Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency

Power Efficiency Guide

The Power Efficiency Guide is a step-by-step guide showing the users how to create their own Home Power Plant. The E-book was created just to explain and help people out of the problem they face because of the lack of electricity. The guide was made to help the users use about 90% of the tools they use regularly in their various houses for the creation of a power generator, which will beneficial to them and their family. The device uses the endless power principle used to make the electric cars constantly charge themselves from the wheels when not being accelerated. It is a unique concept that can be used in every home. It was created in such a way that it would be a quick fix for the users' electricity problem. In other words, when the users purchase it during the day, the users will be able to make use of it before night falls. The process is so easy that even a little child can fix it up. The guide is such that comes at a cheap price and would help in the reduction of the amount the users might have to pay for regular electricity bill due to the number of appliances used at home. Read more here...

Power Efficiency Guide Summary

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Distributed energy policies

In practice, depending on the level of privatisation reached, there are major differences in the association between a city authority, the utilities serving the city, and the gas, heat and electricity distribution networks. Larger cities may own or part-own the utility as well as the distribution companies. In this instance seeking benefits for their residents from improved energy efficiency, load management measures, and distributed energy is relatively easy compared with dealing with state or privately-owned companies where profit is the major driver. This issue is not dealt with in detail here, but analyses of the complexities can be found elsewhere, such as in the IEA publication Distributed Generation in Liberalised Electricity Markets (IEA, 2002).

End Use Energy Efficiency

Seem to have more fundamental attractions. Certainly the potential for energy savings from the introduction of more efficient systems at the point of use is very large. This is in part because, until recently, energy has been relatively cheap and energy efficiency has mostly been ignored. Given the increased level of concern about climate change, new policies have now emerged, aimed at improving the efficiency with which fuels are used, thereby reducing emissions. For example, the UK Cabinet Office's Energy Review, published in 2002, suggested that the efficiency of energy use in the domestic sector could and should be increased by 20 by 2010 and a further 20 by 2020.13 Certainly, the enthusiasts for energy efficiency believe that spectacular savings can be achieved. For example, it has been claimed that a mixture of efficiency measures and demand management measures could possibly offer overall 'factor 4' improvements in energy use in most sectors, and possibly more.14 However, while...

Energy Policy and Conservation Act of

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 is a U.S. law enacted in response to the 1973-74 energy crisis caused by the Arab oil embargo. Its purpose was to reduce U.S. dependency on high-priced oil imported from politically unstable countries, to prepare the United States for energy shortage conditions, and to improve energy efficiency and conservation. One of its measures for protecting the country from future oil shortages was the establishment of the SPR. It authorized the stockpiling of up to one billion barrels of petroleum in the SPR to tap into during energy emergencies. The law also gave the president of the United States the authority to withdraw crude oil from the SPR in response to an energy emergency and distribute it to oil companies by competitive sale. In addition, Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 Public Law 94-163 94th Congress

Making Your Home Energy Efficient

Making your home energy efficient prior to installing solar Changing the way you use appliances, heating, and so on Working on maintenance and installing new systems Adjusting your operating schedules to save energy efore installing solar power, reducing your energy consumption as much as possible makes sense. For every dollar you spend on energy conservation, you'll save much more on the cost of your solar system. For example, if you can save 1 kWh per day on your power bill (5 percent of the typical North American household's energy use), your solar energy system will cost around 7,000 less. The number depends on the level of subsidies and tax breaks you can find (see Part VI), but the impact is obvious. Through conscientious change of habits, the average household can reduce its energy consumption 20 percent. And through investments in energy-saving equipment, another 15 percent may be possible. That's a third off your monthly bills, and it'll reduce the cost for your solar...

Denmarks energy policy in the s

Since 1990, diverse policies have been introduced to establish the goal of sustainable development in the energy sector (ESRU, undated). The main overall target of these policies was to reduce CO2 emissions in 2005 by 20 per cent in comparison to 1988 levels and to make renewable energy constitute almost 14 per cent of the total energy supply by that date. Energy taxes were introduced on fossil fuels and electricity mainly in the household sector consumption of oil to reduce the use of fossil fuels, or at least keep it at the same level, and increase the share of renewable energy while keeping gross energy consumption constant. Renewable energy was exempted from taxes while at the same time subsidies were introduced for environmentally friendly forms of electricity production. To ensure that previously outlined targets would be reached, green taxes became more widely used in all sectors of the economy. As trade and industry green tax schemes included subsidies for energy saving and...

Subsidies in the energy market

There is much confusion about what is meant by an energy subsidy. The narrowest and most often used definition is a direct cash payment by a government to an energy producer or consumer. But this is just one possibility for stimulating production or use of a particular fuel or form of energy. The International Energy Agency (IEA) defines energy subsidies as any government action which concerns primarily the energy sector and which lowers the cost of energy production, lowers the price paid by energy consumers or raises the price received by energy producers. In practice, all energy subsidies are justified by one or more of the following reasons (UNEP, 2001) The impact of the removal of energy consumption subsidies on the environment would be enormous. It would reduce world energy consumption by 3.5 per cent and carbon dioxide emissions by 4.6 per cent. Very large subsidies exist in Russia, China and India. In Iran the average rate of subsidy of the market price is about 80 per cent.

Are the renewable energy policies consistent with policies and measures for other parts of the energy sector or are

Any business must acknowledge that legislation can change from term to term. In so doing, business must look to longer-term indicators to assess possible futures. Thus a business considering renewable energy investment will be looking closely at government policies towards climate change, energy pricing, pollution or extended producer liability.2 I will also be looking at the relative support government gives to other industries. If a government spends millions of dollars on fossil fuel research but nothing on renewable energy research, what insight does that provide into its views on the future energy mix

Commercial Energy Consumption

The forecast for commercial energy consumption is largely driven by an expected annual rate of growth in commercial floor space that is projected to average 1.7 per year between 2003 and 2025. Consistent with the projected increase in commercial floor space, delivered commercial energy consumption is projected to grow at an average annual rate of 1.9 between 2003 and 2025, reaching 12.4 quadrillion Btu in 2025. The most rapid increase in commercial energy demand is projected for electricity used for computers, office equipment, telecommunications, and miscellaneous small appliances. FIGURE 7.3 October oil futures case, delivered energy consumption by sector, 1970-2025 (quadrillion Btu). FIGURE 7.3 October oil futures case, delivered energy consumption by sector, 1970-2025 (quadrillion Btu).

Industrial Energy Consumption

Industrial energy consumption in the October oil futures case is projected to increase at an average rate of 0.9 per year between 2003 and 2025, reaching 30.8 quadrillion Btu in 2025. Key to the slower growth rate of industrial energy consumption as compared to the annual U.S. energy consumption rate of 1.3 is a continued shift of the U.S. economy toward services and away from energy-intensive industries. The value of shipments, a measure of industrial economic activity, is projected to increase at an annual rate of 2.3 as compared to the annual growth in the economy as a whole of 3.1 .

Residential Energy Consumption

Consistent with population growth rates and household formation, delivered residential energy consumption is projected to grow from 11.6 quadrillion Btu in 2003 to 14.1 quadrillion Btu in 2025 (Figure 7.3), at an average rate of 0.9 per year between 2003 and 2025 (1.0 per year between 2003 and 2010, slowing to 0.8 per year between 2010 and 2025). The most rapid growth in residential energy demand in the projection is expected to be for electricity used to power computers, electronic equipment, and appliances. Natural gas use in the residential sector is projected to grow at an annual rate of 1.1 from 2003 to 2010 and 0.6 from 2010 to 2025. The projection includes changes in the residential sector that have offsetting influences on the forecast of energy consumption, including more rapid growth in the total number of U.S. households, higher delivered prices for natural gas, electricity, and distillate fuel, and a better accounting of additions to existing homes and the height of...

