturing automation, PV energy systems will become a viabl e option for an increasing diversity of loads requiring more power than the typical off-grid small systems used today . The unique advantages of photovoltaics - modularity, good match to many diurnal load patterns, low O& M, environmentally benign, renewable energy source - are expected to be important factors in early cost-effectiv e applications of PV energy systems. PV solar energy provides a number of other benefits besides the value of the energy. Some of these benefits includ e the following no fuel or water consumption low maintenance improved national energy security economicall y important U.S. export technology and avoidance of CO2 generation....

Technology Assumptions and Issues

Thin film PV modules currently in production are based on amorphous silicon. Others, based on polycrystalline thi n films, are in pilot production. Substantial commercial interest exists in scaling-up production of thin films. As thi n films are produced in larger quantity, and as they achieve expected performance gains, they will become mor e economical for large-scale electrical utility uses and for large-scale non-utility off-grid uses in developing countries . Even though some thin film modules are now commercially available, their real commercial impact is only expecte d to be significant during the next three to ten years. Beyond that, their general use should occur in the 2005-2015 time frame, depending on investment levels for technology development and manufacture. The 'best future' grid-connected PV system described here requires that thin films continue to make the high-risk transition from lab-scale success t o commercial success throughout this same period. As such, the...

Sustainable Economy E C O Log Ic Al B Al An C E Soc Ial J U Sti C E

Just before starting to work on the Future Power article, Michael and Suzanne moved to an off-grid island near Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Needing electricity for their home and film production office, they installed a 1,500-watt solar-electric system with gasoline generator backup. So they know firsthand the problems that the world island faces how to power our needs with the resources available, without fouling our nest or sacrificing convenience and functionality.

Us Energy Affordability And Economics

Energy has a direct impact on the U.S. economy. Energy shortages, in particular, can have significant economic implications. With an energy crisis, there generally is a period of decreased spending and reduced confidence in the economy. For example, during a period of high oil prices or oil shortfalls, gasoline prices increase, and higher gasoline prices translate into higher transportation costs. Higher transportation costs affect not only the day-today living expenses of most citizens but the daily operational expenses of businesses. This effect leads to an overall increase in the price of goods and services and to decreased consumer spending, which then, in many cases, can lead to a recession, a period of slowed economic activity.

Energy Policy and Conservation Act of

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 is a U.S. law enacted in response to the 1973-74 energy crisis caused by the Arab oil embargo. Its purpose was to reduce U.S. dependency on high-priced oil imported from politically unstable countries, to prepare the United States for energy shortage conditions, and to improve energy efficiency and conservation. One of its measures for protecting the country from future oil shortages was the establishment of the SPR. It authorized the stockpiling of up to one billion barrels of petroleum in the SPR to tap into during energy emergencies. The law also gave the president of the United States the authority to withdraw crude oil from the SPR in response to an energy emergency and distribute it to oil companies by competitive sale. In addition,

Forecast Windy And Profitable

One important factor to bear in mind about the prospects for the wind industry is that, as we've already mentioned in Chapters 1 and 2, as far as we have seen, nobody takes into account fossil fuel depletion in their projections. Studies do place certain constraints on fossil fuels in their models, based on assumptions about the future of emissions controls, geopolitical factors, climate change, historical production rates, industry investment, and so on, but it appears that most analysts have yet to fully grasp the coming energy crisis or if they do, they aren't saying so.

The Efficiency Advantage

Amory Lovins coined the term negawatts in 1989 to describe the concept of energy you don't have to generate. An accomplished author and Chief Scientist at the Rocky Mountain Institute, Lovins is perhaps one of the most influential voices when it comes to conservation and efficiency. Over the past few years, the emergence of the energy crisis has sparked renewed interest in negawatts among the world's most forward-thinking investors.

Impact of Supply and Demand on Price

Lessen the hardship that price increases may cause for citizens. The even- and odd-numbered license plate restrictions placed on gasoline buying during the 1979 oil crisis provide one example in this case, however, the measure backfired, exacerbating the energy crisis and its negative effects on the economy. And then there are others who flatly predict that the combination of rising oil prices and a mounting shortage of oil is precipitating a major economic crisis in the United States from which it will never recover. As Jeremy Leggett, an expert in renewable energy and chief executive of a large independent solar electric company in the United Kingdom, writes, When it becomes clear that there is no escape from ever-shrinking supplies of increasingly expensive oil, there will be a paroxysm of panic. Human society will face an energy crisis of unprecedented proportions, and that, plus the panic, will spark an economic collapse of unparalleled awfulness.34 Whether such doomsaying can be...

What outcomes are actually intended from the renewable energy policies

There are many reasons (and therefore many potential objectives) for accelerating renewable energy development. They include sustainability objectives, energy policy reform, renewable energy production, new generating capacity, indigenous fuel manufacture, greenhouse gases (GHGs) mitigation, distributed generation, increment size, energy cost and least-cost planning (internalization), energy security, new industry manufacturing development, development of intellectual property in new technologies, job creation, rural development and nuclear phase-out. and volatile world prices. So the government chooses renewables to lessen external dependence and improve energy security. Furthermore, with its small economy, it is very price conscious and not so concerned about favouring one technology over another. This government wants to avoid mega-projects that create big debts and it also wants low prices for electricity. It is especially pleased if prices fall below those of its current diesel...

