Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency

Phone 4 Energy

Phone 4 Energy is here to help you save that extra money you need for other projects. If you continue making use of your electric power the way you do now, there will be a continuous increment in your bill. However, with the use of the easy-to-use kit in this program, you will maximize your electric power usage at no extra cost. The steps involved in achieving this is very easy and simple to follow and with the help of the do-it-yourself kit, which was made in such a way that anyone can use it, one can easily install and start utilizing their system. With the world changing in terms of energy, and with many people trying to adopt new energy conservation methods in a bid to reduce costs of energy and that are also environmentally friendly, the inventor of this program and also author of the eBook has decided to share this awesome knowledge with everyone on the ways that you can channel the electric power coming from the phone lines through the Phone 4 Energy guide and use it in powering other appliances and gadgets in your homes. It is time to make a decision that you will no more spend extra money on electricity bills by getting this wonderful guide. Mind you this is easily done and as your order is placed, you will get the Phone 4 Energy kit, then simply follow the various step by step instructions in the manual and set up your system and you are good to go. Read more here...

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Flash Flashed Steam Power Plants

The flash plant schematic in Figure 1 was simplified from diagrams of the CalEnergy Company, Inc. (CECI) Salto n Sea Unit 2 power plant 4 . Technical descriptions of recently-built flashed-steam power systems can be found i n descriptions of the Magma Power Company Salton Sea units 5 CECI Salton Sea Unit 3 6,7 CECI Coso units 8,9 and GEO East Mesa units 10 . The NGGPP report 1 provides a range of process and cost information. a. One or two large vessels, flash tanks, wherein part of the geothermal fluid vaporizes ( flashes ) into steam a t pressures less than the pressure in the reservoir. This steam, typically 18 to 25 percent of the mass of the fluid from the reservoir (for double flash plants), is sent to the high-pressure (HP) and low-pressure (LP) inlets of a turbin e or turbines. The amount of steam depends on conditions in the reservoir and the designs of the production well s and power plant. The remaining liquid ( brine ) from the second flash tank (75 to 82 percent of mass)...

The UK power plant system of today

Partly in the interests of energy saving, and partly to help reduce CO2 emissions, the UK Government supports the European Union (EU) Cogeneration Directive (European Parliament, 2004), which should lead to a significant amount of electricity being generated from Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants. Whether CHP will help with the intermittency issue is debatable (DTI, 2006b). Much will depend upon whether cogeneration sets can produce extra electricity when power is short, or whether they are able to operate as heat-only plants when there is a surplus of power. Experience from other countries may not be too helpful since, in the author's view, the biggest growth in cogeneration in the UK is likely to come from micro-CHP. In contrast to district heating-style CHP, micro-cogeneration 'sets' will be integrated within household gas boilers, producing between 1kW and 3kW (Pehnt et al, 2005). If these are to give support to the grid, cheap and efficient...

Energy Conservation

Through the energy efficiency efforts of the public and the government, Japan has achieved the highest level of energy efficiency anywhere in the world since the oil crises 2 . However, the weakness of Japanese energy supply structure remains unchanged, and the level of dependency on Middle-East crude oil is higher now than at the time of the oil crises. With increasing energy consumption in commercial residential and transportation sectors in recent years, it is essential to promote energy efficiency measures for the future. In 1998, aiming to achieve Japan's COP3 energy efficiency goal, a conservation target of 56 million kiloliters (crude oil equivalent) was formulated. This target value was revised in 2001 to 57 million kiloliters including an additional 7 million kiloliters for the rapidly increasing demand in residential commercial and transportation sectors. Future measures for energy conservation include Improved energy efficiency of houses and buildings. Promotion of energy...

Distributed energy policies

In practice, depending on the level of privatisation reached, there are major differences in the association between a city authority, the utilities serving the city, and the gas, heat and electricity distribution networks. Larger cities may own or part-own the utility as well as the distribution companies. In this instance seeking benefits for their residents from improved energy efficiency, load management measures, and distributed energy is relatively easy compared with dealing with state or privately-owned companies where profit is the major driver. This issue is not dealt with in detail here, but analyses of the complexities can be found elsewhere, such as in the IEA publication Distributed Generation in Liberalised Electricity Markets (IEA, 2002).

End Use Energy Efficiency

While the use of gas and CCGT clearly has benefits, and is the dominant new energy option in many countries at present, given its reliance on an finite fossil fuel, this approach may only offer a temporary and partial solution to the emissions problem. By contrast, energy conservation at the point of use would 11 J. Watson, evidence to the Government's Review of Energy Sources for Power Generation on Advanced Fossil-Fuel Technologies for the UK Power Industry, 1998 Financing Cleaner Coal-Fired Power Plants in the UK, SPRU report no. 20, Energy Programme of the Science Policy Research Unit at Sussex University, 1998. seem to have more fundamental attractions. Certainly the potential for energy savings from the introduction of more efficient systems at the point of use is very large. This is in part because, until recently, energy has been relatively cheap and energy efficiency has mostly been ignored. Given the increased level of concern about climate change, new policies have now...

Energy Policy and Conservation Act of

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 is a U.S. law enacted in response to the 1973-74 energy crisis caused by the Arab oil embargo. Its purpose was to reduce U.S. dependency on high-priced oil imported from politically unstable countries, to prepare the United States for energy shortage conditions, and to improve energy efficiency and conservation. One of its measures for protecting the country from future oil shortages was the establishment of the SPR. It authorized the stockpiling of up to one billion barrels of petroleum in the SPR to tap into during energy emergencies. The law also gave the president of the United States the authority to withdraw crude oil from the SPR in response to an energy emergency and distribute it to oil companies by competitive sale. In addition, Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 Public Law 94-163 94th Congress

Making Your Home Energy Efficient

Making your home energy efficient prior to installing solar Changing the way you use appliances, heating, and so on Working on maintenance and installing new systems Adjusting your operating schedules to save energy efore installing solar power, reducing your energy consumption as much as possible makes sense. For every dollar you spend on energy conservation, you'll save much more on the cost of your solar system. For example, if you can save 1 kWh per day on your power bill (5 percent of the typical North American household's energy use), your solar energy system will cost around 7,000 less. The number depends on the level of subsidies and tax breaks you can find (see Part VI), but the impact is obvious. Through conscientious change of habits, the average household can reduce its energy consumption 20 percent. And through investments in energy-saving equipment, another 15 percent may be possible. That's a third off your monthly bills, and it'll reduce the cost for your solar...

Denmarks energy policy in the s

Since 1990, diverse policies have been introduced to establish the goal of sustainable development in the energy sector (ESRU, undated). The main overall target of these policies was to reduce CO2 emissions in 2005 by 20 per cent in comparison to 1988 levels and to make renewable energy constitute almost 14 per cent of the total energy supply by that date. Energy taxes were introduced on fossil fuels and electricity mainly in the household sector consumption of oil to reduce the use of fossil fuels, or at least keep it at the same level, and increase the share of renewable energy while keeping gross energy consumption constant. Renewable energy was exempted from taxes while at the same time subsidies were introduced for environmentally friendly forms of electricity production. To ensure that previously outlined targets would be reached, green taxes became more widely used in all sectors of the economy. As trade and industry green tax schemes included subsidies for energy saving and...

Subsidies in the energy market

There is much confusion about what is meant by an energy subsidy. The narrowest and most often used definition is a direct cash payment by a government to an energy producer or consumer. But this is just one possibility for stimulating production or use of a particular fuel or form of energy. The International Energy Agency (IEA) defines energy subsidies as any government action which concerns primarily the energy sector and which lowers the cost of energy production, lowers the price paid by energy consumers or raises the price received by energy producers. In practice, all energy subsidies are justified by one or more of the following reasons (UNEP, 2001) The impact of the removal of energy consumption subsidies on the environment would be enormous. It would reduce world energy consumption by 3.5 per cent and carbon dioxide emissions by 4.6 per cent. Very large subsidies exist in Russia, China and India. In Iran the average rate of subsidy of the market price is about 80 per cent.