Transportation Energy Consumption

Energy consumption in the transportation sector is projected to grow at an average annual rate of 1.7 between 2003 and 2025 in the projection, reaching 39.4 quadrillion Btu in 2025. The growth in transportation energy demand is largely driven by the increasing personal disposable income, projected to grow annually at about 3 , consumer preferences for driving larger cars with more horsepower, and an increase in the share of light trucks and sports utility vehicles that make up light-duty vehicles. Total vehicle miles traveled by light-duty vehicles is projected to increase at an annual rate of 2 between 2003 and 2025 because of the increase in personal disposable income and other demographic factors.

The Evolution of Renewable Energy Policy Making in India The renewable policy context

Two major issues have been responsible for putting renewable energy sources in the right perspective in India the widening gap between energy consumption and supply and the resultant polluting emissions generated by using conventional India was among the few first countries in the world to have launched a major programme for harnessing renewable energy. By the 1990s the government of India came to recognize the importance of renewable energy as a means of decentralized energy systems which could meet the requirements of far-flung rural areas. The government of India had given a new thrust to its efforts at the beginning of the Eighth Five-Year plan (1992 97) which included the use of renewable energy technologies for power generation. Thus the importance of an increasing use of renewable energy sources in the transition to a sustainable energy base continues to be appreciated. However, it must be emphasized that there is an entirely different set of issues that India grapples with,...

Hydrogenase In Energy Saving And Environmental Protecting Systems

Table 1 presents biotechnological potential of hydrogenase employing different activities of this enzyme. Besides direct application in the energy conversion systems hydrogenase is a useful tool to reduce the energy consumption and protect the environment. Actually, the ability of hydrogenase to reduce reversibly some compounds like metal ions, viologens and other electron acceptors could be applied for development of safe and convenient hydrogen energy accumulator. If this compound is well soluble in water, its concentrated solution would be an efficient H2 storage medium. Such an approach was experimentally proven using methyl viologen as a hydrogen binder and immobilized hydrogenase as a catalyst. An 0.5 M aqueous solution of MV accumulates 240 times as much H2 as pure water dissolves under the same pressure. The hydrogenase provides the charge-discharge cycle within a reasonable time 14 ,

Summary of Energy Management Programs

The way to move forward has been outlined in two tables to provide a step-by-step procedure for electrical energy management in buildings. Table 10.3 is directed at the homeowner or apartment manager, while Table 10.4 has been prepared for the commercial building owner or operator. Industrial facilities are treated separately (refer to Chapter 14). TABLE 10.3 An Energy Management Plan for the Homeowner or Apartment Manager Third Step Apply Energy Management Principles 15. After the energy management program has been initiated, examine subsequent utility bills to determine if you are this case it is informative to calculate what your bill would have been without the energy management program. TABLE 10.4 An Energy Management Plan for Commercial Building Operator Third Step Formulate the Energy Management Plan any formal program will cost something, in terms of salary for the energy coordinator as well as (possibly) an investment in building modifications and new equipment. At this stage...

International Energy Markets And The Viability Of Renewable Energy Sources

Current energy markets have been significantly affected and shaped by structural and other changes in our economies unrelated to energy factors, such as the changing industrial mix or the ever growing tertiary sector, for example. lower prices for crude oil and all primary energies moro competitive and diversified energy markets What is presently called the supply glut is indeed a poor indicator of the longer-term conditions of energy supply and thus of energy security. It remains unchanged that the world's oil resources are exhaustible, and therefore scarce. There is a great deal of uncertainty about new conventional energy sources, regarding their cost, their size, their feasibility and finally the endurance of their production. No responsible long-term energy policy can ignore that. The need for demand-curbing and supply-improving energy policies continues. The achievements made over the past decade to reduce oil dependency so significantly must under no circumstances be undone for...

The profligate subsidies for conventional energy systems

Lured by sirens singing of lower energy prices, civilization is allowing itself to be drawn ever faster towards ruin. The centralized energy industry is using dumping prices, particularly on the open energy markets, to prove its contention that it is the most cost-effective system for energy supply possible, and thus an indispensable element of the aggregate economy. But such arguments can fall on fertile ground only because the energy discussion is being conducted in fuzzy terms. A case in point is the way the nuclear fossil fuel energy complex regularly presents its current competitive advantage as a fundamental economic advantage. To reach this conclusion, everything that occurs before and after the direct generation costs is simply disregarded, including direct and indirect, current and past subsidies, the drain on the economy caused by imports of primary energy, the cost of permanent destruction of resources, and environmental costs. By repudiating the crucial distinction between...

National energy policy

Economic supply is usually taken to mean 'low price to the consumer within a competitive market'. This price is heavily influenced by taxes, subsidies, monopoly influences and supplier profits, as well as the more obvious material supply costs see below regarding economic conditions and energy markets. Evaluating what is 'economic' is attempted by various forms of analysis, usually based on 'discounting' (Section 17.5), but the actual price paid per unit tends to dominate once a supply is available. Renewables, by definition, utilise energy from the environment, which usually arrives without payment as with sunshine, wind and rain. The major cost of renewables is therefore the initial capital cost of the equipment, and so the method of integrating capital and operational costs is vital for economic comparisons with fossil and nuclear fuel systems. Structure of energy markets. Until the 1990s, most governments granted the electricity supplier in each region a regulated monopoly, in...

Renewable Energy Systems

Renewable energy systems are defined as complete energy supply and demand systems based on renewable energy as opposed to nuclear and fossil fuels. They include supply as well as demand. The transition from traditional nuclear and fossil fuel based systems to renewable energy systems involves coordinated changes in the following Demand technologies related to energy savings and conservation Changes such as insulation and efficiency improvements of electric devices leading to changes in the energy demand for heat, electricity, or fuel are defined as changes in the demand system. In addition to the preceding renewable energy technologies, renewable energy systems include both technologies, which can convert from one form of energy into another for example, electricity into hydrogen as well as storage technologies that can save energy from one hour to another. Mathiesen (Mathiesen and Lund 2009) and Blarke (Blarke and Lund 2008) comprise these technologies under the designation...

Percent Renewable Energy Systems

The implementation of 100 percent renewable energy systems adds to the challenge of integrating RES into existing energy systems on the large scale. Not only must fluctuating and intermittent renewable energy production be coordinated with the rest of the energy system, but the size of the energy demand must also be adjusted to the realistic amount of potential renewable sources. Furthermore, this adjustment must address the differences in the characteristics of different sources, such as, for example, biomass fuels and electricity production from wind power. The design of suitable energy systems must consider both conversion and storage technologies. Renewable energy will have to be compared not to nuclear or fossil fuels but to other sorts of renewable energy system technologies, including conservation, efficiency improvements, and storage and conversion technologies for example, wind turbines versus the need for biomass resources. The selection of technologies is complex, not only...

Costs of conventional energy systems

Conventional systems are often compared to renewable energy systems with respect to economics. However, external costs are often excluded from this comparison. Therefore, the following sections will discuss this point in more detail. Without considering external costs, the levelled electricity generation costs of big power stations are in the range of 0.03 kWhel to 0.07 kWhel for coal-fired power plants and between 0.03 kWhel and 0.04 kWhel for natural gas-fired combined gas and steam turbine power plants. Prices for conventional energy carriers will increase in the long term due to the limited availability of fossil energy resources. High oil prices as already seen in the 1980s could occur again within the near future. Then, today's relatively expensive renewable energy systems will suddenly be more competitive.