Contributions to National Goals

The use of liquid biofuels could provide several benefits to the United States. Foremost would be an added measure of energy security by increasing energy self-sufficiency and substantially lessening dependence on foreign oil. The reduction of imports could result in an annual balance-of-payments savings of up to 100 billion while creating a domestic biofuels industry that would provide jobs, economic growth, additional tax revenue, and a potential export market. Additionally, liquid fuels from biomass can benefit the environment by recycling rather than adding C02 to the atmosphere, making biofuels a desirable option for reducing the impact of potential global warming. Expanded use of biomass in other applications would have similar effects in improving the environment and, to he extent imported petroleum is effectively replaced, in improving energy security and the balance of payments.

Policy recommendations for local governments

I Regardless of size, a city should undertake policy development to support renewable energy deployment in association with other policies, including national policies linked to sustainability goals and climate change, and local policies relating to energy security, energy access, health, employment, equity and reducing energy demands. Policies that are not directly energy-related, but could influence renewable energy uptake, can have direct or indirect impacts. I Support from citizens and local businesses for the greater deployment of renewable energy technologies is essential, based on a good understanding of the issues. The personal benefits that would result for individuals and businesses need to be identified and disseminated. Leaders can motivate residents, offer them enhanced pride in their community as a result of being an early adoptor, as well as provide them with greater energy independence, energy security, employment and social cohesion. Strong leadership based on clear...

About The American Methanol Institute

As the voice of the methanol industry, AMI works with auto manufacturers and government agencies to accelerate the introduction of electric fuel cell vehicles powered by methanol. AMI helps inform elected officials and the public about the energy security, greenhouse gas and other environmental benefits of methanol fuel cell technology. Leading portable power equipment, telecommunications, and consumer electronics companies, with AMI s support, expect to introduce garden and camping equipment, cellular telephones and other methanol-powered fuel cell products in the near future.

Figure D Projected performance and cost and domestic electricity generation for Otec D Contributions to National Goals

The noneconomic benefits of OTEC, which facilitates achievement of environmental goals, are promotion of U.S. competitiveness and international trade, enhancement of energy independence and energy security, promotion of international socio-political stability, promotion of a significant presence of U.S. industry in Pacific and Asian-rim countries, and a potential for mitigation of greenhouse emissions.

Case X The Economic Council Case

As already explained in the previous sections and chapters, Denmark has conducted an active and innovative energy policy for many years. During the period from 1972 to 1990, the major objective of the policy was to decrease the dependency on oil imports, while during the 1990s, Danish energy policy mainly aimed at reducing CO2 emissions, as expressed by several national energy plans and further supported by the Kyoto Protocol. In the 1970s and 1980s, the strategic objective of protecting energy security was met by energy savings in combination with increased domestic production of oil and natural gas and the replacement of oil with other fuels, mainly coal and natural gas. Houses were insulated, and power stations replaced oil with

Conclusions and Reflections

This case shows that, when the government enables a discussion of alternatives at a higher level and when such discussion is not linked to specific jobs in specific local regions, it becomes possible to describe, analyze, and discuss how to implement alternatives that fulfill the objectives of energy security, environment, and job creation.

Something To Think About

The greatest investment opportunities are often spawned from extreme crisis. Our reliance on oil, coupled with decades of complacency and special-interest influence, has put the world in an extremely vulnerable position. Moreover, it has become increasingly clear over the past few decades that relying on our elected officials to make the tough decisions that need to be made when it comes to curtailing our reliance on imported oil will amount to little more than election-time promises and bipartisan bickering, neither of which seem to ever accomplish a damn thing. That is why we're convinced that it is capitalism, not bureaucracy, that will dictate the future of transportation. It will reward real solutions in fuel efficiency, energy security, and good-oldfashioned ingenuity. In contrast, it will penalize the business t as-usual mentality that got us into this mess to begin with.

Description of the Technology C Overview

Using geothermal energy can improve national energy security, dependability, and flexibility for utilities, industrial, and residential users while reducing the U.S. balance of payments deficit through displacing imported energy resources and providing a significant opportunity for U.S. industry to export technology and equipment.

Why Use Renewable Energy

Energy independence is another reason to use renewable energy. The United States imports more than 50 of its oil, up from 34 in 1973. Foreign oil imports can be disrupted by political upheavals, trade disputes, and embargoes. Replacing some of our petroleum with biofuels made from organic matter could save money and strengthen our energy security.

Choice Eliminating Strategies

Then something happened When sending out papers prior to the city council meeting, the two calculations of April 6 were not included. Instead, the municipality administration made a new calculation dated April 9, which was distributed to the committee at the meeting. This calculation came to the result that in terms of socioeconomics, coal was even slightly better than small natural gas fired CHPs. However, such calculations did not include all environmental and energy security benefits of the natural gas alternative. Consequently, even based on the new calculation, natural gas would still be best in an overall socioeconomic assessment as defined by the law. But the issue was not mentioned.

Policy recommendations

The leaders and council members of any city or town have the opportunity to develop visionary policies that will affect the manner in which the community evolves. These policies will be constrained by the current status and culture of the community and the aspirations of its members. Therefore the policy recommendations outlined below will need to be placed within the context of a city's current situation, together with any long-term goals it may already have for sustainable development, energy security, wider distribution of energy services, energy cost reductions and its contribution to climate change mitigation.