Are the renewable energy policies consistent with policies and measures for other parts of the energy sector or are

Any business must acknowledge that legislation can change from term to term. In so doing, business must look to longer-term indicators to assess possible futures. Thus a business considering renewable energy investment will be looking closely at government policies towards climate change, energy pricing, pollution or extended producer liability.2 I will also be looking at the relative support government gives to other industries. If a government spends millions of dollars on fossil fuel research but nothing on renewable energy research, what insight does that provide into its views on the future energy mix

Commercial Energy Consumption

The forecast for commercial energy consumption is largely driven by an expected annual rate of growth in commercial floor space that is projected to average 1.7 per year between 2003 and 2025. Consistent with the projected increase in commercial floor space, delivered commercial energy consumption is projected to grow at an average annual rate of 1.9 between 2003 and 2025, reaching 12.4 quadrillion Btu in 2025. The most rapid increase in commercial energy demand is projected for electricity used for computers, office equipment, telecommunications, and miscellaneous small appliances. FIGURE 7.3 October oil futures case, delivered energy consumption by sector, 1970-2025 (quadrillion Btu). FIGURE 7.3 October oil futures case, delivered energy consumption by sector, 1970-2025 (quadrillion Btu).

Industrial Energy Consumption

Industrial energy consumption in the October oil futures case is projected to increase at an average rate of 0.9 per year between 2003 and 2025, reaching 30.8 quadrillion Btu in 2025. Key to the slower growth rate of industrial energy consumption as compared to the annual U.S. energy consumption rate of 1.3 is a continued shift of the U.S. economy toward services and away from energy-intensive industries. The value of shipments, a measure of industrial economic activity, is projected to increase at an annual rate of 2.3 as compared to the annual growth in the economy as a whole of 3.1 .

Residential Energy Consumption

Consistent with population growth rates and household formation, delivered residential energy consumption is projected to grow from 11.6 quadrillion Btu in 2003 to 14.1 quadrillion Btu in 2025 (Figure 7.3), at an average rate of 0.9 per year between 2003 and 2025 (1.0 per year between 2003 and 2010, slowing to 0.8 per year between 2010 and 2025). The most rapid growth in residential energy demand in the projection is expected to be for electricity used to power computers, electronic equipment, and appliances. Natural gas use in the residential sector is projected to grow at an annual rate of 1.1 from 2003 to 2010 and 0.6 from 2010 to 2025. The projection includes changes in the residential sector that have offsetting influences on the forecast of energy consumption, including more rapid growth in the total number of U.S. households, higher delivered prices for natural gas, electricity, and distillate fuel, and a better accounting of additions to existing homes and the height of...

Transportation Energy Consumption

Energy consumption in the transportation sector is projected to grow at an average annual rate of 1.7 between 2003 and 2025 in the projection, reaching 39.4 quadrillion Btu in 2025. The growth in transportation energy demand is largely driven by the increasing personal disposable income, projected to grow annually at about 3 , consumer preferences for driving larger cars with more horsepower, and an increase in the share of light trucks and sports utility vehicles that make up light-duty vehicles. Total vehicle miles traveled by light-duty vehicles is projected to increase at an annual rate of 2 between 2003 and 2025 because of the increase in personal disposable income and other demographic factors.

The Evolution of Renewable Energy Policy Making in India The renewable policy context

Two major issues have been responsible for putting renewable energy sources in the right perspective in India the widening gap between energy consumption and supply and the resultant polluting emissions generated by using conventional India was among the few first countries in the world to have launched a major programme for harnessing renewable energy. By the 1990s the government of India came to recognize the importance of renewable energy as a means of decentralized energy systems which could meet the requirements of far-flung rural areas. The government of India had given a new thrust to its efforts at the beginning of the Eighth Five-Year plan (1992 97) which included the use of renewable energy technologies for power generation. Thus the importance of an increasing use of renewable energy sources in the transition to a sustainable energy base continues to be appreciated. However, it must be emphasized that there is an entirely different set of issues that India grapples with,...

Summary of Energy Management Programs

The way to move forward has been outlined in two tables to provide a step-by-step procedure for electrical energy management in buildings. Table 10.3 is directed at the homeowner or apartment manager, while Table 10.4 has been prepared for the commercial building owner or operator. Industrial facilities are treated separately (refer to Chapter 14). TABLE 10.3 An Energy Management Plan for the Homeowner or Apartment Manager Third Step Apply Energy Management Principles 15. After the energy management program has been initiated, examine subsequent utility bills to determine if you are this case it is informative to calculate what your bill would have been without the energy management program. TABLE 10.4 An Energy Management Plan for Commercial Building Operator Third Step Formulate the Energy Management Plan any formal program will cost something, in terms of salary for the energy coordinator as well as (possibly) an investment in building modifications and new equipment. At this stage...

International Energy Markets And The Viability Of Renewable Energy Sources

Current energy markets have been significantly affected and shaped by structural and other changes in our economies unrelated to energy factors, such as the changing industrial mix or the ever growing tertiary sector, for example. lower prices for crude oil and all primary energies moro competitive and diversified energy markets The IEA continues to emphasize the need for diversity of supply and flexibility as the principal keys to the security of its member nations. There remains the risk that energy and oil demand will increase at an unacceptable rate for our long-term energy security. Concerns include the extent to which low prices for oil and energy in general will force demand upwards and discourage investment in energy conservation, and in exploration and development of yet untapped energy resources. The demand for oil is once more beginning to revive after its lengthy decline, while OECD oil production is said to be close to its maximum. Further, it remains true that 60 per...

The profligate subsidies for conventional energy systems

Lured by sirens singing of lower energy prices, civilization is allowing itself to be drawn ever faster towards ruin. The centralized energy industry is using dumping prices, particularly on the open energy markets, to prove its contention that it is the most cost-effective system for energy supply possible, and thus an indispensable element of the aggregate economy. But such arguments can fall on fertile ground only because the energy discussion is being conducted in fuzzy terms. A case in point is the way the nuclear fossil fuel energy complex regularly presents its current competitive advantage as a fundamental economic advantage. To reach this conclusion, everything that occurs before and after the direct generation costs is simply disregarded, including direct and indirect, current and past subsidies, the drain on the economy caused by imports of primary energy, the cost of permanent destruction of resources, and environmental costs. By repudiating the crucial distinction between...

National energy policy

Economic supply is usually taken to mean 'low price to the consumer within a competitive market'. This price is heavily influenced by taxes, subsidies, monopoly influences and supplier profits, as well as the more obvious material supply costs see below regarding economic conditions and energy markets. Evaluating what is 'economic' is attempted by various forms of analysis, usually based on 'discounting' (Section 17.5), but the actual price paid per unit tends to dominate once a supply is available. Renewables, by definition, utilise energy from the environment, which usually arrives without payment as with sunshine, wind and rain. The major cost of renewables is therefore the initial capital cost of the equipment, and so the method of integrating capital and operational costs is vital for economic comparisons with fossil and nuclear fuel systems. Structure of energy markets. Until the 1990s, most governments granted the electricity supplier in each region a regulated monopoly, in...

Renewable Energy Systems

Renewable energy systems are defined as complete energy supply and demand systems based on renewable energy as opposed to nuclear and fossil fuels. They include supply as well as demand. The transition from traditional nuclear and fossil fuel based systems to renewable energy systems involves coordinated changes in the following Demand technologies related to energy savings and conservation Changes such as insulation and efficiency improvements of electric devices leading to changes in the energy demand for heat, electricity, or fuel are defined as changes in the demand system. In addition to the preceding renewable energy technologies, renewable energy systems include both technologies, which can convert from one form of energy into another for example, electricity into hydrogen as well as storage technologies that can save energy from one hour to another. Mathiesen (Mathiesen and Lund 2009) and Blarke (Blarke and Lund 2008) comprise these technologies under the designation...

Costs of conventional energy systems

Conventional systems are often compared to renewable energy systems with respect to economics. However, external costs are often excluded from this comparison. Therefore, the following sections will discuss this point in more detail. Without considering external costs, the levelled electricity generation costs of big power stations are in the range of 0.03 kWhel to 0.07 kWhel for coal-fired power plants and between 0.03 kWhel and 0.04 kWhel for natural gas-fired combined gas and steam turbine power plants. The electricity and heat generation costs given assume stable costs for fossil fuels however, that will certainly not be the case for the long operating periods in the power plant sector. Figure 6.4 shows the changes in crude oil prices over the past three decades. If they are adjusted for inflation and exchange rate, the maximum of the past 30 years is 5.5 times higher than the minimum. Prices for conventional energy carriers will increase in the long term due to the limited...