Future development of costs for renewable energy systems

Costs for renewable energy systems will decrease further as they have done in the past. Increased production volume, more automation in production and the use of ever more sophisticated technologies will reduce the costs significantly. Production volumes of many renewable energy technologies are still relatively low and many involve multiple production steps, requiring expensive labour. This chapter will not give a prediction for future cost developments, because so many unknown parameters will influence them. However, if future progress ratios are in the same range as the progress ratios of the past few decades, renewable energy systems will surely become competitive with all conventional energy types within the 21st century. Besides cost reduction of renewable energy systems, the increase in fuel costs for conventional systems due to limited conventional energy resources will force this development in the long term. However, exactly when renewable energy systems will dominate the...

Distributed energy systems

Power electronics for use in renewable energy applications are discussed in 14 . Also some benefits and drawbacks associated with renewable energy sources are discussed. Photovoltaic, fuel cell and wind energy systems are reviewed briefly. Small-scale hydro pump stations or battery banks for electric energy storage are, however, not discussed in 14 . Still, they are included in the principal scheme of a distributed power system, together with flywheel and superconducting magnetic energy storages.

What outcomes are actually intended from the renewable energy policies

There are many reasons (and therefore many potential objectives) for accelerating renewable energy development. They include sustainability objectives, energy policy reform, renewable energy production, new generating capacity, indigenous fuel manufacture, greenhouse gases (GHGs) mitigation, distributed generation, increment size, energy cost and least-cost planning (internalization), energy security, new industry manufacturing development, development of intellectual property in new technologies, job creation, rural development and nuclear phase-out. So, in this case, the country's renewable energy policy priorities, in order and beginning with the most important, will be new generating capacity, reliability, energy security, small increment size, low-cost generation and finally sustainabil-ity objectives.

International Energy Agency IEA Report Energy Prices and Taxes st Quarter Thirty Years of Energy Prices and Savings

The IEA uses energy intensity as an index to measure energy efficiency, an intensity being the energy used per unit of activity for example, the gasoline used per mile driven by a car. The IEA has reported that, as a result of declining energy intensities, significant energy savings began around the world in 1973, when the first oil price shock hit, and lasted through the mid- to late 1980s. The IEA concluded that the changes caused by the 1970s oil crises, including the revisions in energy policy that came out of the crises, had a substantially greater impact on reducing energy consumption than energy conservation and efficiency policies implemented in the 1990s. Declining energy intensities, according to the IEA, led to significantly reduced energy costs since 1973, but the reductions in energy intensities have been much more modest since the late 1980s, so the rate of energy savings has slowed since then. According to the IEA energy use for cars is much greater in countries with...

Exploring home energy ratings

A less-traditional option of financing your major solar project is through an energy-efficient financing program, but your home has to qualify for the program. To qualify, you need to have your home audited and rated by a licensed expert. He or she will do an energy audit (see Chapter 2) and write a report that estimates annual energy use and costs. You can also expect some recommendations for improvements that you'll have to implement as a loan-approval condition. To get the best loan terms, you have to convince the financing institution that the improvements you plan to fund with the loan proceeds make sense in the grand scheme of things. That's reasonable. If things look good, you can get special energy-efficient financing programs that have lower interest rates than conventional loans. Keep in mind, however, that with these loans, you'll be required to pay for the energy audit and deal with government agencies.

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Energy Efficiency

Energy efficiency is defined as the higher heating value (HHV) of hydrogen divided by the energy consumed by the electrolysis system per kilogram of hydrogen pro- The energy efficiency of several electrolyzers is shown in Table 3. The energy efficiency ranges of commercial systems ranges from 47-77 kWh kg (83-51 ). An efficiency goal for electrolyzers in the future has been reported to be in the 46.9 kWh kg-1 range, or a system efficiency of 83 .42 This 83 includes compression of the hydrogen gas to 6000 psig. Currently most electrolyzers reach a pressure ranging from 0-500 psig for the power requirements presented, with a few research stage electrolyzers reaching pressures in the 3000-6500-psig range. So most electrolyzers would need additional energy input beyond what is presented in the table below to compress to fueling pressures.

Energy Policy Act of

The Energy Policy Act of 2005 was signed into U.S. law on August 8, 2005. More than 1,700pages long, the Energy Policy Act of2005 is the United States' most recent major energy policy. Its supporters claim that it is a comprehensive energy policy that tackles shortages in energy resources through such measures as developing alternative and renewable energy technologies to supplement the use offossil fuels for energy. Among its provisions are an authorization to fill the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to capacity, new reliability standards for electricity utilities for the purpose of modernizing the electrical grid, incentives for expanding the use of nuclear energy for electricity, and a commitment to invest 2 billion over 10 years to support research into environmentally cleaner ways of using coal to generate electricity. It also included a measure aimed at tripling, by 2012, the current required amount of biomass-derived fuel (or biofuel), such as ethanol, that must be mixed with...

Energy Star

Energy Star, Energy Systems & Design, Offline Independent Energy Systems, www.psnw.com ofln 109 Over the years, Robb and Ginger have continued to develop their strong interest in creating a self-sufficient lifestyle. Their home and work reflect an interest in sustainability and renewable energy (RE) in its many aspects. Robb and Ginger own and operate Basalt Mountain Gardens, a chemical-free nursery and landscaping service specializing in edible, native, and drought-tolerant plants, and landscaping for energy efficiency. They love working for clients who use renewable energy.

Energy Conservation

Through the energy efficiency efforts of the public and the government, Japan has achieved the highest level of energy efficiency anywhere in the world since the oil crises 2 . However, the weakness of Japanese energy supply structure remains unchanged, and the level of dependency on Middle-East crude oil is higher now than at the time of the oil crises. With increasing energy consumption in commercial residential and transportation sectors in recent years, it is essential to promote energy efficiency measures for the future. In 1998, aiming to achieve Japan's COP3 energy efficiency goal, a conservation target of 56 million kiloliters (crude oil equivalent) was formulated. This target value was revised in 2001 to 57 million kiloliters including an additional 7 million kiloliters for the rapidly increasing demand in residential commercial and transportation sectors. Future measures for energy conservation include Improved energy efficiency of houses and buildings. Promotion of energy...

Life Cycle Cost Method

The life-cycle costing (LCC) method sums, for each investment alternative, the costs of acquisition, maintenance, repair, replacement, energy, and any other monetary costs (less any income amounts, such as salvage value) that are affected by the investment decision. The time value of money must be taken into account for all amounts, and the amounts must be considered over the relevant period. All amounts are usually measured either in present value or annual value dollars. This is discussed later under Discounting and Discount Rate. At a minimum, for comparison, the investment alternatives should include a base-case alternative of not making the energy efficiency or renewable investment, and at least one case of an investment in a specific efficiency or renewable system. Numerous alternatives maybe compared. The alternative with the lowest LCC that meets the investor's objective and constraints is the preferred investment. where LCCA1 is the life-cycle cost of alternative Al, IA1 is...

Benefitto Cost Ratio or Savingsto Investment Ratio Method

The benefit-to-cost ratio (BCR) or savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) method divides benefits by costs or by savings by investment. When used to evaluate energy efficiency and renewable energy systems, benefits are in terms of energy cost savings. The numerator of the SIR ratio is usually constructed as energy savings, net of maintenance and repair costs and the denominator as the sum of investment costs and replacement costs less salvage value (capital cost items). However, depending on the objective, sometimes only initial investment costs are placed in the denominator and the other costs are subtracted in the numerator or sometimes only the investor's equity capital is placed in the denominator. As with the three preceding methods, this method is based on discounted cash flows.