Influence of national policies

The overlapping interests of national governments, regional authorities, and local governments relating to climate change mitigation and adaptation, greater energy security, and wider energy access, imply that partnerships between policy-makers at all levels is warranted. National policy-makers can empower their cities and towns to become more effective in implementing policies that mitigate and adapt to climate change. An OECD study (Kamal-Chaoui and Corfee-Morlot, 2009) is aimed to help national policymakers answer the questions What role can and should city authorities play in the design and delivery of cost-effective and timely climate policies and How can central governments assist and encourage local governments to fulfil their potential to become effective players

Evolution of Federal Policies Supporting Liquid Biofuels

The US Congress introduced additional measures to support the ethanol industry in 1980. The Energy Security Act of 1980 initiated federally insured loans for ethanol producers, and from 1980-86 alcohol production facilities could access tax-exempt industrial development bonds (Gielecki et al., 2001). Also in 1980, Congress levied a supplemental import tariff of 50 cents per gallon on foreign-produced ethanol (RFA, 2005), which was increased to 60 cents in 1984 (Gielecki et al., 2001) and now stands at 54 cents.

The Alternatives in Question

Often such an environmentally better solution would be more costly than other alternatives. However, if the costs of cleaning SO2 emissions from coal were included in the calculations, alternatives 1 and 4 came out equally cost-effective from an economic point of view. And since the natural gas CHP solution had further benefits with regard to energy security, balance of payment, and CO2 emissions, and such externalities according to the authorities were to be included in the overall assessment, it was concluded that alternative 4 was the best solution.

Case Xii The Ida Energy Plan

The case of the IDA Energy Plan 2030 is the story of how concrete descriptions of a technical alternative plan can provide information which macroeco-nomic models based on applied neoclassical theory are unable to identify. The IDA Energy Plan 2030 was made by the Danish Society of Engineers, as already described in Chapter 6. The plan proposed concrete technical measures to decrease CO2 emissions, maintain the security of supply, and exploit Danish business potentials. If implemented, the plan would imply more or less the same direct costs as the business-as-usual reference presented by the Danish Energy Authority. Consequently, the benefits achieved with regard to the environment, energy security, and business potentials were additional and did not involve costs from a pure economic point of view, when compared to the reference. However, the plan emphasizes the fact that such strategy will not be implemented by itself under the present institutional conditions. The Parliament and...

Western States Power Crises A Brief Overview of Lessons Learned

An example of urgent opportunities is within the now seemingly calm California energy markets the undercurrents that led to huge price spikes and considerable customer pain in recent years are yet to be fully addressed and alleviated. Such perfect storms may appear once again during another cycle of California economic recovery and growth. The California power crisis in 2000 was only the most visible parts of a larger and growing U.S. energy crisis that is the result of years of inadequate investments in the infrastructure. Develop the portfolio of advanced power generation technologies to assure energy security

Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy in India

Conservation Energy India

Energy conservation received greater attention in India since the mid 1970s. Structural changes in the economy during the last few years have led to the expansion of the industrial base and infrastructure in the country, and subsequently to increase in demand for energy. Any effort to enhance energy generation brings issues of available energy sources and systems. India recognizes, as anywhere else, a need to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and transition to an era where many cost-effective and efficient energy choices are available. There has been a vigorous search during the last three decades for alternatives to fossil fuels that would ensure energy security and eco-friendly sustainable development.

WoBld class wmd energy systems from DC Power Systems

DC Power Systems, Inc. is proud to be the exclusive distributor for Kestrel and Iskra wind turbines in the Western Hemisphere, as well as a distributor for Energie, PGE. We also offer guyed and free-standing towers, controllers, off-grid and grid-tied inverters for most models.

The Handson Journal Of Homemade Power

California energy crisis Yehuda Shapira decided to help out by paying for half of a 5,760 watt of grid-intertied photovoltaic system. The state of California paid for the other half of this system that pumps electrons into California's grid backwards through Yehuda's meter. 34 J. Oliver wanted an off-grid dream home in the woods, just like anybody. He came up with an energy and financially efficient solution an inflatable-form concrete dome. 92

Preface Energy Conservation

Energy is a mainstay of an industrial society. As the population of the world increases and people strive for a higher standard of living, the amount of energy necessary to sustain our society is ever increasing. At the same time, the availability of nonrenewable sources, particularly liquid fuels, is rapidly shrinking. Therefore, there is general agreement that to avoid an energy crisis, the amount of energy needed to sustain society will have to be contained and, to the extent possible, renewable sources will have to be used. As a consequence, conservation and renewable energy technologies are going to increase in importance and reliable, up-to-date information about their availability, efficiency, and cost is necessary for planning a secure energy future. The timing of this handbook also coincides with a new impetus for the use of renewable energy. This impetus comes from the emergence of renewable portfolio standards RPS in many states of the U.S. and renewable energy policies in...

If There is No Rural Finance Do Not Do Feefor Service

But Eskom and Shell were part of a much bigger Government initiative. As early as 1997, the Department of Minerals and Energy (DME) had identified a number of unserviced areas for off-grid electrification of 300,000 rural dwellings.30 At this time roughly a third of the population - 15 million people - still had no access to electricity. The Government's target was to ensure that by 2010 it had achieved universal access to electricity, and solar took on a 'saviour-like status as the perfect solution for ensuring that electricity would be available in areas where the grid would not'.31 In January 1999, the Government put out a call for proposals, and six concessionaires were chosen to implement the off-grid solar programme. Each selected concessionaire would in theory have a 20-year concession, including a 5-year exclusive right to sell up to 50,000 solar home systems in their area. The chosen concessionaires included an impressive line-up of local and international players the...