Future development of costs for renewable energy systems

Costs for renewable energy systems will decrease further as they have done in the past. Increased production volume, more automation in production and the use of ever more sophisticated technologies will reduce the costs significantly. Production volumes of many renewable energy technologies are still relatively low and many involve multiple production steps, requiring expensive labour. The PR of wind power plants for the 1980s and 1990s was between 0.8 and 0.96 depending on the region (Harmsen and van Sambeek, 2003 IEA, 2000). The global installed capacity has doubled approximately every 2.5 years over the past decade. With an average PR of 0.92 the cost reduction is nearly 30 per cent per decade. Further cost reductions can be expected by increasing system sizes. However, in some regions, such as locations in Germany, wind turbines have been already installed at most of the best sites. Using further sites with lower wind speeds can offset part of the cost reduction of increased wind...

Distributed energy systems

Power electronics for use in renewable energy applications are discussed in 14 . Also some benefits and drawbacks associated with renewable energy sources are discussed. Photovoltaic, fuel cell and wind energy systems are reviewed briefly. Small-scale hydro pump stations or battery banks for electric energy storage are, however, not discussed in 14 . Still, they are included in the principal scheme of a distributed power system, together with flywheel and superconducting magnetic energy storages.

Percent Renewable Energy Systems

The basic recommendation is to raise the awareness that an energy system based on 100 percent renewable energy is an option. Based on the case of Denmark, this book presented two studies of the technical challenges and perspectives of converting present energy systems into a 100 percent renewable energy system. Each study involved two or three alternatives that were based on either biomass or wind power. The studies concluded that a 100 percent renewable energy supply based on domestic resources was physically possible in Denmark and that the first step toward 45 percent in 2030 was feasible for Danish society. The first study identified some key improvements of system flexibility as being essential to the conversion of the energy system into a 100 percent renewable system. The analyses showed that the Danish energy system could be converted into a 100 percent renewable energy system when combining 180 TJ year of biomass with 5 GW PV and between 15 and 27 GW wind power. In the...

What outcomes are actually intended from the renewable energy policies

There are many reasons (and therefore many potential objectives) for accelerating renewable energy development. They include sustainability objectives, energy policy reform, renewable energy production, new generating capacity, indigenous fuel manufacture, greenhouse gases (GHGs) mitigation, distributed generation, increment size, energy cost and least-cost planning (internalization), energy security, new industry manufacturing development, development of intellectual property in new technologies, job creation, rural development and nuclear phase-out. So, in this case, the country's renewable energy policy priorities, in order and beginning with the most important, will be new generating capacity, reliability, energy security, small increment size, low-cost generation and finally sustainabil-ity objectives.

Resolving the Energy Conservation Problem in Cold Fusion

When transduction is involved, standard transverse EM waves only computations will seemingly yield violation of energy conservation e.g., from the emission of excess heat. That is an erroneous interpretation energy overall is conserved, but some of the unaccounted time-energy flow is transduced into 3-spatial transverse photon energy dissipation. Neither 3-spatial energy nor mass-energy nor time-energy alone, or in any pairing, need be individually conserved only the combined total energy of all three energy components is conserved. This resolves the present major sticking point between the cold fusion researchers and the conventional transverse wave nuclear and electrodynamic communities regarding energy conservation difficulties and perpetual motion accusations. Those making the accusations and those defending against them are both using only a special-case conservation of energy law, and a more general law is required. Let us present the new energy conservation law in slightly...

Energy Efficient Generation

The most direct way to reduce carbon dioxide production is by burning less fossil fuel. There are various ways in which this can be achieved. The simplest is for people to actually use less energy, i.e. to make do with lowered energy services, which implies something of a frugal approach to lifestyles. While there may well be some benefit in turning off lights when not needed, donning a pullover rather than switching on more heating, or voluntarily forgoing some particularly energy-intensive activity like flying, in general 'energy conservation' (or more accurately fuel conservation) can also be achieved by technical measures which reduce the waste of energy. It is possible to use fossil fuels more efficiently, so as to get more useful energy for each tonne of carbon dioxide produced, or to put it more positively, get the same amount of useful energy with less carbon emissions. This can apply both to generation and consumption. The classic example in terms of generation is combined...

Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy in India

Conservation Energy India

Energy conservation received greater attention in India since the mid 1970s. Structural changes in the economy during the last few years have led to the expansion of the industrial base and infrastructure in the country, and subsequently to increase in demand for energy. Any effort to enhance energy generation brings issues of available energy sources and systems. India recognizes, as anywhere else, a need to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and transition to an era where many cost-effective and efficient energy choices are available. There has been a vigorous search during the last three decades for alternatives to fossil fuels that would ensure energy security and eco-friendly sustainable development. The energy conservation efforts in India have to be viewed in terms of coal and lignite being the long-term sustainable local energy resources. Small resources of petroleum and natural gas may be exhausted shortly and in the medium and long term, the import of oil will increase....

Solar updraft tower power plants

Updraft Tower Plant

For a solar updraft tower power plant the three components of glass roof collector, chimney and turbine are combined. The use of this combination for power generation was already described more than 70 years ago 5-26 . Fig. 5.24 Function principle of a solar updraft tower power plant Fig. 5.24 Function principle of a solar updraft tower power plant The principle, on which a solar updraft tower power plant is based, is shown in Fig. 5.24. The incident direct and diffuse solar radiation warms the air below a flat, circular glass roof, open at the circumference, which, in conjunction with the bottom underneath, forms an air collector. The middle of the roof is equipped with a vertical chimney provided with big openings for air supply. The roof is connected air-tight to the chimney bottom. Since warm air is of lower density than cold air, it rises to the top of the chimney tube. At the same time, the pull of the chimney makes warm air flow from the collector inside the chimney, so that...

The MCFC as Small Scale CHP System and Large Central Power Plant

Mtu Chp Plants

FuelCell Energy is based in Danbury, CT, and has a second facility in Torrington. The company was formed out of Energy Research Corporation (founded in 1969), which is probably best known for setting up the largest fuel cell power plant ever operated in the North America the Santa Clara Demonstration Project, with a nominal electric power output of 2.5 MW. Like other demonstration plants, it was based on 300-kW MCFC stack technology called Model 9000. Current plant sizes are 300 kW, 1.5 MW, and 3 MW. FuelCell Energy refers to its technology as direct fuel cell, as it is based on internal reforming technology capable of using a multitude of fuels, including natural gas, methanol, ethanol, biogas, and any other fuel that contains methane. In Asia, FuelCell Energy is working with Marubeni Corporation to generate at least 45 MW in power plant orders over the forthcoming two years, while providing the necessary infrastructure for successfully delivering products in Japan and elsewhere in...

Preface Energy Conservation

The timing of this handbook also coincides with a new impetus for the use of renewable energy. This impetus comes from the emergence of renewable portfolio standards RPS in many states of the U.S. and renewable energy policies in Europe, Japan, Israel, China, Brazil, and India. An RPS requires that a certain percentage of energy used be derived from renewable resources. RPSs and other incentives for renewable energy are currently in place in 20 of the 50 states of the U.S. and more states are expected to soon follow. The details of the RPS for renewable energy and conservation instituted by state governments vary, but all of them essentially offer an opportunity for industry to compete for the new markets. Thus, to be successful, renewable technologies will have to become more efficient and cost-effective. Although RPSs are a relatively new development, it has already been demonstrated that they can reduce market barriers and stimulate the development of renewable energy. Use of...

Wilson R.e. Lissaman P.b.s. And Walker S.n. 1976 Aerodynamic Performance Of Wind Turbines. Energy Research And

Wind power plants, theory and design. Oxford, UK Pergamon Press. 15. J. L. Tangler. 1983. Horizontal-axis wind system rotor performance model comparison, a compendium. RFP-3508, UC-60, Rockwell Int., Wind Energy Research Center (now National Wind Technology Center).