Conclusions for international development cooperation

The cheapest and most promising means to reduce energy use in transport is through the improvement of energy efficiency, either by technical improvements or by modern urban planning approaches. This fact should be in the mind of each decision-maker who is interested in reducing environmental damage, human disease and the societal costs caused by the transport sector. But if serious predictions come true (for example, the price of oil remains at high levels of between US 40 and US 60 bbl) or further political targets are implemented (such as the European Directive on biofuels), renewable energies such as ethanol and biodiesel will come to play a more important role in transport. However, in each case energy efficiency should be paid special attention. The above deliberations show that the use of renewables in transport is related to a number of uncertainties regarding their sustainability, and the usage will be limited in the next decade. Therefore, a number of strategies to reduce...

Conclusions and policy implications

Countries need long-term energy solutions, and in order to obtain these they may elect to design policies which create a market that is receptive to the needs of long-term investments such as renewable technologies (Unit for Sustainable Development and Environment, 2004 Martinot, 2002 van der Linden et al, 2005 Armstrong and Hamrin, undated). Sustainable energy technologies, including renewables and energy efficiency, have the potential to significantly reduce the amount of fossil fuels that are consumed for the production of electricity. It is clear that there are many benefits to be accrued by diversifying power generation resources to include these technologies. While the benefits including power system price stability, infrastructure security, environmental protection and rural economic development may be convincing, policy and regulatory reform is required to help level the playing field with regard to conventional fossil-fuelled systems. Regulatory reforms should be considered...

Box Example of effectiveness assessment the Renewable Energy and International Law Project

The Renewable Energy and International Law Project (REILP) is supported by the UK Foreign Office's Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership, the law firm Baker & McKenzie and several universities (Yale, the Centre for Energy, Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy at the University of Dundee, and others). Other project partners include the World Conservation Union (IUCN - through its Environmental Law Programme), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the Australian and US governments, and the secretariat of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The project is looking at ways in which international law can be used as a tool to support the development of renewable energy, and, conversely, ways in which it may currently be impeding that development. No international agency identifies wholeheartedly with the issue of global sustainable energy (in particular, energy conservation, energy efficiency, renewable and climate-friendly energy) and focuses on it in...

Making Economically Efficient Choices

Economic-evaluation methods can be used in a number of ways to increase the economic efficiency of energy-related decisions. There are methods that can be used to obtain the largest possible savings in energy costs for a given energy budget there are methods that can be used to achieve a targeted reduction in energy costs for the lowest possible efficiency renewable energy investment and there are methods that can be used to determine how much it pays to spend on energy efficiency and renewable energy to lower total lifetime costs, including both investment costs and energy cost savings. The first two ways of using economic-evaluation methods (i.e., to obtain the largest savings for a fixed budget and to obtain a targeted savings for the lowest budget) are more limited applications than the third, which aims to minimize total costs or maximize NB (net savings) from expenditure on energy efficiency and renewables. As an example of the first, a plant owner may budget a specific sum of...

Government energy institutions

MIME has responsibility for planning and implementing the government's energy policy. The General Directorate of Energy, within MIME, consists of three departments one for the planning of general supply and transmission options, one for the development of renewable energy and energy efficiency options, and one for the development of hydropower projects in particular. This whole directorate is almost exclusively concerned with electrical energy despite the fact that electricity is a very small fraction of the country's total energy use. MIME is a shareholder in EDC, and MIME also operates a number of mini-grids which supply some provincial towns, as explained in the previous section.

Planning lowcost public transport systems

Individual means of transport have a higher energy consumption per person transported compared to public and non-motorized modes of transport. In general, passengers driving in cars in industrialized countries consume roughly three to five times more energy than passengers transported by public modes of trans-port.12 Thus, energy efficiency in transport can be increased tremendously by shifting passengers from individual to public and non-motorized means of transport. Transport demand management encompasses many measures, ranging from traffic calming, alternative work schedules, encouragement of walking and cycling, road pricing to the improvement of mass transport systems, to mention just a few.

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

Environment and Energy Management Agency (France) Bulgarian Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Credit Line Austrian Energy Agency International Atomic Energy Agency International Energy Agency New and Renewable Energy Agency (Egypt) Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Programme (REEP)

Equipment Modifications Control Retrofit and New Designs

Half, one-eighth (i 23) of the power is required. This is useful in HVAC systems because even a small reduction in airflow (e.g., 10 ) can result in significant energy savings (27 ). If variable volume air delivery is required, it may be achieved through inlet vane control, outlet dampers, variable speed drives (VSDs), controlled pitch fans, or cycling. Energy efficiency in a retrofit design is best obtainable with variable speed drives on motors, or controlled pitch fans. This can be seen by calculating the power reduction that would accompany reduced flow using different methods of control, as noted below. Numbers in the table are the percent of full-flow input power

Biofuels todays market

Until industrialization in the 18 th and 19th centuries, energy supply was mainly based on renewable energies, especially biomass and hydro. Rising demand and new technologies led to better living and working conditions, but also to an ecologically harmful change in the energy supply. Today there are important differences in the energy systems of OECD countries and developing countries respectively, as indicated in Table 3.1. In OECD countries, which have reached a very high level of development, gains in energy efficiency have been the main strategy used to decrease energy consumption. In developing countries, where renewables (mainly biomass) are already very important (see Table 3.1), albeit used in inefficient ways, modernization of their usage seems the better strategy to follow.

Description of scenarios

The results of the IIASA and WEC scenarios are less optimistic than the RIGES scenario but still present a significant increase in renewable energy by 2050. Furthermore, the scenarios show a span in energy demand, total renewables and share of renewables. In the 'Ecologically Driven' scenario, which also describes the results of ambitious policy measures to accelerate energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies, renewable energy accounts for 40 per cent of the energy demand by 2050, of which approximately 30 per cent is biomass energy and 8 per cent is hydropower (Nakicenovic et al, 1998). The scenarios describe cost reductions of new technologies according to the experience curve concept.

Why are Stakeholders So Important

The botanist, writer and broadcaster is a staunch opponent of wind turbines arguing that they are inefficient, destroy the landscape and that far more could be achieved through energy efficiency. Apart from the politically important role stakeholders play in the contest to win a place for renewables in energy markets, stakeholders also play a useful role in the actual development of renewable energy. They help identify all aspects that must be considered to achieve an industry that provides maximum possible benefit across all sectors of society.

Well Defined Resources and Technologies

According to the International Energy Agency (IEA, 2002) For example, a policy-maker may indeed wish to support nuclear power, large dams or geosequestration. However, the question is, are adapted or technology-neutral renewable energy policies the best way to do this For example, a single nuclear power station uses up the equivalent energy market share of 30 or more renewable power plants. This uses up both electrical load and financial support. The question 'Why have a renewable energy policy at all ' is often raised by politicians, with the proposal that there are other more market-friendly alternatives to achieve the same goals. For example, a market scheme for climate-friendly technologies might have a mix of renewables, gas plants, nuclear power, energy efficiency and carbon sequestration with tree planting. Such a so-called flexible scheme clearly comes under the heading of carbon trading and assumes some carbon taxation or capping. However, as we have noted before, many energy...

Internal Combustion Spark Ignition and Compression Ignition

These improvements have been so significant that in the spring of 2005, the Bush administration endorsed clean-diesel vehicles as part of its energy policy. Previously, diesels had only been popular in areas where gasoline is more heavily taxed than diesel fuel. A 2003 JD Power LMC forecast expects the global sales of light-diesel vehicles to increase from 12.5 million in 2003 to 27 million by 2015. The report notes a significant portion of this increase will be in North America, predicting that light diesels will secure 16 of new light-vehicle sales in 2015, compared to 4.5 in 2002 (JD Power LMC 2003). Provided that diesels can reduce their emissions to meet future standards, there is no reason why they should not become more popular in the market given their performance and efficiency. One version of the SI engine that may become competitive with diesel engines' efficiency is the direct injection stratified charge (DISC) engine. Rather than premixing the air and fuel, the fuel is...