Eddy Current Multiplier

Eddy Currents Hard Iron

If the scientific community will fund the necessary research on permissible COP> 1.0 Maxwellian systems, the quick results will solve the energy crisis, clean up the biosphere including much cleaner air in our cities for the populace to breathe provide cleaner streams, and result in far less polluted oceans. It will stop the pollution-caused destruction of species, and dramatically reduce the hydrocarbon combustion contributions to global warming. There will no longer be a necessity to consider burying in the bottom of the sea the excess CO2 from massive hydrocarbon combustion to provide the much-needed electrical power, because it will no longer be necessary to burn the oil, coal, and gas to get the power. And there will no longer be any necessity for expensive and highly vulnerable nuclear power plants with their resulting nuclear wastes that will remain radioactive for thousands of years.

Inverter Standby Losses

Keeping standby losses to a minimum is extremely important in off-grid RE systems. Any electricity demand beyond what the RE system can generate is typically provided by an engine generator, which is noisy, polluting, and expensive to run and maintain. One design approach for large off-grid PV systems (3 KW array and greater) is to simply add additional modules to offset standby energy use by appliances and inverters in idle mode. This approach is most convenient, but requires a larger cash outlay up front. For small off-grid systems (1 KW array or less), unchecked standby losses can quickly become one of the largest loads on the system. Comparing PV output and initial costs to energy consumption helps drive home the benefits of minimizing standby energy use. Let's assume that you have installed an array with 100-watt PV modules at a location with 5 daily peak sun-hours, and appliance and inverter standby losses amount to 1,200 WH per day. For a batteryless, on-grid system, an overall...

Energy Dilemma In Light Of The Laws Of Thermodynamics

There is not an energy crisis, as energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed to another form. We have an energy dilemma in the use of finite energy resources and their effect on the environment, primarily due to the burning of fossil fuels. The first and primary objective of any energy policy must be conservation and efficiency. It is the most economical form for alleviating our energy problems. Amory Lovins, who was emphatically right about the soft energy path in response to the first energy crisis 3 , is strongly advocating hybrid cars and light-weight cars. And guess what Hybrid cars entered the market in 2000. Just think what large numbers of hybrid cars could do to alleviate the present energy dilemma of too much imported oil for the United States. Again, the question is Where should the federal government place its incentives It might be cheaper to subsidize higher-efficiency cars than to subsidize drilling for oil. What is the cost for oil if the costs for the...

Nanopulser Telecommunication

Solar Unlimited, Inc. serves Nevada's Renewable Energy design, sales, service, and installation needs, including PV, wind, net-metering and off-grid systems. We are authorized dealers for Solarwall, Gillette, Xantrex, Outback, African Wind Power and more. Licensed and insured. Call toll free 866-SOLAR99 or visit www.solarunlimited.net. Suntric Renewable Electric Systems, Experienced, qualified installers of photovoltaic, wind, and micro-hydro stand alone systems. Located on the western end of the Adirondack Park in northern New York State. Site evaluations, design consultations, sales and service. Off grid since 1976. Edwin & Pamela Falk, 6920 Abbey Road, Lyons Falls, New York 13368 315-348-6893 Solar & Wind FX Inc. NY's only Off-grid Design & Training Center, where a client can see the latest RE & Green building technologies. A family owned, full service company focusing on Western NY that provides site evaluation, design, installation & the all important, service...

Understanding Off Grid Ramifications

You have choices when you go off-grid. Propane works well for heating and cooking and refrigeration. Wood stoves are popular for remote houses and cabins because there's usually a ready supply of firewood. But at some point, you're going to want to plug in your television, and the choices are more limited. Gas-powered generators are inexpensive and can put out a lot of power when needed. But they're noisy, cumbersome, and smelly, and they pollute quite a bit. If you're out in the middle of nowhere, a gas generator is inherently contradictory with the peaceful coexistence you've chosen. The majority of off-grid homes use some form or forms of solar, whether it be wind turbines, hydropower, hot water heaters, or PV systems. Batteries are an inevitability because it's impossible to arrange a lifestyle to use power as it becomes available, so some means of storage is needed. Inverters transform the voltages output by wind turbines, hydro alternators, and solar PV panels into voltages that...

Developing financial solutions for offgrid RE businesses in developing countries

Financing Continuum

To initiate a new business activity, an off-grid RE entrepreneur needs various sources of capital and business-development support.15 The capital needs can also be shown along a finance continuum (see Figure 8.3) Owing to the various barriers and market failures cited earlier that inhibit financier participation in the (particularly off-grid) RE markets, there are many gaps today in this continuum, both financial and non-financial. Ultimately these gaps make it difficult to launch a new off-grid RE business or even to expand an existing proven business. To start a new off-grid RE business, or expand an existing business into RE, the entrepreneur needs a significant amount of time and capital resources. Innovators are needed that have the capital, the capacity and the entrepreneurship to take risks in developing and testing new business approaches and service offerings. For the entrepreneur it is not so much about understanding a new technology, but rather understanding a market need...

Introduction To Non Conventional Energy

Since a real energy revolution is still waiting to happen, a decade after the First ISONCET, the Integrity Research Institute was formed to scientifically research and develop viable NCET inventions with private support for public benefit. Disasters such as the Challenger Space Shuttle, compared to an overgrown roman candle, and the Mideast war, reclaiming oil reserves, have driven home the primitive state of energy and propulsion in which we find ourselves as every major city chokes in its self- created smog. NCET research is no longer a speculative curiosity. It is a necessity required to provide clean transportation and avert the next energy crisis when conventional energy becomes scarce and unaffordable.