International Energy Agency IEA Report Energy Prices and Taxes st Quarter Thirty Years of Energy Prices and Savings

The IEA uses energy intensity as an index to measure energy efficiency, an intensity being the energy used per unit of activity for example, the gasoline used per mile driven by a car. The IEA has reported that, as a result of declining energy intensities, significant energy savings began around the world in 1973, when the first oil price shock hit, and lasted through the mid- to late 1980s. The IEA concluded that the changes caused by the 1970s oil crises, including the revisions in energy policy that came out of the crises, had a substantially greater impact on reducing energy consumption than energy conservation and efficiency policies implemented in the 1990s. Declining energy intensities, according to the IEA, led to significantly reduced energy costs since 1973, but the reductions in energy intensities have been much more modest since the late 1980s, so the rate of energy savings has slowed since then. According to the IEA energy use for cars is much greater in countries with...

Solar pond power plants

Solar ponds are power plants that utilise the effect of water stratification as a basis for the collector. A basin filled with brine (i.e. a water salt mixture) functions as collector and heat storage. The water at the bottom of the solar pond serves as primary heat storage from which heat is withdrawn. The deeper water layers and the bottom of the solar pond itself serve as absorber for the impinging direct and diffuse solar radiation. Due to the distribution of the salt concentration within the basin, which increases towards the bottom of the basin, natural convection and the ensuing heat loss at the surface due to evaporation, convection and radiation is minimised. This is why heat of an approximate temperature between 80 and 90 C (approximate stagnation temperature 100 C) can be extracted from the bottom. Thanks to suitable thermodynamic cycles (e.g. ORC process) heat can then be used for power generation.

Surveying Your Household Energy Efficiency and

Analyzing your monthly energy costs Comparing your energy use to a typical household Looking into your energy consumption Performing energy audits in your home It's much cheaper, marginally, to invest in energy conservation measures for your home before you invest in solar. Furthermore, most people don't have a good handle on where and how they're using energy. When you invest in solar power, you're called on to decide, very specifically, what type of system to install and how much it's worth in both monetary and labor costs (your labor costs, once the system is in). By studying the details of your own household and how you consume energy, you'll be well along the way to making wise solar investment decisions.

Exploring home energy ratings

A less-traditional option of financing your major solar project is through an energy-efficient financing program, but your home has to qualify for the program. To qualify, you need to have your home audited and rated by a licensed expert. He or she will do an energy audit (see Chapter 2) and write a report that estimates annual energy use and costs. You can also expect some recommendations for improvements that you'll have to implement as a loan-approval condition. To get the best loan terms, you have to convince the financing institution that the improvements you plan to fund with the loan proceeds make sense in the grand scheme of things. That's reasonable. If things look good, you can get special energy-efficient financing programs that have lower interest rates than conventional loans. Keep in mind, however, that with these loans, you'll be required to pay for the energy audit and deal with government agencies.

Adding Up Typical Energy Usage

You need to look at the details of how you're using energy at your house in order to determine the best way to spend time and money reducing your power bills and how best to invest in solar equipment. A good start is to first look at how the average household in America uses energy. You can compare your own situation and get some real insights. According the Department of Energy (DOE), the average household expends the following percentages on its energy consumption Energy Usage (kWh) Energy Usage (kWh)

Solar Thermal Power Plants

The term solar thermal power plant comprises power plants which first convert solar radiation into heat. The resulting thermal energy is subsequently transformed into mechanical energy by a thermal engine, and then converted into electricity. For thermodynamic reasons high temperatures are required to achieve the utmost efficiency. Such high temperatures are reached by increasing the energy flux density of the solar radiation incident on a collector. In this respect, we refer to concentrated radiation or concentrating collectors. As an alternative, with regard to technical economic optimisation of the overall system, also lower temperatures, resulting in considerably reduced costs may be desired in some cases. However, such concepts imply the use of large-surface cost-efficient collectors. The above mentioned framework conditions give rise to a whole series of different solar thermal power plant concepts. According to the type of solar radiation concentration, solar thermal power...

100kw-1000kw Rdf Waste Msw Gasification Power Plant Manufactures

Candidates, 130 hybrid poplar, 124, 125 napier grass, 124, 125 sorghum, 124, 125 switchgrass, 124, 125 sycamore, 124, 125 virgin biomass and conversion, 119 virgin biomass and cost goals, 119 virgin biomass and parameters, 121 virgin biomass, energy, and mass, 124 whole-tree energy systems, 566 U.S. fossil fuel prices, end user coal, sector, 119, 120 fossil fuels, sector and fuel, 119, 120 natural gas, sector, 119, 120 petroleum products, sector, 119, 120 petroleum, sector, 119, 120 U.S. organic chemicals annual market, 499 annual sales, 504 production, 497 worldwide production, 497 U.S. polymers, annual market, 508 U.S. tax incentives, motor fuels from biomass, 438 Electric power generation, see also Power plants alfalfa, 562, 566 bagasse, 151 Act, 208, 324 virgin biomass-fueled, 207 advantages, 208, 324 incentives for, 208, 324 Whole Tree Energy systems, 566 Embden-Meyerhof pathway, ethanol synthesis, 406 combustion, anthracite coal, 198 combustion, bituminous coal, 198 combustion,...

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Hydrogenase In Energy Saving And Environmental Protecting Systems

Table 1 presents biotechnological potential of hydrogenase employing different activities of this enzyme. Besides direct application in the energy conversion systems hydrogenase is a useful tool to reduce the energy consumption and protect the environment. Actually, the ability of hydrogenase to reduce reversibly some compounds like metal ions, viologens and other electron acceptors could be applied for development of safe and convenient hydrogen energy accumulator. If this compound is well soluble in water, its concentrated solution would be an efficient H2 storage medium. Such an approach was experimentally proven using methyl viologen as a hydrogen binder and immobilized hydrogenase as a catalyst. An 0.5 M aqueous solution of MV accumulates 240 times as much H2 as pure water dissolves under the same pressure. The hydrogenase provides the charge-discharge cycle within a reasonable time 14 , Hydrogen-deuterium exchange Preparative separation of hydrogen isotopes. Detritiation of...

Energy Efficiency

Energy efficiency is defined as the higher heating value (HHV) of hydrogen divided by the energy consumed by the electrolysis system per kilogram of hydrogen pro- The energy efficiency of several electrolyzers is shown in Table 3. The energy efficiency ranges of commercial systems ranges from 47-77 kWh kg (83-51 ). An efficiency goal for electrolyzers in the future has been reported to be in the 46.9 kWh kg-1 range, or a system efficiency of 83 .42 This 83 includes compression of the hydrogen gas to 6000 psig. Currently most electrolyzers reach a pressure ranging from 0-500 psig for the power requirements presented, with a few research stage electrolyzers reaching pressures in the 3000-6500-psig range. So most electrolyzers would need additional energy input beyond what is presented in the table below to compress to fueling pressures.

Energy Policy Act of

The Energy Policy Act of 2005 was signed into U.S. law on August 8, 2005. More than 1,700pages long, the Energy Policy Act of2005 is the United States' most recent major energy policy. Its supporters claim that it is a comprehensive energy policy that tackles shortages in energy resources through such measures as developing alternative and renewable energy technologies to supplement the use offossil fuels for energy. Among its provisions are an authorization to fill the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to capacity, new reliability standards for electricity utilities for the purpose of modernizing the electrical grid, incentives for expanding the use of nuclear energy for electricity, and a commitment to invest 2 billion over 10 years to support research into environmentally cleaner ways of using coal to generate electricity. It also included a measure aimed at tripling, by 2012, the current required amount of biomass-derived fuel (or biofuel), such as ethanol, that must be mixed with...

Energy Star

Energy Conservation Services, Energy Star, Energy Systems & Design, Offline Independent Energy Systems, www.psnw.com ofln 109 Over the years, Robb and Ginger have continued to develop their strong interest in creating a self-sufficient lifestyle. Their home and work reflect an interest in sustainability and renewable energy (RE) in its many aspects. Robb and Ginger own and operate Basalt Mountain Gardens, a chemical-free nursery and landscaping service specializing in edible, native, and drought-tolerant plants, and landscaping for energy efficiency. They love working for clients who use renewable energy.

