Cd

FIGURE 5.12 Complexity vs. interaction. (From Arthur D. Little, Distributed Generation System Interfaces, An Arthur D. Little white paper, ADL Publishing, Boston, MA, 1999. With permission.) For most customers, DG systems are most cost-effective and efficient when they are interconnected with the utility grid. In simple terms, interconnected with the grid means that both the DG system and the grid supply power to the facility at the same time. Paralleled systems offer added reliability, because...

S

Metro rapid transit system heavy Train rail Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) Train Gasoline, diesel, hybrid, battery, alternative fuel (e.g., natural gas, ethanol, etc.) Gasoline, diesel, hybrid, battery, alternative fuel (e.g., natural gas, ethanol, etc.) Separate from street, guideway, or exclusive bus only'Vhigh occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane Existing street network, elevated railway, subway, or at-grade track system (separate from street) Subway, elevated railway, or at-grade track system Single...

Demand Side Management

Parmenter Since the mid-1980s, demand-side management has been an important element of the electric utility planning approach referred to as integrated resource planning. At that time, annual demand-side management expenditures in the U.S. were measured in billions of dollars, energy savings were measured in billions of kilowatts hours, and peak load reductions were stated in thousands of megawatts. Although activities nationally have slowed since then, there are...

Gas Turbines

Gas turbines are an often-used electricity production technology. The first studies of gas utilization to actuate turbines started at the end of the nineteenth century however, the first efficient gas turbines started to operate in 1930. A gas turbine consists of a compressor, a combustion chamber, and a turbine FIGURE 5.1 Power system with multiple energy sources. 1 air intake section 2 compression section 3 combustion section 4 turbine section 5 exhaust section 6 exhaust diffuser. Residential...

Info

7 escalation) Pe 425 (12.1092) 5,146 Find the total present value of the Ph purchase and installation heat pump (Ph) cost + Pm + Pc + Pe Note a P Present value, A Annual value, F Future value. Ph 7 213 b UPW Uniform present worth factor, SPW Single present worth factor, UPW+ Uniform present worth factor with energy escalation. Purchase and installation costs are 1,500 incurred initially. FIGURE 3.9 Discounting for present value a heat pump example. (From Marshall, H. E. and Ruegg, R. T., in...

PV

The Superintendencia de Electricidad y Combustibles (Secretariat of Electricity and Fuels) sets and enforces the technical standards of the system. The Chilean Electricity Law guarantees open access to the transmission system, but must contribute to investment in the system. It is unclear if DE is included in the system According to the Ley Cortaa of 2004 distribution operators are obliged to purchase all power from such systems at a fair price. The National Energy Commission (CNE) sets tariffs...

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Urex Reprocessing

Source From WISE Uranium Project, World Nuclear Fuel Facilities, http www.wise-uranium.org, 2005. A typical 1000-MWe reactor will use about 27 tons of UO2 each year. Typical burn-up in current reactors is 33 GWd t of uranium fed to the reactor. The energy available from the fission of uranium is 1 MW g of uranium or 1000 GW t. Using these numbers, the actual amount of uranium burned is only 3 5 . This means that the unused energy available from the spent fuel, if it could be completely burned,...

Conclusions Toward a Secure and Efficient Infrastructure

How to control a heterogeneous, widely dispersed, yet globally interconnected system is a serious technological problem in any case. It is even more complex and difficult to control it for optimal efficiency and maximum benefit to the ultimate consumers while still allowing all its business components to compete fairly and freely. A similar need exists for other infrastructures, where future advanced systems are predicated on the near-perfect functioning of today's electricity, communications,...

For Further Information

Annual energy outlook. 2003. http www.eia.doe.gov. National Engineering Technology Laboratory. http www.netl.doe.gov. EPRI. http www.epri.com. Babcock and Wilcox Co. Steam, its generation and use. Babcock and Wilcox, New York. Combustion Engineering, Inc. Combustion Fossil power systems. Combustion Engineering, Inc, Windsor, CT. EPRI Journal. 1986. Tapping global expertise in coal technology. EPRI Journal. Jan Feb . IGCC. 1994. New fuels, new players. EPRI...