What are energy subsidies and why do they exist Defining subsidies

Overconsumption due to excessively low prices distorts supply and demand. Subsidies for energy consumption, which mask the true energy price, lead to higher use (and emissions) for every unit of output. By lowering the price to consumers, subsidies increase import requirements and decrease the availability of fuels for export. Both direct and implicit or hidden cross-subsidies tilt the playing field away from renewables and create significant barriers to the commercialization of renewable energy. Often, implicit or hidden subsidies manifest as system-wide biases toward large-scale, highly centralized energy systems, and disadvantage the smaller-scale, more modular distributed and decentralized energy systems typical of many renewable energy technologies. A number of the key forms of market distortions and their consequences have been evaluated by the International Energy Agency (IEA) (IEA and UNEP, 2002, p13)

Effective Engagement and Positive Outcomes

Around 1997 another set of planning regulations were developed for offshore wind farms, with a central, national authority - the Danish Energy Agency - being responsible to hear all the interested parties, public and private. This 'one stop shopping' method has facilitated the planning process considerably, and is widely studied around the globe.

Commissioning and Operation of Control Systems

Thus, it is very important that following construction, the control system and the rest of the HVAC system be commissioned. This process (ASHRAE 2005) normally seeks to ensure that the control system operates according to design intent. This is really a minimum requirement to be sure that the system functions as designed. However, after construction, the control system setup can be modified to meet the loads actually present in the building, and to fit the way the building is actually being used, rather than basing these decisions on the design assumptions. If the VAV system is designed for more flow than is required, minimum flow settings of the terminal boxes can be reduced below the design value, ensuring that the system will operate in the VAV mode most of the time. Numerous other adjustments may be made as well. Such adjustments, commonly made during the version of commissioning known as Continuous CommissioningW2(CCw), can frequently reduce the overall building energy use by 10...

Expenditure on research and development

In many industrialized countries the majority of the expenditure on energy research and development (R& D) has been spent on nuclear power during the past few decades. Even today, the highest budgets are allocated for nuclear Table 6.9 Expenditure of the German Government on Energy Research and Development in Millions of Euros Table 6.9 Expenditure of the German Government on Energy Research and Development in Millions of Euros This unequal research policy causes a distortion of competition, mainly to the benefit of nuclear power. If the enormous R& D budgets for nuclear power had been spent on renewables, their costs would be much lower today and they could very probably compete in the global energy market without any other further subsidies.

The Thousand Solar Roofs Years

Germany has a long history of scientific research and technical innovation the energy sector has seen its share of government financing in this regard. However, when one reviews the spending on innovative energy research between 1974 and 1995 it is quite apparent that the assumption was that nuclear power would be the energy source of the 21st century. Solar PV has undergone explosive growth in recent years while nuclear fusion has failed to deliver anything approaching commercial power applications. Thus this spending emphasis appears to have been a poor predictor of the energy systems that would prove successful. However, one must remember that even at the end of the 1980s there were still only 15,000 solar installations on homes in the entire world (Fraunhofer Institut, 1997) whereas the nuclear industry had risen to provide significant global generation capacity in only a couple of decades.

Summary of the AEO Reference Case Projection Major Changes Reflected in the AEO Reference Case

The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT2005, Public Law 109-58), a statute that was signed into to law on August 8, 2005, is also new for AEO2006. The act provides tax incentives and loan guarantees for energy production of various types including new nuclear generation (up to 6 GW), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) coal power generation, renewable generation, ethanol use for transportation, and a variety of efficiency programs intended to reduce energy consumption, primarily in the residential and commercial sectors. The AEO2006 reference case only includes those sections of the EPACT2005 that establish specific tax credits, incentives, or standards, comprising about 30 of the roughly 500 sections in the legislation.

Evolution of World Energy Demand

Figure 1.4 shows the annual oil production, illustrating the enormous increase in world energy consumption. One million metric tonnes of crude oil have an energy content of about 42 PJ or 42 1015 J. Production rates increased exponentially after World War II. Two oil crises, in 1973 and 1978, slowed down this development, holding back the development of world economic growth and the energy demand until 1982. Table 1.4 shows the world primary energy consumption of different energy sources over much of the last century. The estimation of primary energy equivalents for nuclear electricity and hydro-electricity is inconsistent the majority of the newer statistics multiply the electricity output of nuclear power stations by 2.6 or 3 to obtain the primary energy demand. This considers the conversion efficiency of thermal power plants to be 38 per cent, or 33 per cent. The efficiency of hydro-electric power plants is much higher and can even reach values of 90 per cent or more. Since the...

Introduction A Country of Rapid Change

Power is a critical infrastructure input for the development and growth of the economy of a country. Since independence in 1947, the installed power capacity in India has increased from 1.4 gigawatts (GW) to over 100GW and more than 500,000 villages have been electrified to date in India. Nevertheless, India's per capita energy consumption is relatively low compared to developed countries and a large number of villages still have no access to electricity. With a growing population of over one billion and an ongoing path of industrialization, India is already and will continue to be one of the world's largest markets for new energy in the world.

Latin Americas Platform Declaration on Renewable Energies

In 2003 the Latin American and Caribbean countries participating in the Regional Conference for Latin America and the Caribbean on Renewable Energies, in Brasilia, agreed to further efforts to achieve the goal of ensuring, on the basis of voluntary actions, that by 2010 the use of renewable energy by the region, taken as a whole, amounts to at least 10 per cent of its total energy consumption.1 To do so they concurred in fostering the formulation of the long-term public policies needed to further the development of renewable energy executing tax incentive programmes and formulating public policies that encourage the development of renewable energy markets.

Electricity Use in Residential and Commercial Buildings

Table 10.1 summarizes electricity consumption data by major end use for the residential and commercial sectors. The data are from the Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) most recently available energy consumption surveys that took place in 2001 for the residential sector and 1999 for the commercial sector.

Improved land use planning

The spatial development in industrialized countries may be characterized as showing a concentration in the cities, which took place during the industrialization phase, followed by a process of massive suburbanization after the establishment of the automobile as the main mode of transport. During this period, urban sprawl took place not only along the railway lines, but in the entire suburban area around conurbations. Cars allowed for a decentralization of urban functions, making it possible to live in the countryside in a detached house and commute to the urban centre for work. Urban sprawl produced spatial structures that result in long commuting distances and developments that are less easy to accommodate to public transport systems. Given the lower energy requirements of public transport, suburbia is a settlement structure that entails large-scale energy inefficiencies in transport. An international comparison of cities (Ken-worthy and Laube, 1999) shows that a strong relationship...

List of Figures Tables and Boxes

World final energy consumption, 2002 Global primary energy consumption in a fictitious Renewable energy markets in developing countries Characteristics of energy systems, 2002 Potential energy savings in developing countries from improved Renewable energy markets in developing countries 8.5 The Bulgarian Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 14.3 The New and Renewable Energy Agency in Egypt 304

The advantages of renewables

The present energy system is heavily dependent on the use of fossil fuels. Worldwide, coal, oil and gas accounted for 78 per cent of primary energy consumption in 2002. Fossil fuel combustion is the prime source of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which are growing at the rate of 0.5 per cent per year. Present levels have reached 377 parts per million by volume (ppmv) (CDIAC, 2005), up from 278 ppmv at the dawn of the industrial revolution two centuries ago. The relative importance of these options and the order in which they become relevant depends on the stage of development of the region as well as availability of natural resources and technology. There are, however, important differences in the energy systems of OECD countries as compared with those of developing countries, as indicated in Table 1.2. In the OECD countries, which have reached a very high level of development, gains in energy efficiency have been the main strategy followed. In developing countries, where renewables...