Tidal power plants

The easiest method consists of a one-basin-system that is only used in one direction (Fig. A.6, top). A bay is separated from the open sea by means of a dam, but remains connected to the sea by a floodgate and a turbine. The control system of the turbine and the floodgate ensures that water can only enter the bay via the floodgate and can only exit the bay through the turbine. This turbine is connected with an electrical generator providing the electrical energy. A fundamental disadvantage of such types of tidal power plants is that energy can only be generated during comparatively short time periods (Fig. A.6, top). Its advantage is the simple turbine design. Tidal power stations can also be designed as a two-basin-system (Fig. A.6, bottom). Between the two basins another turbine is integrated. This turbine is either built into a dam or into a connecting canal located between the two basins connected to the sea also via turbines. Water inflow and outflow is controlled as water enters...

Binary Power Plants

Figure 2 shows a schematic of a geothermal binary power plant 1 . All the geothermal fluid passes through the tub e side of the primary heat exchanger and then is pumped back into the reservoir through injection wells. A hydrocarbon working fluid (e.g., isopentane) on the shell side of the primary heat exchanger is vaporized to a high pressure (HP ) to drive the turbine-generator. Low pressure vapor from the turbine is liquified in the condenser and re-pressurize d by the hydrocarbon pump. Waste heat is ejected to the atmosphere through a condenser and a cooling tower. Makeup water is required for the heat rejection system if wet cooling towers are used, but not if dry cooling towers are used. The binary system characterized here uses dry cooling, but wet cooling could be less expensive where cooling wate r is available. Most geothermal binary plants are constructed from a number of smaller modules, each having a capacity of 1 to 12 MWe net. a. Downhole production pumps in the...

Costs for environmental and health damages

The consequential damages of a maximum credible accident in a central European nuclear power plant would be in the region of 5000 billion. This is much more than a national economy can handle. In Germany the legal liability for a nuclear reactor is only 500 million. The general public would have to carry the remaining costs. Unlimited insurance cover would make nuclear power plants unprofitable in most cases. Nuclear power stations can also cause costs in other countries. For instance, the reactor accident at Chernobyl affected many European countries, notably, through radioactively contaminated agricultural products. Yet it is not only reactor accidents that cause external costs the normal operation of nuclear power plants also causes such costs. The consequential damages of uranium mining are enormous damages arising from former uranium mines in Eastern Germany are estimated to exceed 6.5 billion. Uranium processing, enrichment, operation of power plants, transportation and final...

Results for Energy Production

Once the cost per kg has been determined, multiplication by the emitted quantities of the pollutants yields the cost per activity, for instance per kWh of electricity produced by a power plant. A complete accounting of the damage costs should involve a LCA, i.e., a complete inventory of emissions over the entire chain of processes involved in the activity. The total damage cost per kWh of electricity should include impacts upstream and downstream from the power plant, such as air pollution from the ships, trucks, or trains that transport the fuel to the power plant. That has been done for the fuel chain results of ExternE. A few results for France are shown in Figure 4.6. For the fossil fuel chains, the lion's share of the external costs comes from air pollutants emitted by the power plant, the main impact categories being global warming and public health. Air pollutants from upstream and downstream activities make a relatively small contribution (roughly 10 of the GHGs). Apart from...

How to Make an Electric Power System Smart

To add intelligence to an electric power transmission system, independent processors in each component and each substation and power plant are needed. These processors must have a robust operating system and be able to act as independent agents that can communicate with and cooperate with other forming a large distributed computing platform. Each agent must be connected to sensors associated with its own component or its own substation so that it can assess its own operating conditions and report them to its neighboring agents via the communications paths. Thus for example, a processor associated with a circuit breaker would have the ability to communicate with sensors built into the breaker and communicate those sensor values using high-bandwidth fiber communications connected to other such processor agents.

Chapter The self sustained home of tomorrow today

Power Plant Power Plant This leads to homes still using partial power off the grid, or people cutting back on their energy consumption. Some common ways of cutting back on energy consumption would be to purchase energy efficient appliances, use a Lapp computer instead of a desktop, eliminate television or watch a smaller one, and eliminate the majority of air conditioner use. Power Plant Power Plant

Imagine renewable energy on a larger scale

Power Plant Power Plant If even a fraction of the money spent on the US military every year went into the development of renewable energy sources we would see advancement in technologies and the cost of renewable energy start to go down almost immediately. From hybrid vehicles, large scale wind farms, energy efficient appliances, and the ongoing research of environmentally friendly technologies, the change is slow, but a good change nonetheless. Power Plant Power Plant This means that it's not just a personal problem or a regional problem. Rising energy costs affect the entire world's population. It's up to those who have the technology and the resources to invest to do so. It's not just a problem in the developed world. Higher energy costs mean that delivering aid to impoverished nations becomes much more difficult. It means that the resources they do have will become more expensive and therefore out of reach to more and more people.

Tower Foundations Gearbox Nacelle and Generator

The tower is one of the most important parts of the wind power plant. It must hold the nacelle and the rotor blades. Higher tower heights can increase the wind generator output because the wind speed rises with height. Early in their history, wind towers were lattice towers. The advantage of lattice towers is the lower material demand and costs. Because lattice towers are now considered to be visually unappealing, they are only rarely used today. Very small wind generators use simple towers with guys that hold the tower. Larger wind power plants use tubular towers, which are made of steel or concrete with circular cross-section. Modern towers can reach heights up to 100 m and even more. A 60-m-high steel tower with a diameter of 3.65 m at the bottom and 2 m at the top has a weight of 55 t. Hence, transport and final assembly of tower and rotor blades can become rather difficult for large systems, especially in rough terrain. Carefully designed foundations must hold these high masses...

Oversights Oversight Absence of contextual frameworks

In a new market, it is virtually guaranteed that all the regulation into which renewables must fit will not have been designed with renewable energy in mind. For example, a licence to generate electricity may reflect the cost of a half-billion-dollar power plant. Will a 10MW run-of-river hydro scheme have to purchase that same licence Or more pointedly still, will someone who puts 100 watts of solar PV on their roof

Nuclear Power Technologies

Nuclear power is derived from the fission of heavy element nuclei or the fusion of light element nuclei. This chapter will discuss nuclear power derived from the fission process because fusion as a practical power source will not reach the stage of commercial development in the next 20-25 years. In a nuclear reactor, the energy available from the fission process is captured as heat that is transferred to working fluids that are used to generate electricity. Uranium-235 (235U) is the primary fissile fuel currently used in nuclear power plants. It is an isotope of uranium that occurs naturally at about 0.72 of all natural uranium deposits. When 235U is burned (fissioned) in a reactor, it provides about one megawatt day of energy for each gram of 235U fissioned (3.71 X1010 Btu lb). Nuclear power technology includes not only the nuclear power plants that produce electric power but also the entire nuclear fuel cycle. Nuclear power begins with the mining of uranium. The ore is processed and...

The Political Challenge

Although history has shown that building up such an infrastructure is most efficiently managed by the private sector, governments do have a public responsibility to ensure fair market rules, level playing fields for the market participants and, most importantly, the sustainability of living conditions for the generations to come. Hence, they face many challenges in formulating current and future energy policies. They have to respond to the need for security of energy supply, economic growth, sustainable development, employment and technological development, and to combat the growing effects of climate change. Renewable energy technologies are considered to have a positive impact on all these parameters. This study clearly demonstrates that solar thermal power plants, not widely known as an energy technology up to now, are one of the most promising renewable sources - capable of meeting 5 of future global electricity demand by the year 2040. The developing world in particular, with its...

Successful Marketcreation Policy Measures

As already outlined, one key benefit of a growing solar thermal energy market is job creation. It is estimated that direct and indirect employment in the industry worldwide, not including the production of components and equipment, could rise to about 54,000 jobs by 2025. In order to attract solar thermal power plant suppliers into establishing manufacturing facilities, markets need to be strong, stable and reliable, with a clear commitment to long-term expansion. In recent years, an increasing number of countries have established targets for renewable energy as part of their greenhouse gas reduction policies. These are either expressed as specific quantities of installed capacity or as a percentage of energy consumption. In the USA, Renewable Portfolio Standards have been established to gradually increase the contribution of clean, renewable power in the supply mix of some of its federal states. If utility companies fail to reach certain agreed targets, they will be penalised through...

