Global Energy System

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D. Yogi Goswami

University of South Florida

Frank Kreith

University of Colorado

1.1 Major Sectors of Primary Energy Use 1-3

1.2 Electrical Capacity Additions to 2030 1-4

1.3 Transportation 1-5

1.4 World Energy Resources 1-6

Conventional Oil . Natural Gas . Coal . Summary of

Fossil Fuel Reserves . Nuclear Resources . Present Status and Potential of Renewable Energy (RE) . Wind Power . Solar Energy . Biomass . Summary of RE Resources

1.5 Role of Energy Conservation 1-16

1.6 Forecast of Future Energy Mix 1-20

References 1-23

Global energy consumption in the last half century has increased very rapidly and is expected to continue to grow over the next 50 years. However, we expect to see significant differences between the last 50 years and the next. The past increase was stimulated by relatively "cheap" fossil fuels and increased rates of industrialization in North America, Europe, and Japan; yet while energy consumption in these countries continues to increase, additional factors are making the picture for the next 50 years more complex. These additional complicating factors include the very rapid increase in energy use in China and India (countries representing about a third of the world's population); the expected depletion of oil resources in the not-too-distant future; and the effect of human activities on global climate change. On the positive side, the renewable energy (RE) technologies of wind, biofuels, solar thermal, and photovoltaics (PV) are finally showing maturity and the ultimate promise of cost competitiveness.

Statistics from the International Energy Agency (IEA) World Energy Outlook 2004 show that the total primary energy demand in the world increased from 5536 GTOE in 1971 to 10,345 GTOE in 2002, representing an average annual increase of 2% (see Table 1.1 and Figure 1.1).1

Of the total primary energy demand in 2002, fossil fuels accounted for about 80%, with oil, coal, and natural gas accounting for 35.5, 23, and 21.2%, respectively. Biomass accounted for 11% of all the primary energy in the world, with almost all of it being traditional biomass for cooking and heating in developing countries; biomass is used very inefficiently in these applications.

1The energy data for this chapter came from many sources, which use different units of energy, making it difficult to compare the numbers. The conversion factors are given here for a quick reference: MTOE = Mega tons of oil equivalent; 1 MTOE = 4.1868 X104 TJ (Terra Joules) = 3.968 X1013 Btu., GTOE=Giga tons of oil equivalent; 1 GTOE = 1000 MTOE; Quadrillion Btu, also known as Quad: 1015 British Thermal Units or Btu; 1 Btu = 1055 J, 1 TWh = 109 kWh, 1 kWh = 3.6X 106 J.

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Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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