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Gabon Zimbabwe

Nigeria

Mozambique

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10,000 11,000 12,000 13,000 Per capita energy consumption (kgoe/capita)

FIGURE 1.18 Relationship between Human Development Index (HDI) and per capita Energy Use, 1999-2000. (From UNDP, World Energy Assessment: Energy and the Challenge of Sustainability, UNDP, 2004. With permission.)

Asia China

Sub-Saharan Africa Middle East and North Africa Latin America and Carribbean Former USSR Non-OECD Europe OECD Europe OECD Pacific OECD North America

100 150 200 Gigajoules per capita

FIGURE 1.19 Per capita energy use by region (commercial and noncommercial), 2000. (From UNDP, World Energy Assessment: Energy and the Challenge of Sustainability, UNDP, 2004. With permission.)

100 150 200 Gigajoules per capita

Notes: Asia excludes Middle East, China,and OECD countries;Middle East and North Africa comprises Algeria,Bahrain,Egypt,Iran,Iraq, Israel,Jordan,Kuwait,Lebanon,Libya,Moroco, Oman,Qatar,Saudi Arabia,Syria,Tunisia,United Arab Emirates and Yemen;Latin America and Caribbean excludes Mexico;OECD Pacific comprises Australia,Japan,Korea,and New Zealand;Former USSR comprises Armenia, Azerbaijan,Belarus,Estonia,Georgia,Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,Latvia,Lithuania,Moldova,Russia, Tajikistan,Turkmenistan,Ukraine,and Uzbekistan,Non-OECD Europe consists of Albania,Bosnia and Herzegovina,Bulgaria, Croatia,Cyprus,Gilbraltar,Macedonia,Malta, Romaina,and Slovenia;OECD North America includes Mexico.

FIGURE 1.19 Per capita energy use by region (commercial and noncommercial), 2000. (From UNDP, World Energy Assessment: Energy and the Challenge of Sustainability, UNDP, 2004. With permission.)

Such measures may be necessary because surveys indicate that consumers consistently rank energy use and operating costs quite low on the lists of attributes they consider when purchasing an appliance or construct a building. Incentives may be the preferred option provided they induce decision makers to take appropriate action.

In the United States, by the year 2004, national efficiency standards were in effect for a variety of residential and commercial appliances. Updated standards will take effect in the next few years for several more products. Figure 1.20 shows the projected energy savings from upgraded standards for products installed in the years 2010-2020. Outside the United States, over 30 countries have also adopted

TABLE 1.9 Economic Energy Efficiency Potentials in North America, 2010

Sector and Area

Economic Potential (percent)

United Statesa

Energy Price Level Assumed

Base Year

Canada

Industry

Iron and steel 4-8

Aluminium 2-4 (primary)

Cement 4-8

Glass production 4-8

Refineries 4-8

Bulk chemicals 4-9

Pulp and paper 4-8

Light 10-18 manufacturing

Mining n.a.

Industrial minerals n.a. Residential

Lighting 53

Space heating 11-25

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