Benefitto Cost Ratio or Savingsto Investment Ratio Method

The benefit-to-cost ratio (BCR) or savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) method divides benefits by costs or by savings by investment. When used to evaluate energy efficiency and renewable energy systems, benefits are in terms of energy cost savings. The numerator of the SIR ratio is usually constructed as energy savings, net of maintenance and repair costs and the denominator as the sum of investment costs and replacement costs less salvage value (capital cost items). However, depending on the objective, sometimes only initial investment costs are placed in the denominator and the other costs are subtracted in the numerator or sometimes only the investor's equity capital is placed in the denominator. As with the three preceding methods, this method is based on discounted cash flows.

Conclusions for international development cooperation

The cheapest and most promising means to reduce energy use in transport is through the improvement of energy efficiency, either by technical improvements or by modern urban planning approaches. This fact should be in the mind of each decision-maker who is interested in reducing environmental damage, human disease and the societal costs caused by the transport sector. But if serious predictions come true (for example, the price of oil remains at high levels of between US 40 and US 60 bbl) or further political targets are implemented (such as the European Directive on biofuels), renewable energies such as ethanol and biodiesel will come to play a more important role in transport. However, in each case energy efficiency should be paid special attention. The above deliberations show that the use of renewables in transport is related to a number of uncertainties regarding their sustainability, and the usage will be limited in the next decade. Therefore, a number of strategies to reduce...

Conclusions and policy implications

Countries need long-term energy solutions, and in order to obtain these they may elect to design policies which create a market that is receptive to the needs of long-term investments such as renewable technologies (Unit for Sustainable Development and Environment, 2004 Martinot, 2002 van der Linden et al, 2005 Armstrong and Hamrin, undated). Sustainable energy technologies, including renewables and energy efficiency, have the potential to significantly reduce the amount of fossil fuels that are consumed for the production of electricity. It is clear that there are many benefits to be accrued by diversifying power generation resources to include these technologies. While the benefits including power system price stability, infrastructure security, environmental protection and rural economic development may be convincing, policy and regulatory reform is required to help level the playing field with regard to conventional fossil-fuelled systems. Regulatory reforms should be considered...

Box Example of effectiveness assessment the Renewable Energy and International Law Project

The Renewable Energy and International Law Project (REILP) is supported by the UK Foreign Office's Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership, the law firm Baker & McKenzie and several universities (Yale, the Centre for Energy, Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy at the University of Dundee, and others). Other project partners include the World Conservation Union (IUCN - through its Environmental Law Programme), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the Australian and US governments, and the secretariat of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The project is looking at ways in which international law can be used as a tool to support the development of renewable energy, and, conversely, ways in which it may currently be impeding that development. No international agency identifies wholeheartedly with the issue of global sustainable energy (in particular, energy conservation, energy efficiency, renewable and climate-friendly energy) and focuses on it in...

Making Economically Efficient Choices

Economic-evaluation methods can be used in a number of ways to increase the economic efficiency of energy-related decisions. There are methods that can be used to obtain the largest possible savings in energy costs for a given energy budget there are methods that can be used to achieve a targeted reduction in energy costs for the lowest possible efficiency renewable energy investment and there are methods that can be used to determine how much it pays to spend on energy efficiency and renewable energy to lower total lifetime costs, including both investment costs and energy cost savings. The first two ways of using economic-evaluation methods (i.e., to obtain the largest savings for a fixed budget and to obtain a targeted savings for the lowest budget) are more limited applications than the third, which aims to minimize total costs or maximize NB (net savings) from expenditure on energy efficiency and renewables. As an example of the first, a plant owner may budget a specific sum of...

Government energy institutions

MIME has responsibility for planning and implementing the government's energy policy. The General Directorate of Energy, within MIME, consists of three departments one for the planning of general supply and transmission options, one for the development of renewable energy and energy efficiency options, and one for the development of hydropower projects in particular. This whole directorate is almost exclusively concerned with electrical energy despite the fact that electricity is a very small fraction of the country's total energy use. MIME is a shareholder in EDC, and MIME also operates a number of mini-grids which supply some provincial towns, as explained in the previous section.

Planning lowcost public transport systems

Individual means of transport have a higher energy consumption per person transported compared to public and non-motorized modes of transport. In general, passengers driving in cars in industrialized countries consume roughly three to five times more energy than passengers transported by public modes of trans-port.12 Thus, energy efficiency in transport can be increased tremendously by shifting passengers from individual to public and non-motorized means of transport. Transport demand management encompasses many measures, ranging from traffic calming, alternative work schedules, encouragement of walking and cycling, road pricing to the improvement of mass transport systems, to mention just a few.

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

Environment and Energy Management Agency (France) Bulgarian Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Credit Line Austrian Energy Agency International Atomic Energy Agency International Energy Agency New and Renewable Energy Agency (Egypt) Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Programme (REEP)

Equipment Modifications Control Retrofit and New Designs

Half, one-eighth (i 23) of the power is required. This is useful in HVAC systems because even a small reduction in airflow (e.g., 10 ) can result in significant energy savings (27 ). If variable volume air delivery is required, it may be achieved through inlet vane control, outlet dampers, variable speed drives (VSDs), controlled pitch fans, or cycling. Energy efficiency in a retrofit design is best obtainable with variable speed drives on motors, or controlled pitch fans. This can be seen by calculating the power reduction that would accompany reduced flow using different methods of control, as noted below. Numbers in the table are the percent of full-flow input power

Biofuels todays market

Until industrialization in the 18 th and 19th centuries, energy supply was mainly based on renewable energies, especially biomass and hydro. Rising demand and new technologies led to better living and working conditions, but also to an ecologically harmful change in the energy supply. Today there are important differences in the energy systems of OECD countries and developing countries respectively, as indicated in Table 3.1. In OECD countries, which have reached a very high level of development, gains in energy efficiency have been the main strategy used to decrease energy consumption. In developing countries, where renewables (mainly biomass) are already very important (see Table 3.1), albeit used in inefficient ways, modernization of their usage seems the better strategy to follow.

Description of scenarios

The results of the IIASA and WEC scenarios are less optimistic than the RIGES scenario but still present a significant increase in renewable energy by 2050. Furthermore, the scenarios show a span in energy demand, total renewables and share of renewables. In the 'Ecologically Driven' scenario, which also describes the results of ambitious policy measures to accelerate energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies, renewable energy accounts for 40 per cent of the energy demand by 2050, of which approximately 30 per cent is biomass energy and 8 per cent is hydropower (Nakicenovic et al, 1998). The scenarios describe cost reductions of new technologies according to the experience curve concept.

Well Defined Resources and Technologies

According to the International Energy Agency (IEA, 2002) For example, a policy-maker may indeed wish to support nuclear power, large dams or geosequestration. However, the question is, are adapted or technology-neutral renewable energy policies the best way to do this For example, a single nuclear power station uses up the equivalent energy market share of 30 or more renewable power plants. This uses up both electrical load and financial support. The question 'Why have a renewable energy policy at all ' is often raised by politicians, with the proposal that there are other more market-friendly alternatives to achieve the same goals. For example, a market scheme for climate-friendly technologies might have a mix of renewables, gas plants, nuclear power, energy efficiency and carbon sequestration with tree planting. Such a so-called flexible scheme clearly comes under the heading of carbon trading and assumes some carbon taxation or capping. However, as we have noted before, many energy...

Internal Combustion Spark Ignition and Compression Ignition

These improvements have been so significant that in the spring of 2005, the Bush administration endorsed clean-diesel vehicles as part of its energy policy. Previously, diesels had only been popular in areas where gasoline is more heavily taxed than diesel fuel. A 2003 JD Power LMC forecast expects the global sales of light-diesel vehicles to increase from 12.5 million in 2003 to 27 million by 2015. The report notes a significant portion of this increase will be in North America, predicting that light diesels will secure 16 of new light-vehicle sales in 2015, compared to 4.5 in 2002 (JD Power LMC 2003). Provided that diesels can reduce their emissions to meet future standards, there is no reason why they should not become more popular in the market given their performance and efficiency. One version of the SI engine that may become competitive with diesel engines' efficiency is the direct injection stratified charge (DISC) engine. Rather than premixing the air and fuel, the fuel is...