Bioenergy and Transportation

Transportation represents some 27 of the world's secondary energy consumption (21 of primary), and is almost exclusively fueled by petroleum oil 3,4 . Biofuels can play an important role in addressing both the GHG emissions of transport and the dependency on petroleum oil.

Solar Energy Utilization in Israel

There is no single legislation concerning solar energy utilization in Israel. The above-mentioned Article 9 of the Law for Planning and Building (1970) 4 is probably the most important solar legislation, and has been the government's predominant contribution to Israel's success in the solar area. The law requires the builder (not the homeowner ), since 1980, to install a solar water heating system in every new building. Other laws and regulations describe in detail the size of the installation required for the various types of buildings, set minimum standards for the quality of the solar equipment and installation, and provide the regulations for retrofit installation of solar water heaters in existing multi-apartment buildings. Based on government data 5 an average single-family domestic solar water heater saves 1250 kWh electric power per year the total contribution to the country is about 1.6 billion kWh per year, 21 of the electricity for the domestic sector or 5.2 of the national...

Box Definition of renewable energy

In 2004, renewable energy provided 17 per cent of global primary energy consumption, mostly traditional biomass, and about 19 per cent of electricity, mostly large-scale hydropower. 'New' renewables contributed only 2 per cent of the world's primary energy use. However, 'new' renewables, often based on indigenous resources, have the potential to provide energy services with low or zero emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. A rapid expansion of energy systems based on renewable energy sources will require actions to stimulate the market in this direction. This expansion can be achieved by finding ways to drive down the relative cost of 'new' renewables in their early stages of development and commercialization, while still taking advantage of the economic efficiencies of the marketplace. Pricing based on the full costs of conventional energy sources (including phasing out subsidies and internalizing externalities) will make 'new' renewables more competitive. However,...

Environmental implications

Would be reduced by more than 6 per cent and real income by 0.1 per cent by 2010 if all subsidies on fossil fuels used in industry and the power sector were removed everywhere (IEA and UNEP, 2002, p16). The IEA's 1999 study concluded that the removal of consumption subsidies in 8 of the largest non-OECD countries would reduce primary energy use by 13 per cent, lower CO2 emissions by 16 per cent and raise GDP by almost 1 per cent in those countries as a whole. These same subsidy reductions would have global impacts including a reduction in energy consumption by 3.5 per cent and global emissions by 4.6 per cent. Other benefits too would accrue from subsidy reduction, such as improved international security from reductions in oil imports from unstable parts of the world. The removal of coal subsidies generally yields the biggest environmental benefits.

Successful Marketcreation Policy Measures

As already outlined, one key benefit of a growing solar thermal energy market is job creation. It is estimated that direct and indirect employment in the industry worldwide, not including the production of components and equipment, could rise to about 54,000 jobs by 2025. In order to attract solar thermal power plant suppliers into establishing manufacturing facilities, markets need to be strong, stable and reliable, with a clear commitment to long-term expansion. In recent years, an increasing number of countries have established targets for renewable energy as part of their greenhouse gas reduction policies. These are either expressed as specific quantities of installed capacity or as a percentage of energy consumption.

Energy Efficient Lighting Technologies and Their Applications in the Commercial and Residential Sectors

There is great potential for saving electricity, reducing the emission ofgreenhouse gases associated with electricity production, and reducing consumer energy costs through the use of more efficient lighting technologies as well as advanced lighting design practices and control strategies. New, efficient technologies that enter the market in the future can further reduce energy use and increase financial savings. Design of energy-efficient lighting systems Operation of energy-efficient lighting systems 12.2.2 Design of Energy-Efficient Lighting Systems A lighting system is an integral part of a building's architectural design, and interacts with the shape of each room, its furnishings, and the level of natural light. Energy efficiency is an important component of lighting system design however, lighting designers must also consider economics, productivity, aesthetics, and consumer preference. It is highly important not to compromise lighting quality in a new lighting design or...

Internalization of external costs

The considerations above show clearly that the external costs of renewable energy systems are often much lower than those of fossil or nuclear power plants. To alleviate these costs, the conventional energy sources could be made to pay compensatory levies, which could be used to repair the damage and to convert the energy supply to renewable energy sources with lower external costs. Hohmeyer carried out one of the first extended examinations (Hohmeyer and Ottinger, 1991). Besides costs for quantifiable damages to the environment he considered costs for exploiting fossil and nuclear energy resources. Since fossil and nuclear energy resources will be consumed by a few generations of humanity, future generations will not be able to use them any more. Therefore, financial reserves must be created to compensate for the higher energy costs of the future. He also included costs for public goods, services, subsidies and R& D. He excluded psycho-social follow-up costs of diseases and deaths...

Quantification of energy subsidies and their effects

A subsidy by its very nature involves a complex set of changes in economic resource allocation through its effects on costs and or prices (IEA and UNEP, 2002, p12). These shifts inevitably have economic, social and environmental implications. Indeed, the reason subsidies exist at all is to support some economic, social or environmental goal. However, artificially low energy prices also contribute to poor economic performance on the part of many state-owned energy companies (IEA and UNEP, 2002, p8). This poor performance reduces the ability of companies to invest to meet increasing demand. It also discourages private and foreign investment in the energy sectors of these countries.

Water Heating Residential Systems

The efficiency of water heaters is referred to as the energy factor (EF). Higher EF values equate to more efficient water heaters. Typical EF values range from about 0.8-0.95 for electric resistance heaters, 0.5-0.8 for natural gas units, 0.7-0.85 for oil units, and 1.5-2.0 for heat pump water heaters.

Monitor the Program Establish Goals

This is the final and perhaps most important step in the program. A continuing monitoring program is necessary to ensure that energy savings do not gradually disappear as personnel return to their old ways of operation, equipment gets out of calibration, needed maintenance is neglected, etc. Also, setting goals (they should be realistic) provides energy management personnel with targets against which they can gauge their performance and the success of their programs.

How to Read This Book

It should also be stressed that we do not intend this book to be an up to date guide to the status of renewable energy markets or national policies the market is evolving far too quickly for that, and there are plenty of such resources out there already. On the contrary, herein we have tried to capture what has been going on in important markets during critical phases of their evolution. The knowledge provided by the contribution authors from formative periods is not reflected in the current statistics or legislation it is information about successes and failure on the way, and the many paths that were taken by multiple actors. Therefore please treat the information here as 'snapshots' from recent history, which may help to interpret the present and inform the future.

Implications of Higher World Oil Prices

The higher world oil prices in the AEO2006 reference case have important implications for the projected evolution of energy markets. The most significant impact is in the outlook for petroleum imports. Net imports of petroleum are projected to meet a growing share of total petroleum demand. However, the higher world oil prices in the AEO2006 reference case lead to greater domestic crude oil production and lower demand, which reduces the need for petroleum imports to 60 in 2025 and 62 of petroleum demand (on the basis of barrels per day) in 2030, up from 58 in 2004. Table 7.2 provides a tabular summary of the AEO2006 reference case.

Market development for renewable energy

The use of renewable energy is either direct or indirect. Direct use is the immediate use of renewable energy flows to satisfy energy service needs. Examples include passive solar heating, day lighting and solar crop drying. There are often no energy markets involved here. However, policies related to other areas could advance the direct use of renewable energy for example, building codes or other instruments in the buildings area to promote passive solar heating and day lighting. Energy services cannot be measured on a dollar per kilowatt-hour basis thus, many comparisons of costs of local and integrated renewables with the costs of, for example, electricity generation by conventional power plants are incorrect and misleading. In industrialized countries and many developing countries, most renewable energy use takes place through markets for heat, electricity and fuels. Such markets increasingly exist in all developing countries, with some having nationwide systems for electricity,...