History from windmill to wind turbine

Persian Vertical Axis Windmill

During the period 1945-1970 new growth in wind turbine technology development took place mainly in western Europe, but at a very modest pace 279 . By 1970, there was little or no activity world-wide for producing electricity using wind turbines. The energy crisis of 1973 renewed interest in wind power from both govern

Suppression of Free Energy Systems Has Been Common

We also wish the reader good results and success in his or her research and experimenting. The energy crisis is not going to go away, and the demand for oil will double in the lifetime of many of our middle-aged or younger readers. The cheap oil peaks shortly and declines in availability forever thereafter 342 this alone will drive up the price of oil and seriously impact the economies of the nations of the world. To keep from destroying the world economy and the biosphere, it is absolutely essential that C0P> 1.0 electrical power systems including self-powering systems taking their input energy from the seething local vacuum be developed to produce the necessary electrical energy needs of the world, cheaply, cleanly, and easily.

The Electricity Transmission Gridlock

In 2001, the Bush-mandated National Transmission Grid Study (NTGS 2001) was designed to identify the major transmission bottlenecks across the United States and identify technical and economic issues resulting from these transmission constraints. With deregulation of US utilities and the lack of jurisdiction for the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), the US is fighting an electrical energy crisis which, right now, costs consumers hundreds of millions of dollars annually due to interregional transmission congestion. There is no longer any economic incentive nor any FERC eminent domain for states to provide rights-of-way, besides the lack of Federal compensation to utilities to build new transmission lines.

Preface Of Renewable Energy

The first article is by Bernard Bulkin, Chief Scientist at BP plc. Taking as its starting point an analysis of the changes resulting from the last 'energy crisis' of 1973, this reviews 'The Future of Today's Energy Sources' and so provides a basis for evaluation of the emerging alternatives, including renewables. The future supply and demand for coal, oil and gas in the various sectors in which they are used, viz. transport, power generation and industrial domestic agricultural applications, are examined. This review concludes that shortage of supply will not be a driver for change in the near future and that increases in the efficiency of use and the development of effective methods for carbon sequestration will prolong the role of fossil fuels.

British Wind Energy Association

Hugh's book is a distillation of more than two decades of mostly off-grid wind power experience on a remote windswept peninsula in far northwestern Scotland. Many of the homes, schools, and workshops in the vicinity use wind power and Hugh has either built the turbines himself or services them.

Other Potential Methanol Feedstock So

Methanol Producers

The global reliance on oil as a motor vehicle fuel brings energy security risks that can have serious economic implications. The United States continues to spend 60 billion each year on oil imports and another 30 billion per year to protect its interests in the Persian Gulf. Since the oil price shocks of the 1970s, the U.S. reliance on foreign oil has actually increased from 38 percent in 1973 to 56 percent today. The U.S. EIA estimated that foreign oil imports will account for 73 percent of total domestic energy consumption by 2020, at a cost of nearly 95 billion. All in all, a 2 per capita one-time cost in developed countries for methanol fueled infrastructure development seems a sensible investment when compared to these alternatives. It seems unreasonable to advocate continued reliance on petroleum products that are likely to cost the consumer more in annual fuel costs (based on historical pricing) and have higher environmental impacts. The wisest investment for the public,...

The REEF and the SME fund

In the late 1990s, the IFC established the REEF to offer both equity and debt financing to commercial enterprises for a range of renewables, both on and off grid. By November 2001, US 65 million of equity plus debt had been placed with the REEF. Of this, the IFC stipulated that 20-30 per cent should be invested in the off-grid sector, of which 20 per cent should be in deals under US 5 million, and that no proposal would be too small to finance. In the rural solar sector, the REEF's investments were intended to reach businesses who wanted 'to expand their businesses' and support 'consumer financing Because many investments in the off-grid sector, which included solar, would be of US 1 million or less, and because the returns would be low - not above 10 per cent69 - the GEF approved the allocation of US 30 million. This was to enable the REEF 'to consider opportunities that are not receiving attention from international investment funds, such as smaller or more complex, leading-edge...

Balanceof System BOS Equipment

In off-grid systems, the battery stores electricity for use at night or for meeting loads during the day when the generation source (wind turbines, PV, or microhydropower) is not generating sufficient power to meet load The cost of deep-cycle batteries depends on the type, capacity (ampere-hours), the climatic conditions in which it will operate, how frequently it will receive maintenance, and the types of chemicals it uses to store and release electricity. An off-grid PV or wind system may have to be sized to store a sufficient amount of power in the batteries to meet power demand during several days of cloudy weather or low winds. This is known as days of autonomy. Consult your dealer before selecting batteries for your system.

Wiring And The Trace

Is the Trace 2524 ,with options, as described in HP 16, going to allow power stored in batteries to supply my home with 110 VAC and when they (the batteries) get low will the Trace's battery charger option automatically kick in to recharge them Or will the Trace automatically switch me over to grid power if I so desire I would think the best situation would be to use PV stored power until down to a set level and then automatically switch to grid power until batteries are charged again by PVs at which time the inverter switches back off grid power.

The IEA SolarPACES Implementing Agreement

Concentrating solar power systems use concentrated solar radiation as a high temperature energy source to produce electrical power and drive chemical reactions. These clean energy technologies are appropriate for Sunbelt applications where direct solar radiation is high. The first commercial plants have been in operation in California since the mid-1980s, providing the 354 megawatts of the world's lowest-cost solar power. The many types of systems under development (including parabolic troughs, power towers, and dish engine systems) for different markets vary according to the concentration devices, energy conversion methods, storage options and other design variables. Much attention is focused on the multi-megawatt systems that are appropriate for the on-grid market, complementing the other major solar technology, photovoltaics, most appropriate for smaller, off-grid applications. Solar chemical energy systems use concentrated solar radiation to drive chemical reactions for the...