What are energy subsidies and why do they exist Defining subsidies

Overconsumption due to excessively low prices distorts supply and demand. Subsidies for energy consumption, which mask the true energy price, lead to higher use (and emissions) for every unit of output. By lowering the price to consumers, subsidies increase import requirements and decrease the availability of fuels for export. Both direct and implicit or hidden cross-subsidies tilt the playing field away from renewables and create significant barriers to the commercialization of renewable energy. Often, implicit or hidden subsidies manifest as system-wide biases toward large-scale, highly centralized energy systems, and disadvantage the smaller-scale, more modular distributed and decentralized energy systems typical of many renewable energy technologies. A number of the key forms of market distortions and their consequences have been evaluated by the International Energy Agency (IEA) (IEA and UNEP, 2002, p13)

Effective Engagement and Positive Outcomes

Around 1997 another set of planning regulations were developed for offshore wind farms, with a central, national authority - the Danish Energy Agency - being responsible to hear all the interested parties, public and private. This 'one stop shopping' method has facilitated the planning process considerably, and is widely studied around the globe.

Commissioning and Operation of Control Systems

Thus, it is very important that following construction, the control system and the rest of the HVAC system be commissioned. This process (ASHRAE 2005) normally seeks to ensure that the control system operates according to design intent. This is really a minimum requirement to be sure that the system functions as designed. However, after construction, the control system setup can be modified to meet the loads actually present in the building, and to fit the way the building is actually being used, rather than basing these decisions on the design assumptions. If the VAV system is designed for more flow than is required, minimum flow settings of the terminal boxes can be reduced below the design value, ensuring that the system will operate in the VAV mode most of the time. Numerous other adjustments may be made as well. Such adjustments, commonly made during the version of commissioning known as Continuous CommissioningW2(CCw), can frequently reduce the overall building energy use by 10...

Summary of the AEO Reference Case Projection Major Changes Reflected in the AEO Reference Case

AEO2006 is the first edition of the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) to provide projections through 2030. The AEO2006 reference case projection incorporates new regulatory changes and laws that were issued after the release of AEO2005 and before completion of AEO2006. Major regulatory changes that affect air emissions from electricity power plants include two rules by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that were not represented in the October oil futures case the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR), issued on March 10, 2005 and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR), issued on March 15, 2005.* The new rules are expected to significantly reduce sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and mercury emissions from electric power plants over the next two decades. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT2005, Public Law 109-58), a statute that was signed into to law on August 8, 2005, is also new for AEO2006. The act provides tax incentives and loan guarantees for energy production of various types including...

Introduction A Country of Rapid Change

Power is a critical infrastructure input for the development and growth of the economy of a country. Since independence in 1947, the installed power capacity in India has increased from 1.4 gigawatts (GW) to over 100GW and more than 500,000 villages have been electrified to date in India. Nevertheless, India's per capita energy consumption is relatively low compared to developed countries and a large number of villages still have no access to electricity. With a growing population of over one billion and an ongoing path of industrialization, India is already and will continue to be one of the world's largest markets for new energy in the world.

Latin Americas Platform Declaration on Renewable Energies

In 2003 the Latin American and Caribbean countries participating in the Regional Conference for Latin America and the Caribbean on Renewable Energies, in Brasilia, agreed to further efforts to achieve the goal of ensuring, on the basis of voluntary actions, that by 2010 the use of renewable energy by the region, taken as a whole, amounts to at least 10 per cent of its total energy consumption.1 To do so they concurred in fostering the formulation of the long-term public policies needed to further the development of renewable energy executing tax incentive programmes and formulating public policies that encourage the development of renewable energy markets.

Electricity Use in Residential and Commercial Buildings

Table 10.1 summarizes electricity consumption data by major end use for the residential and commercial sectors. The data are from the Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) most recently available energy consumption surveys that took place in 2001 for the residential sector and 1999 for the commercial sector.

Improved land use planning

The spatial development in industrialized countries may be characterized as showing a concentration in the cities, which took place during the industrialization phase, followed by a process of massive suburbanization after the establishment of the automobile as the main mode of transport. During this period, urban sprawl took place not only along the railway lines, but in the entire suburban area around conurbations. Cars allowed for a decentralization of urban functions, making it possible to live in the countryside in a detached house and commute to the urban centre for work. Urban sprawl produced spatial structures that result in long commuting distances and developments that are less easy to accommodate to public transport systems. Given the lower energy requirements of public transport, suburbia is a settlement structure that entails large-scale energy inefficiencies in transport. An international comparison of cities (Ken-worthy and Laube, 1999) shows that a strong relationship...

List of Figures Tables and Boxes

World final energy consumption, 2002 Global primary energy consumption in a fictitious Renewable energy markets in developing countries Characteristics of energy systems, 2002 Potential energy savings in developing countries from improved Renewable energy markets in developing countries 8.5 The Bulgarian Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 14.3 The New and Renewable Energy Agency in Egypt 304

The advantages of renewables

The present energy system is heavily dependent on the use of fossil fuels. Worldwide, coal, oil and gas accounted for 78 per cent of primary energy consumption in 2002. Fossil fuel combustion is the prime source of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which are growing at the rate of 0.5 per cent per year. Present levels have reached 377 parts per million by volume (ppmv) (CDIAC, 2005), up from 278 ppmv at the dawn of the industrial revolution two centuries ago. The relative importance of these options and the order in which they become relevant depends on the stage of development of the region as well as availability of natural resources and technology. There are, however, important differences in the energy systems of OECD countries as compared with those of developing countries, as indicated in Table 1.2. In the OECD countries, which have reached a very high level of development, gains in energy efficiency have been the main strategy followed. In developing countries, where renewables...

Bioenergy and Transportation

Transportation represents some 27 of the world's secondary energy consumption (21 of primary), and is almost exclusively fueled by petroleum oil 3,4 . Biofuels can play an important role in addressing both the GHG emissions of transport and the dependency on petroleum oil.

Solar Energy Utilization in Israel

There is no single legislation concerning solar energy utilization in Israel. The above-mentioned Article 9 of the Law for Planning and Building (1970) 4 is probably the most important solar legislation, and has been the government's predominant contribution to Israel's success in the solar area. The law requires the builder (not the homeowner ), since 1980, to install a solar water heating system in every new building. Other laws and regulations describe in detail the size of the installation required for the various types of buildings, set minimum standards for the quality of the solar equipment and installation, and provide the regulations for retrofit installation of solar water heaters in existing multi-apartment buildings. Based on government data 5 an average single-family domestic solar water heater saves 1250 kWh electric power per year the total contribution to the country is about 1.6 billion kWh per year, 21 of the electricity for the domestic sector or 5.2 of the national...

Box Definition of renewable energy

In 2004, renewable energy provided 17 per cent of global primary energy consumption, mostly traditional biomass, and about 19 per cent of electricity, mostly large-scale hydropower. 'New' renewables contributed only 2 per cent of the world's primary energy use. However, 'new' renewables, often based on indigenous resources, have the potential to provide energy services with low or zero emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. A rapid expansion of energy systems based on renewable energy sources will require actions to stimulate the market in this direction. This expansion can be achieved by finding ways to drive down the relative cost of 'new' renewables in their early stages of development and commercialization, while still taking advantage of the economic efficiencies of the marketplace. Pricing based on the full costs of conventional energy sources (including phasing out subsidies and internalizing externalities) will make 'new' renewables more competitive. However,...

Environmental implications

Would be reduced by more than 6 per cent and real income by 0.1 per cent by 2010 if all subsidies on fossil fuels used in industry and the power sector were removed everywhere (IEA and UNEP, 2002, p16). The IEA's 1999 study concluded that the removal of consumption subsidies in 8 of the largest non-OECD countries would reduce primary energy use by 13 per cent, lower CO2 emissions by 16 per cent and raise GDP by almost 1 per cent in those countries as a whole. These same subsidy reductions would have global impacts including a reduction in energy consumption by 3.5 per cent and global emissions by 4.6 per cent. Other benefits too would accrue from subsidy reduction, such as improved international security from reductions in oil imports from unstable parts of the world. The removal of coal subsidies generally yields the biggest environmental benefits.