Lowinterest loans and loan guarantees

Worldwide, one of the major barriers to RETs is the high initial capital costs of renewable energy projects. Thus, the cost of borrowing plays a major role in the viability of renewable energy markets. Financing assistance in the form of low-interest, long-term loans and loan guarantees can play an important role by lowering the cost of capital, effectively reducing the average cost of energy per unit and the risk of investment. Germany addressed this through long-term, low-interest loans offered by major banks and refinanced by the federal government (J. Twele, discussions with author, 5 December 2000). Japan and some US states have also established low-interest loan programmes for solar PV and other renewables (Eckhart et al, 2003). Even in the developing world, all but the very poorest people are able and willing to pay for reliable energy services, and the rate of on-time payment is extremely high. But the poor also need access to low-cost capital and the opportunity to lease...

Overview Impacts of the AEO High Price Case

*This case is provided at the request of the editor. Energy markets in the past 3 years have demonstrated the volatility of energy prices to slight supply-demand imbalances. For example, the Henry Hub spot prices have fallen from a high of over 14 per million Btu in December 2005 to a low of about 4 per million Btu in September 2006.

Target setting and policy frameworks

Most successful industry development processes start with targets, and Indian renewable energy development is no exception. The government of India initially announced its draft renewable energy policy, wherein it is envisaged that 10 per cent of capacity additions will be met through renewable energy by 2012. W ith an appropriate institutional framework and proper policies in place, the target renewable energy market will be worth 600 billion rupees (approximately US 13 billion) by 2012.

Carbon and competition

The embryonic renewable energy industry rightfully claimed access to some of the funds from the carbon tax, NFFO, and eventually monopolized the entire scheme. But the price was that it not only had to operate in the world's first fully deregulated power sector, it also had to operate as a competitive renewable energy market.

LNG Imports are the Source of Natural Gas Supply Most Affected in the Price Cases

Higher world oil prices are expected to result in a shift away from petroleum consumption and toward natural gas and coal consumption in all sectors of the international energy market. LNG prices are expected to roughly follow the pattern of world crude oil prices because many LNG contract prices are tied directly to crude oil prices and higher oil prices are expected to promote increased GTL production. Both of these factors are expected to put upward price pressure on world natural gas supplies. Because of the higher LNG prices in the high-price case, it is expected that U.S. LNG imports, new LNG receiving capacity, and the utilization rates for LNG terminals will be lower than the reference case.

Ten Features of Successful Renewable Markets

Considering the failures described in the last chapter, we can summarize ten key features of successful renewable energy policy 8 energy market reform It is immediately apparent and important to recognize that renewable energy policy consists not just of a driver, but rather comprises a complete framework. Experience in country after country shows that overlooking or ignoring parts of that framework will undermine the entire vision.

Market development and industry development

The renewable energy market in India has passed through 100 billion rupees (approximately US 2.2 billion), and is growing at the rate of 15 per cent every year. The harnessing of renewable sources of energy in India constitutes a small but rapidly growing industry that is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises. These companies are able to exploit not only the available human talent, but also adapt themselves rapidly to technological and market developments. try products have followed a downward sloping cost curve, with a few selective breakthroughs oriented towards substantial cost reduction. However, most of the renewable energy systems and devices continue to be burdened with high initial costs, which many feel is the major deterrent to the growth of renewable energy.

Contextual Frameworks

It takes more than a driver to deliver a healthy renewable energy market. Depending on the technology or energy source in question, a range of policy instruments or adjustments are required to integrate renewable projects and the energy they produce into existing systems. In any given country, it is important to have an overview of where the current and potential obstacles are, and therefore the interventions required. The questions and answers considered in the following sections should provide some guidance on this count. Beginning from the highest level, legislation may start with international agreements, such as the EU Renewable Energy Directive or the Kyoto Protocol. Then there are national energy policy-making and state, provincial or other categories of regionally based initiatives. Finally comes local government decision-making.

The Political Challenge

Although history has shown that building up such an infrastructure is most efficiently managed by the private sector, governments do have a public responsibility to ensure fair market rules, level playing fields for the market participants and, most importantly, the sustainability of living conditions for the generations to come. Hence, they face many challenges in formulating current and future energy policies. They have to respond to the need for security of energy supply, economic growth, sustainable development, employment and technological development, and to combat the growing effects of climate change. Renewable energy technologies are considered to have a positive impact on all these parameters. Solar thermal power plants have to compete in a well established, very competitive energy market segment where older nuclear and fossil fuel power stations produce electricity at marginal cost because the interest payments and depreciation on their investment costs have already been...

Renewable energy innovations

Technological innovation is critical to the reshaping of energy systems in ways that encourage sustainable development (Johansson et al, 1993a). However, the development and diffusion of sustainable and affordable renewable energy technologies is not occurring fast enough or widely enough (Turkenburg, 2002). The challenge of stimulating novel technologies is primarily one for industrialized countries, which have the technical and economic resources for sustained research and development, and for the dissemination of renewable energy technologies. Without effective policy it is unlikely that new technologies can overcome barriers and penetrate the market to any significant extent (see Table 2.9).

Costs for a solar thermal system with return on capital

For the cost calculations of solar thermal systems, the numeric values of the calculations without return on capital are again used. With an interest rate of 6 per cent and an operating period of 15 or 20 years the annuity factor becomes 0.1030 or 0.0872, respectively. Table 6.6 shows the heat generation costs for different investment costs, operating periods and annual substituted amounts of energy. Most solar heat production costs can only compete with electrical water heating systems. To compete with gas or oil heating systems they usually need public subsidies at present. In regions with high solar irradiations and low labour and investment costs, solar energy systems can also compete with fossil-fired heating systems.

Solar Thermal Systems for Water Heating Solar thermal swimming pool heating

This chapter first deals with swimming pool heating. This is not because heated swimming pools have any ecological advantages - they always draw a high demand on drinking-quality water and energy. However, the low-temperature heat demand for pool heating allows the use of simple and economic solar energy systems, which have seen widespread deployment in this sector.

Industry water pumping and drinking water

The emerging uses of renewable energy are for agriculture, small industry, water pumping and cottage applications (sawmills and mechanical power). Furthermore, social services, such as education and health care can be supported by renewable energy. Water pumps driven by wind have historically played a role in rural areas. More recently, interest is growing in solar PV-powered water pumps, along with biogas for water pumping in engines run on diesel and biogas. Standalone energy systems can power small industries, thereby creating local jobs and opportunities. In fact, the development of mini-grids and industry goes hand in hand. As small businesses grow, the economic viability of mini-grids increases. With the availability of energy, new possibilities open up. Renewable energy can also power mechanical pumping and filtering (as well as ultraviolet disinfection) to provide clean drinking water. This is emerging as a potential major market in developing countries.

Calculation of the Suns Position

The position of the sun is essential for many further calculations for solar energy systems. The two angles sun height (solar altitude or elevation) 7s and solar or sun azimuth as define the position of the sun. However, definitions for these angles and the symbols used vary in the literature. The convention used

Renewable Energy Outline

In the METI renewable energy policy, new energy sources are defined and promoted which include photovoltaic (PV) power generation, wind power generation, solar thermal energy, ocean thermal energy, waste power generation, waste thermal energy, waste fuel production, biomass power generation, Both R& D and policy measures to introduce renewable energy are strongly promoted because of their effectiveness in realizing sustainable energy systems in the future. In the 2005 METI report Prospect for Supply and Demand in 2030, national targets for introducing various new energy sources by 2010 are presented in Table 2.6.