Distributed generation

Distributed Generation Chp

The move to a Third Industrial Revolution incorporating a social vision with an economic vision is considered by some world leaders to be essential if the future challenges of energy security and climate change mitigation are to be met. Major changes to the energy supply sector tend to only occur when a new energy regime happens to converge with a new communication regime (Rifkin et al., 2008). For example, in the 18th century the deployment of the coal-powered steam engine was aided by the printing press to disseminate its benefits and hence enable the rapid pace of the first industrial revolution to occur. In the late 19th and early-to-mid 20th centuries, the second industrial revolution occurred when first-generation electrical forms of communication, including the telegraph, radio, and telephone, enabled the necessary infrastructure development, organisation and marketing of millions of small vehicles powered by internal combustion engines and fuelled by oil products. Today, the...

Clean Energy Never Looked This Good

I've been a reader since HP1, and have upgraded my off-grid solar-electric system four times, from one module to thirteen from a 12-volt, 600-watt inverter to a 24 V, 4,000 W unit from 6 I remember you well you've been off grid about as long as I have For battery equalization a controlled overcharge of the battery I use the battery ampere-hour meter to determine overcharge and try to overcharge the batteries each day by at least 2 of their capacity. Weekly,Isetthe PV regilatorsto equalize and overchige the

Electricity supply systems

A grid operator now has the choice to simply replace the old grid with more of the same or rethink the whole concept of network architecture to better address the issues of energy security, climate change and costs to the consumer. Where the grid is still owned by the utility that also owns the large power generation plants, the traditional model of the electricity sector is more likely, the incumbent being unable to contemplate a solution other than simply replacing the old grid is a barrier to developing a new network structure.

Understanding Batteries Familiarity Breeds Contempt

But when you install a system with batteries, you have to stay on top of things. The battery or battery pack is the core of any off-grid system, and it drives the system's cost. All action comes and goes from the battery, and much of the safety and control equipment is designed to protect either the battery or the balance of the system from the battery. You absolutely have to understand batteries, or you'll end up paying an arm and a leg for new ones all the time and you won't get decent performance out of the ones you have.

Powering Your Future

We need to upgrade the solar-electric system for an off-grid home. The existing array consists of two 80-watt modules rated at 21.8 Voc (open-circuit voltage) and 4.85 Isc (short-circuit current), and two 120-watt modules rated at 21.5 Voc and 7.45 Isc. The owners would like to add one 175-watt module rated at 44.4 Voc and 5.3 Isc. The array sits on a hill that's 160 feet from the batteries and inverter.

Considering higher costs and maintenance

Off-grid solar power systems provide electrical power, but it's relatively expensive. When you install an off-grid solar PV system, you can't get anywhere near 100-percent utilization, plus you need batteries, charge controllers (which control the battery functions), and so on all this extra equipment is expensive, and it requires a lot of maintenance. You need to understand what you're doing with an off-grid system you can't just plug and play. You have to take care of batteries, monitor system performance, and adjust your habits on a daily basis depending on how much power your system is generating. In general, off-grid PV systems cost at least two times as much per kilowatt-hour as an intertie system, and they take ten times more attention on your part. Energy conservation measures are always the beginning of any solar power lifestyle, but they're even more important with off-grid systems because the economics dictate it. The best start is to build a very energy conservative house...

Reading Under the Sun at Night

An off-grid reading light is a great project, and you can get as fancy as you want. Start with a simple, self-contained camping light comprised of a small PV panel and a little pod containing a rechargeable battery, a light sensor, a switch, and a few LEDs. Then hang this light over your favorite reading chair (you may need to monkey around to get the light to shine in just the right spot), and you can read every night for hours without plugging in to the grid. Get the lowdown on these lights in Chapter 9.

The New Coal Fired Power Station in Germany

Given the European energy policies of increasing the share of CHP and renewable energy and decreasing CO2 emissions, a new large coal-fired power station is not the first thing to come to mind as an obvious solution. Nor will the import of hard coal create benefits to European energy security or the balance of payment. However, this is exactly the proposal that DONG has presented and is now promoting in North Germany. Such technology fits well into the existing organization of DONG, which operates several coal-fired power stations in Denmark and has a very competent and skilled section with expertise in the design and construction of such power stations.

Offgrid Inverter

Living or working off-grid means you are responsible for all your own energy needs you produce, store, and process every kilowatt-hour you consume. One part of that processing is converting the DC energy in your batteries to AC energy for use in standard AC appliances. This conversion is accomplished with an inverter. There are several off-grid (a.k.a. stand-alone or remote) inverters to choose from. Modern inverters are reliable, quiet, and come in a variety of sizes. This article will help demystify the inverter selection process so you can choose an inverter that is appropriate for your needs. We have restricted our list to residential-sized inverters (those that produce 1 to 6 kW), but the same process applies to larger systems. Only inverters that meet Underwriters Laboratories (UL) 1741 standards, as tested by a recognized certifying agency, are included in the list.