High Oil and Gas Prices Increase Coal Based Generation

The U.S. power generation industry is projected to increasingly rely on coal-based generation as natural gas prices increase. Of the four major gas consumption sectors residential, commercial, industrial, and electric power , the electric power sector's consumption of natural gas is the most affected by natural gas prices over time. Gas-fired generation facilities can operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking portions of the electricity load duration curve. As gas prices become...

Shell Energy Efficiency

Biogas Gasifier For Steam Turbine

FIGURE 6.13 The 250-MW coal gasification plant at the polk plant of Tampa Electric. FIGURE 6.13 The 250-MW coal gasification plant at the polk plant of Tampa Electric. Entrained-Slurry flow gasifier plant FIGURE 6.14 Tampa electric polk gasification plant. FIGURE 6.14 Tampa electric polk gasification plant. technology Figure 6.13 . The first of the European IGCC plants the SEP Demkolec project at Buggenum, the Netherlands, uses the Shell gasification technology and started operations in early...

TO

Reported energy savings ranged from 400 MWh for a residential audit and information program offered in a single service territory to 271,560 MWh for a northwest regional ENERGY STAR residential lighting program. The following section examines four of the programs from Table 5.11 in more detail. 5.3.5.1 Case Study 1 2001 California 20 20 Rebate Program1 In response to a crisis of constrained supply, skyrocketing electricity prices, and fear of summer blackouts, California launched an enormous...

Integration of Distributed Generation into Grid

Moura Connecting a distributed power system to the electricity grid has potential impacts on the safety and reliability of the grid, which is one of the most significant barriers to the installation of DG technologies. Electric utilities have understandably always placed a high priority on the safety and reliability of their electrical systems. Faced with the interconnection of potentially large number of distributed generators, utilities have perceived DG as a...

Basic Control Hardware

Pneumatic Controller

Control pressure 3-13 psig to branch line varies with flapper position branch line pressure operates control valve FIGURE 11.6 Drawing of pneumatic thermostat showing adjustment screw used to change temperature setting. Many other temperature sensor approaches can be used. For example, the bellows shown in Figure 11.6 can be eliminated, and the flapper can be made of a bimetallic strip. As temperature changes, the bimetallic strip changes curvature, opening or closing the flapper nozzle gap....

Oi

Indirect Rankine Cycle

Source From World Nuclear Association, Plans for New Reactors Worldwide, http www.world-nuclear.org, 2005. Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Republic of South Africa, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The intent of the GIF is .to develop future-generation nuclear energy systems that can be licensed, constructed, and operated in a manner that will provide competitively priced and reliable energy products while satisfactorily addressing nuclear safety, waste, proliferation,...

References

Vehicle-to-grid demonstration project Grid regulation ancillary service with a battery electric vehicle December, 3-10 . 2002. Available at http www.acpropulsion.com Arthur, D. Little. 1999. Distributed Generation System Interfaces. An Arthur D. Little white paper, ADL publishing, Boston, MA. Gellings, C. W. 1984-1988. Demand-Side Management, Vols. 1-5. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA. Global Energy Partners. 2003. California Summary Study of2001 Energy Efficiency Programs. Publication...

Preface Energy Conservation

The goal of this handbook is to provide information necessary for engineers, energy professionals, and policy makers to plan a secure energy future. The time horizon of the handbook is limited to approximately 25 years because environmental conditions vary, new technologies emerge, and priorities of society continuously change. It is therefore not possible to make reliable projections beyond that period. Given this time horizon, the book deals only with technologies that are currently available...

Electric Motor Systems Efficiency

Motor Pump Stator And Rotor

Anibal T. de Almeida and Steve Greenberg Motor systems are by far the most important type of electrical load, ranging from small fractional hp motors incorporated in home appliances to multi-megawatt motors driving pumps and fans in power plants. Motors consume over half of the total electricity, and in industry they are responsible for about two-thirds of the electricity consumption. In the commercial and residential sectors motors consume slightly less than half of the electricity. The cost...

Economizer Systems and Enthalpy Controllers

The economizer cycle is a technique for introducing varying amounts of outside air to the mixed air duct. Basically it permits mixing warm return air at 24 C 75 F with cold, outside air to maintain a preset temperature in the mixed air plenum typically 10 C-15 C, 50 F-60 F . When the outside temperature is slightly above this set point, 100 outside air is used to provide as much of the cooling as possible. During very hot outside weather, minimum outside air will be added to the system. A major...

Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy in India

Conservation Energy India

Energy conservation received greater attention in India since the mid 1970s. Structural changes in the economy during the last few years have led to the expansion of the industrial base and infrastructure in the country, and subsequently to increase in demand for energy. Any effort to enhance energy generation brings issues of available energy sources and systems. India recognizes, as anywhere else, a need to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and transition to an era where many...

Example HVAC Control Systems

Face Bypass Damper Control

Several widely used control configurations for specific tasks are described in this section. These have been selected from the hundreds of control system configurations that have been used for buildings. The goal of this section is to illustrate how control components described above are assembled into systems, and what design considerations are involved. For a complete overview of HVAC control system configurations see Honeywell 1988 , Grimm and Rosaler 1990 , Sauer, Howell, and Coad 2001 ,...

Interconnection Of Free Energy

I is the greater of the local EPS maximum load current integrated demand 15-30 min without the DR unit, or the DR unit rated current capacity transformed to the PCC when a transformer exists between the DR unit and the PCC even harmonics are limited to 25 of the odd harmonic limits above. I is the greater of the local EPS maximum load current integrated demand 15-30 min without the DR unit, or the DR unit rated current capacity transformed to the PCC when a transformer exists between the DR...

Selected Risk Assessment Methods

Qualitative versus Quantitative Risk Assessment. The risk assessment methods can be categorized according to how the risk is determined by quantitative or qualitative analysis. Qualitative risk analysis uses judgment and sometimes expert opinion to evaluate the probability and consequence values. This subjective approach may be sufficient to assess the risk of a system, depending on the available resources. Quantitative analysis relies on probabilistic and statistical methods, and databases...

Levelized Cost of Energy

The levelized cost of energy LCOE is similar to the LCC method, in that it considers all the costs associated with an investment alternative and takes into account the time value of money for the analysis period. However, it is generally used to compare two alternative energy supply technologies or systems, 2These methods are treated in detail in Ruegg and Marshall Building Economics Theory and Practice, Chapman and Hall, New York, NY, 1990. e.g., two electricity production technologies. It...

Introduction

Energy efficiency is defined as the ratio of energy required to perform a specific service to the amount of primary energy used for the process. Improving energy efficiency increases the productivity of basic energy sources by providing given services with less energy resources. For example, space conditioning, lighting or mechanical power can be provided with less input of coal, solar, wind, or uranium in a more energy efficient system. If energy efficiency improvement and energy conservation...

Net Present Value or Net Benefits Method

The net present value NPV method finds the excess of benefits over costs, where all amounts are discounted for their time value. If costs exceed benefits, net losses result. The NPV method is also often called the net present worth or net savings method. When this method is used for evaluating a cost-reducing investment, the cost savings are the benefits, and it is often called the net savings NS method. Following is a formula for finding the NPV from an investment, such as an investment in...

Further Reading

Fundamentals of Gas Turbines. 2nd Ed. Wiley, New York. Borbely, A.-M. and Kreider, J. F. 2001. Distributed Generation, The Power Paradigm of the New Millennium. CRC Press, Boca Raton. California Energy Commission 2000. The Role of Energy Efficiency and Distributed Generation in Grid Planning. California Energy Commission, Sacromento, CA. California Energy Commission 2001. California Market Report. California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA. California Energy Commission....

Western States Power Crises A Brief Overview of Lessons Learned

An example of urgent opportunities is within the now seemingly calm California energy markets the undercurrents that led to huge price spikes and considerable customer pain in recent years are yet to be fully addressed and alleviated. Such perfect storms may appear once again during another cycle of California economic recovery and growth. The California power crisis in 2000 was only the most visible parts of a larger and growing U.S. energy crisis that is the result of years of inadequate...

Risk Breakdown Structure

Risk sources for a project can be organized and structured to provide a standard presentation that would facilitate understanding, communication and management. The previously presented methods can be viewed as simple linear lists of potential sources of risk, providing a set of headings under which risks can Hazard and Operability Study HAZOP Analysis FMEA Fault Tree Analysis FTA Identifies equipment conditions or operating procedures that could lead to a casualty or result in property damage...