Addressing subsidies and pricing for conventional energy

Perhaps the most important step governments can take to advance renewables and reduce cost disparities is to make a comprehensive change in their perspective and approach to energy policy. Governments must eliminate inappropriate, inconsistent and inadequate policies that favour conventional fuels and technologies and that fail to recognize the social, environmental and economic advantages of renewable energy. In the mid-1990s, governments worldwide were handing out 250 300 billion annually to subsidize fossil fuels and nuclear power (UNDP, 2000). Since then, several transitioning and developing countries have reduced energy subsidies significantly, but global subsidies for conventional energy remain many magnitudes higher than those for renewable energy (Geller, 2003). Most of these subsidies (80 90 per cent by some estimates) are found in the developing world, where the price for energy is often set well below the true costs of production and delivery (Eric Martinot, personal email...

The Wind Production Tax Credit

The Production Tax Credit (PTC) for wind and closed-loop biomass was enacted with the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and went into effect on 1 January 1994. The PTC provides an inflation-adjusted tax credit in 2005 this was 1.8 US cents for every kWh of production from eligible facilities for 10 years.

Well Defined Objectives

The rationale for creating renewable energy drivers varies from country to country. However, in all cases it is important that the policy should be constructed to ensure that objectives are actually achieved. If it is not, implied or expected outcomes not solidly built into the policy may never be delivered in practice. As in the previous section, we will ask and attempt to answer some key questions that relate to this key feature of energy policy.

Conclusions about the policy reform actors in Cambodia

Cambodia's experience highlights the power of influence large donors such as the World Bank have over energy policy in developing countries. This offers the advantage that, assuming the donor's objectives are aligned with the country's best interests, policy reform can be achieved relatively quickly. However, the disadvantages include the risk that policy is imposed on a country without an appropriate level of public debate. This may mean that the government does not share the donor's level of commitment to the policy, understanding of its implications, or resources to implement and enforce it effectively.

Impacts of High World Oil Prices on Ethanol Production

The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005) requires that ethanol be used for gasoline-based transportation and rise to at least 7.5 billion gallons by 2012. Consumption is required to rise proportionately with gasoline consumption thereafter. World oil prices are high enough in all of the AEO2006 price cases to exceed the minimum levels required by the law. Ethanol consumption in 2012 is projected to be between 9.6 and 9.9 billion gallons in the three price cases and rise to consumption levels between 11 and 15 billion gallons in 2030 (see Figure 7.17). As expected, the highest gasoline prices encourage the highest ethanol consumption. Almost all of the ethanol is projected to be produced from corn, with only small amounts of cellulosic ethanol expected to penetrate the market (250 million gallons per year) because of EPAct 2005 incentives. Capital costs reductions and breakthroughs in the cost of manufacturing the enzyme needed for cellulosic ethanol conversion could alter the...

Land Use Planning Reform

Experience shows that it is not wise to wait until planning problems emerge before seeking the solution. For example, proceeding with the process of developing a wind farm until it receives significant planning objection may serve to undermine an entire renewable energy policy drive. Often, objecting parties will not confine themselves to comment within the planning process, but will expand complaints to the media and politics too causing reputational damage to both government and industry. Around 1997 another set of planning regulations were developed for offshore wind farms, with a central, national authority the Danish Energy Agency being responsible to hear all the interested parties, public and private. This 'one-stop shopping' method has facilitated the planning process considerably, and is widely studied around the globe. (Krohn, 2002)

Nongovernmental organizations

Renewable energy associations can of course be expected to be great supporters of pro-renewable energy policies. However, in new markets they will have a few challenges. They are likely to be small or, worse still, non-existent. In some cases, renewables may find themselves represented by other associations which have mixed agendas that conflict with the promotion of pro-renewable policies. The associations are quite likely to be fighting among themselves often because they are competing for limited resources. Although it may seem to be merely a semantic distinction, sustainable energy NGOs are distinguished here as addressing the increased use of energy efficiency and gas (which may or may not be limited to co-generated gas) in addition to renewable energy technologies. Environmental NGOs can actually be the most dynamic proponents for the push to get renewable energy policies underway, as Chapter 9 on Spanish energy policy demonstrates. Bigger environmental groups that engage on...

What unknowns exist in the policies that might affect the size of the market the prices paid for renewable energy or

Many would agree that one of the factors responsible for successful German renewable energy policies is the minimization of such uncertainties. The price for various types of energy was clearly set out and the scheme did not have cut-off dates within the lifetime of likely projects. Developers still had to deal with variables including hardware costs, fuel costs or size, exchange rates and so forth, but thereafter the system into which they were selling was to a large extent set in stone (subject of course to changes in legislation).

In The Mediterranean

To achieve those CO2 reduction targets, WBGU recommends establishing a type of highly visible 'lighthouse' projects to introduce renewable energies on a large scale as a strategic lever for global change in energy policies. A strategic partnership between the European Union (EU), the Middle East (ME) and North Africa (NA) is a key element within such a policy for the benefit of both sides MENA has vast resources of solar energy for its economic growth and as a valuable export product, while the EU can provide the technologies and finance to activate those potentials and to cope with its national and international responsibility for climate protection - as documented in the Johannesburg agreement to increase considerably the global renewable energy share as a priority goal.

The Greenpeaceestia Scenario For And Projection To

This means that by 2040 the proportion of global electricity demand which could be satisfied by solar thermal power will have reached a share of 5 . This is on the assumption that global electricity demand doubles by that time, as projected by the International Energy Agency. Long before that point, however, solar thermal power will already be a mature, well established and market-orientated source of electricity supply.

Western States Power Crises A Brief Overview of Lessons Learned

An example of urgent opportunities is within the now seemingly calm California energy markets the undercurrents that led to huge price spikes and considerable customer pain in recent years are yet to be fully addressed and alleviated. Such perfect storms may appear once again during another cycle of California economic recovery and growth. The California power crisis in 2000 was only the most visible parts of a larger and growing U.S. energy crisis that is the result of years of inadequate investments in the infrastructure.

Net Present Value or Net Benefits Method

Following is a formula for finding the NPV from an investment, such as an investment in energy efficiency or renewable energy systems where NPVA1 A2 is NB, i.e., present value benefits (savings) net of present value costs for alternative A1 as compared with alternative A2, Bt is benefits in year t, which may be defined to include energy savings, Ct is costs in year t associated with alternative A1 as compared with a mutually exclusive alternative A2, and d is the discount rate.

Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy in India

Conservation Energy India

Energy consumption by different economic sectors agriculture, industry, transport, and residential reveals the composition of fuels used in meeting energy needs in these sectors (Figure 2.4) 1 . The commercial energy intensity of this sector has declined over the past due largely to a relatively rapid expansion of nonenergy intensive industries, adoption of modern energy efficient technologies and successful implementation of energy conservation measures. Sufficient energy savings are being achieved in energy intensive aluminum, iron and steel, textiles, chemicals, and paper and pulp industries through better housekeeping, improved capacity utilization, development of cogeneration facilities, industrial heat and waste management, and arrangements for improving the quality of electric supply. The domestic sector is the largest consumer of energy in India accounting for 40-50 of the total energy consumption, but the bulk of it consists of traditional fuels in the rural household. The...

Parabolic Trough Concentrators

Parabolic Trough System

Image adapted from Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy Network. Figure 3 A trough concentrator system at the Australian National University, which is designed to incorporate photovoltaic power generation or water heating and steam production. (Image courtesy of the Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, Australian National University. Figure 3 A trough concentrator system at the Australian National University, which is designed to incorporate photovoltaic power generation or water heating and steam production. (Image courtesy of the Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, Australian National University.

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