Off-grid home mortgage (OHM) loans make a solar powered home affordable with the low interest rates and long financing terms of conventional home loans. Home Power Magazine is teaming up with the Solar Energy Industries Association, Utility Photovoltaic Group, Renewable Energy Development Institute and the Switzer Environmental Fund to identify lenders currently involved with or interested in financing off-grid homes. If you or anyone you know has financed an off-grid home you can enter the lender into a nationwide database by contacting the toll-free number below and leaving the name of the lender, location and contact information. By doing so you will make it easier for the next off-grid homeowner to find financing. Who knows, it could even be you

Energy Outfitters

Power Systems & Appliances For Off Grid Living Now In Stock & Ready To Ship I also found out that only 7 states offer net billing for small renewables producers (MA, MN, NH, OK, PA, RI, TX), only 3 states require utilities to provide off-grid customers who request line extensions with a cost comparison between the line extension and a PV system (AZ, CO, NM), and only one state offers an


April 2-7, '01 Solar, Wind, & Water Power For Off-Grid Living Lasqueti Island, BC. Site analysis, system sizing, equipment, appliances, lab exercises, & tours of local systems. US 550. Solar Energy International (SEI), PO Box 715, Carbondale, CO 81623-0715 970-963-8855 Fax 970-963-8866 sei solarenergy.org www.solarenergy.org Local housing & logistics Melinda Auerbach, Morewater Road, Lasqueti Island, BC V0R 2J0 Canada 250-333-8898 Fax 250-333-8670 melinda lasqueti.net


Feb. 12-17, '01 Line-Ties and More workshop, Sacramento. Basic PV for off-grid applications & utility line-ties. Lectures, labs, tours, & hands-on installation. Co-sponsored by NCSEA& Sacramento Municipal Utility District. US 550. Solar Energy International (SEI), PO Box 715, Carbondale, CO 81623 970-963-8855 Fax 970-963-8866 sei solarenergy.org www.solarenergy.org


Mar. 5-10, '01 PV for Park Services workshop, Phoenix. Basic PV for off-grid applications. Focus on national park public land applications water pumping, gate entry systems, restrooms, etc. Lectures, labs, & hands-on components. US 550, camping available. Co-sponsored by AZ Dept. of Commerce Energy Office & Tonto National Forest District. Solar Energy International (SEI), PO Box 715, Carbondale, CO 81623 970-963-8855 Fax 970-963-8866 sei solarenergy.org www.solarenergy.org


Apr. 23-28, '01 PV for Ecovillages workshop. Basic PV for the off-grid home. Lectures, labs, & hands-on instruction. Eco Village Training Center at The Farm in Summertown. US 550. Camping & lodging available. Solar Energy International (SEI), PO Box 715, Carbondale, CO 81623 970-963-8855 Fax 970-963-8866 sei solarenergy.org www.solarenergy.org


Nearly all residential-scale renewable energy systems require some sort of energy storage. In batteryless utility-interactive systems, the grid stores any unused energy as credits applied to future electricity use. But those of us living off-grid or with utility backup systems rely on something else for storage batteries, those mysterious chemical-storage boxes.


The EZ-Solar Systems incorporates an innovative 12, 24 and 48 volt modular design utilizing Power Battery's Advanced Gel (patent pending) PSG series of front access deep cycle batteries. With a size range from 105 to 6120 AH, they are a Clean Power solution for a grid-tie backup or an off-grid power source.

New York

Will be conducted at an off-grid location near Woodstock, NY. The workshop tuition cost for all six days is 550. Workshop topics include Solar site analysis, system sizing, PV modules, controllers, batteries, inverters and appliances, demonstrations, lab exercises and hands-on installation. No prior experience or training is required everyone is welcome For more information contact SEI, PO Box 715, Carbondale, CO 81623 or call 970-9638855, Fax 970-963-8866, e-mail sei solarenergy.org For local housing & logistical information please contact SEIs local co-sponsor Larry Brown at Sun Mountain, PO Box 1364, Olivebridge, NY 12461, 914-657-8096.


Northwoods Energy Aiternatives is offering workshops. The current scheduie inciudes Wind Generators - Juiy 24th 10AM-3PM , Stand Aione Hybrid Systems - October 16th, 9AM-5PM. Peopie are encouraged to suggest additionai topics of interest. Workshop fees are based on a siiding scaie of 20- 50 you determine what you can pay. Off grid home tours are reguiariy offered. For more info contact Maggie or John, Northwoods Energy Aiternatives, POB 288, Lake Leeianu, MI 49653, or caii 616256-9262 or 616-256-8868.


Aug. 10, '02, RE for Your Home, at solar powered home in N. VT. Tour working PV system theory, design, setup off-grid system, some wind & hydro.US 50. Reservations. Contact Flack Family Farm, 2063 Duffy Hill Rd., Enosburg Falls, VT 05450 sarahflackfarm hotmail.com www.flackfamilyfarm.com.

The Next Step

Edwood Alliance's (RA) first solar-electric installation is battery-based and grid-intertied, intended to demonstrate a modern photovoltaic (PV) system to a community that has both plenty of utility outages, and lots of off-grid residents. My article in HP110 covers all the details of that installation, and the organization's longtime effort to have a demonstration project in our office. We had 24 solar-electric panels left from the donation by Shell Solar that we could use to do a second system, and we wanted it to be batteryless.

Offgeid Tracking

Justine Sanchez did a nice job with the tracking article in HP131 (Tracked PV Array Systems & Performance), but left out one of the key reasons for off-grid tracking. If you live in the Southwest and want to avoid running a generator, a tracker is one way to accomplish this. Last winter, we had seven days that the sun came out between 8 30 a.m. and 10 30 a.m. which gave us enough energy to charge our batteries. There were several late afternoons that provided good sun for a few hours, at a time when a fixed array would not reap the energy. In summer, we run a small split-type air conditioner unit in the evenings. Our tracked array points at the sun until 7 p.m. just when we need it to. Living off-grid is a challenge. But once you track the sun, there is no going back.