Energy Efficient Lighting Technologies and Their Applications in the Commercial and Residential Sectors

There is great potential for saving electricity, reducing the emission ofgreenhouse gases associated with electricity production, and reducing consumer energy costs through the use of more efficient lighting technologies as well as advanced lighting design practices and control strategies. New, efficient technologies that enter the market in the future can further reduce energy use and increase financial savings. Design of energy-efficient lighting systems Operation of energy-efficient lighting systems 12.2.2 Design of Energy-Efficient Lighting Systems A lighting system is an integral part of a building's architectural design, and interacts with the shape of each room, its furnishings, and the level of natural light. Energy efficiency is an important component of lighting system design however, lighting designers must also consider economics, productivity, aesthetics, and consumer preference. It is highly important not to compromise lighting quality in a new lighting design or...

Why Home MadePower Plant

In this book you will find interesting and easy to follow plans to build your own homemade solar panels, find free or inexpensive solar panels, and find free batteries too. Many problems plague the modern World right now- whether your concern is pollution, rising gas and oil prices in the future, or you fear blackouts and higher energy costs in the future.

Quantification of energy subsidies and their effects

A subsidy by its very nature involves a complex set of changes in economic resource allocation through its effects on costs and or prices (IEA and UNEP, 2002, p12). These shifts inevitably have economic, social and environmental implications. Indeed, the reason subsidies exist at all is to support some economic, social or environmental goal. However, artificially low energy prices also contribute to poor economic performance on the part of many state-owned energy companies (IEA and UNEP, 2002, p8). This poor performance reduces the ability of companies to invest to meet increasing demand. It also discourages private and foreign investment in the energy sectors of these countries.

Water Heating Residential Systems

The efficiency of water heaters is referred to as the energy factor (EF). Higher EF values equate to more efficient water heaters. Typical EF values range from about 0.8-0.95 for electric resistance heaters, 0.5-0.8 for natural gas units, 0.7-0.85 for oil units, and 1.5-2.0 for heat pump water heaters.

Monitor the Program Establish Goals

This is the final and perhaps most important step in the program. A continuing monitoring program is necessary to ensure that energy savings do not gradually disappear as personnel return to their old ways of operation, equipment gets out of calibration, needed maintenance is neglected, etc. Also, setting goals (they should be realistic) provides energy management personnel with targets against which they can gauge their performance and the success of their programs.

How to Read This Book

It should also be stressed that we do not intend this book to be an up to date guide to the status of renewable energy markets or national policies the market is evolving far too quickly for that, and there are plenty of such resources out there already. On the contrary, herein we have tried to capture what has been going on in important markets during critical phases of their evolution. The knowledge provided by the contribution authors from formative periods is not reflected in the current statistics or legislation it is information about successes and failure on the way, and the many paths that were taken by multiple actors. Therefore please treat the information here as 'snapshots' from recent history, which may help to interpret the present and inform the future.

Implications of Higher World Oil Prices

The higher world oil prices in the AEO2006 reference case have important implications for the projected evolution of energy markets. The most significant impact is in the outlook for petroleum imports. Net imports of petroleum are projected to meet a growing share of total petroleum demand. However, the higher world oil prices in the AEO2006 reference case lead to greater domestic crude oil production and lower demand, which reduces the need for petroleum imports to 60 in 2025 and 62 of petroleum demand (on the basis of barrels per day) in 2030, up from 58 in 2004. Table 7.2 provides a tabular summary of the AEO2006 reference case.

Market development for renewable energy

The use of renewable energy is either direct or indirect. Direct use is the immediate use of renewable energy flows to satisfy energy service needs. Examples include passive solar heating, day lighting and solar crop drying. There are often no energy markets involved here. However, policies related to other areas could advance the direct use of renewable energy for example, building codes or other instruments in the buildings area to promote passive solar heating and day lighting. Energy services cannot be measured on a dollar per kilowatt-hour basis thus, many comparisons of costs of local and integrated renewables with the costs of, for example, electricity generation by conventional power plants are incorrect and misleading. In industrialized countries and many developing countries, most renewable energy use takes place through markets for heat, electricity and fuels. Such markets increasingly exist in all developing countries, with some having nationwide systems for electricity,...

Lowinterest loans and loan guarantees

Worldwide, one of the major barriers to RETs is the high initial capital costs of renewable energy projects. Thus, the cost of borrowing plays a major role in the viability of renewable energy markets. Financing assistance in the form of low-interest, long-term loans and loan guarantees can play an important role by lowering the cost of capital, effectively reducing the average cost of energy per unit and the risk of investment. Germany addressed this through long-term, low-interest loans offered by major banks and refinanced by the federal government (J. Twele, discussions with author, 5 December 2000). Japan and some US states have also established low-interest loan programmes for solar PV and other renewables (Eckhart et al, 2003). Even in the developing world, all but the very poorest people are able and willing to pay for reliable energy services, and the rate of on-time payment is extremely high. But the poor also need access to low-cost capital and the opportunity to lease...

Overview Impacts of the AEO High Price Case

*This case is provided at the request of the editor. Energy markets in the past 3 years have demonstrated the volatility of energy prices to slight supply-demand imbalances. For example, the Henry Hub spot prices have fallen from a high of over 14 per million Btu in December 2005 to a low of about 4 per million Btu in September 2006.

Target setting and policy frameworks

Most successful industry development processes start with targets, and Indian renewable energy development is no exception. The government of India initially announced its draft renewable energy policy, wherein it is envisaged that 10 per cent of capacity additions will be met through renewable energy by 2012. 2 the new Electricity Bill, approved by the Union Cabinet of the government of India and W ith an appropriate institutional framework and proper policies in place, the target renewable energy market will be worth 600 billion rupees (approximately US 13 billion) by 2012.

Carbon and competition

The embryonic renewable energy industry rightfully claimed access to some of the funds from the carbon tax, NFFO, and eventually monopolized the entire scheme. But the price was that it not only had to operate in the world's first fully deregulated power sector, it also had to operate as a competitive renewable energy market.

LNG Imports are the Source of Natural Gas Supply Most Affected in the Price Cases

Higher world oil prices are expected to result in a shift away from petroleum consumption and toward natural gas and coal consumption in all sectors of the international energy market. LNG prices are expected to roughly follow the pattern of world crude oil prices because many LNG contract prices are tied directly to crude oil prices and higher oil prices are expected to promote increased GTL production. Both of these factors are expected to put upward price pressure on world natural gas supplies. Because of the higher LNG prices in the high-price case, it is expected that U.S. LNG imports, new LNG receiving capacity, and the utilization rates for LNG terminals will be lower than the reference case.

Ten Features of Successful Renewable Markets

Considering the failures described in the last chapter, we can summarize ten key features of successful renewable energy policy 8 energy market reform It is immediately apparent and important to recognize that renewable energy policy consists not just of a driver, but rather comprises a complete framework. Experience in country after country shows that overlooking or ignoring parts of that framework will undermine the entire vision.

Market development and industry development

The renewable energy market in India has passed through 100 billion rupees (approximately US 2.2 billion), and is growing at the rate of 15 per cent every year. The harnessing of renewable sources of energy in India constitutes a small but rapidly growing industry that is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises. These companies are able to exploit not only the available human talent, but also adapt themselves rapidly to technological and market developments. try products have followed a downward sloping cost curve, with a few selective breakthroughs oriented towards substantial cost reduction. However, most of the renewable energy systems and devices continue to be burdened with high initial costs, which many feel is the major deterrent to the growth of renewable energy.

Contextual Frameworks

It takes more than a driver to deliver a healthy renewable energy market. Depending on the technology or energy source in question, a range of policy instruments or adjustments are required to integrate renewable projects and the energy they produce into existing systems. In any given country, it is important to have an overview of where the current and potential obstacles are, and therefore the interventions required. The questions and answers considered in the following sections should provide some guidance on this count. Beginning from the highest level, legislation may start with international agreements, such as the EU Renewable Energy Directive or the Kyoto Protocol. Then there are national energy policy-making and state, provincial or other categories of regionally based initiatives. Finally comes local government decision-making.

Renewable energy innovations

Technological innovation is critical to the reshaping of energy systems in ways that encourage sustainable development (Johansson et al, 1993a). However, the development and diffusion of sustainable and affordable renewable energy technologies is not occurring fast enough or widely enough (Turkenburg, 2002). The challenge of stimulating novel technologies is primarily one for industrialized countries, which have the technical and economic resources for sustained research and development, and for the dissemination of renewable energy technologies. Without effective policy it is unlikely that new technologies can overcome barriers and penetrate the market to any significant extent (see Table 2.9).

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