No Batteries

If you have some experience with battery-based renewable energy systems, you're well aware of the power and energy that a healthy battery pack can provide. If you live off grid, batteries make it possible for you to live on that perfect piece of property beyond the reach of the utility lines. In town, being the only one on your block with electricity during a grid failure is an empowering event cold beer never tasted so good. These advantages, coupled with the elimination of inevitable battery replacement, make it easy to see why batteryless grid-tied systems are so popular. If your project is off-grid, you'll need batteries period. If you live on grid, you'll want to consider a few things about your particular application to help you answer the question, Batteries or not Joe Schwartz (joe.schwartz homepower.com), Home Power Inc. CEO and editor, lives off the grid outside of Ashland, Oregon. All the electricity used on his homestead comes from the sun. He recently swapped out a set of...

Phantom Loads

I discovered your magazine about six months ago, and have become a most avid reader indeed While I benefit from utility electricity, water, and gas all piped to my door, I have decided to see what I could do about reducing my energy consumption. Not off grid, but less grid, if you like. To that end, I recently bought one of the new generation of small plug-in electric energy meters, such


Small wind-electric systems can provide electricity on remote, off-grid sites, or right in town connected to the utility grid. Although wind systems require more maintenance and need more attention than solar-electric or microhydro-electric systems, if you invest up front in good equipment, design, and installation, wind-electric systems can make economic and environmental sense. They also bring a great deal of satisfaction there's nothing quite like watching your wind generator convert a summer breeze or a winter storm into electrical energy. Sizing a wind-electric system is quite different than sizing a solar-electric (PV) system. With a PV system, space permitting, you can add capacity either as your needs grow, or as you can afford it. With a wind-electric system, this is simply not the case. A wind turbine is not incremental. Nor do people typically add more wind turbines and towers as money becomes available. Because wind is more cost effective as you increase in system size,...


Off Grid or Not I'm shopping for rural property, and have looked at some parcels that are off the grid some a short distance from utility lines and some a very long way. I don't know a lot about solar- and wind-electric systems, and hope you can give me some guidelines to help compare the cost of installing and owning a system with the cost of utility line extension. When is staying off grid or connecting to the utility worth it

IPPP Update

Since its formation two months ago, the membership of Independent Photovoltaic Power Providers (IPPP) has grown to 21 PV business. IPPP was initially formed to coordinate an organized response to Southern California Edison's (SCE) plans to enter the off-grid energy market. Now, IPPP should seize this opportunity to increase public awareness and acceptance of the availability of independent power systems. In either case, independent power providers must expand our efforts to develop a competitive off-grid market in which independent entrepreneurs, not monopolistic utilities, are the power providers. First, we can do this by mobilizing to prevent other utilities from entering the off-grid market. Most importantly, however, we must get the message out to potential customers that PV power is a viable solution to their power needs, that it is already available, and that it works. A media campaign which would publicize the availability of off-grid systems. A public relations effort to...


In the early days of home-scale renewable energy (RE) systems, we all used direct current (DC) appliances. If the appliance didn't come with a cigarette lighter cord, we weren't interested. It wasn't until the mid-1980s that the first reliable inverters became available. Finally, standard in town, alternating current (AC) appliances could be powered by off-grid RE systems, as long as they were energy efficient. The efficiency and reliability of modern inverters allow off-gridders to run standard, energy efficient AC appliances. The efficiency and reliability of modern inverters allow off-gridders to run standard, energy efficient AC appliances. The main disadvantage of using AC appliances in off-grid systems is the cost of the inverter and the energy lost due to inverter inefficiency. But modern inverters have an average operating efficiency of about 85 percent, and this may be on a par with the Plenty of PVModules - Grid-Tie & Off-Grid Wind & Hydro Systems All Balance-of-System...

We Use What We Sell

For 30 years, your calls have been answered by the good folks at Backwoods Solar who use the products they sell everyday. Each Backwoods Solar employee owns and operates an off-grid home powered by the solar, wind, and or micro-hydro systems offered in our catalog. We know what works and how it works


C & R Solar Quality design, sales and installations of solar wind power systems to meet your application. Serving northwest Arizona since 1989 for remote homes and grid tied systems. Living off grid since 1980. We achieve customer satisfaction with over 25 years of experience in renewable energy. ROC135882. 928-757-7059. Sales, installation & maintenance. Off-grid & grid-tied, prime C-S-TW. power or back-up. Complete systems, hybrid systems, or sub rtmi i'iniMi r systems & components. We can do it. Covering all of Arizona & dedicated to helping all present & potential customers. License R0C203166, 928-300-4067, altpwrsys hotmail.com Michael Symons Electric, C-10 licensed electrical contractor. NABCEP certified installer. We design, sell, install Symons & service both commercial & residential Photovoltaic systems PI - since 1982. We specialize in grid-tie and stand alone off grid EI CTi IIC systems including solar wells. We are located in East San Offline...

The Power Vent

My husband Bob-O and I have been slowly repairing, rebuilding, and changing a few things on our off-grid homestead with an eye to our retirement. Having paid off our mortgage a decade ago, we wanted to tackle some high-dollar projects that needed to be addressed before we are on a fixed retirement income.

Living Off The Grid

Living Off The Grid

Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Be A Success At Living Off The Grid. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To When Living Within The Grid Is Not Making Sense Anymore.

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