2-12 c/kWh

2-10 c/kWh

a GWe, gigawatt electrical power. b GWth, gigawatt thermal power. c ge, gasoline equivalent liter. d de, diesel equivalent liter.

Sources: Data from UNDP, World Energy Assessment: Energy and the Challenge of Sustainability, 2004, updated from other sources: Worldwatch Institute. 2006. Biofuelsfor Transportation—Global Potential and Implications for Sustainable and Energy in the 21st Century. Worldwatch Institute. Washington, DC, " Biofuels for Transportation—Global Potential and Implications for Sustainable andenergy in the 21st Century", Report prepared for the German Federal Ministry for Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection, Worldwatch Institute, Wash., DC; World Wind Energy Association Bulletin, 2006, http://www.; EPIA, Photovoltoaic Barometer,; World Geothermal Power Generation 2001-[blc1]2005, GRC Bulletin, International Energy Annual, USEIA, 2006.

The summary of the economic energy efficiency potentials in North America up to the year 2010 are shown in Table 1.9. It is apparent that the greatest energy savings potential is in the transportation industry, followed by residential heating. The sources in the right-hand column refer to references in the United Nations study. In addition to the item cited in Table 1.9, it is believed that large energy savings are possible in office equipment, such as computers and communication. A similar estimate for the economic energy efficiency potential for Western Europe for the years 2010 and 2020 is presented in Table 1.10, where the resource references refer to the bibliography in Jochem (2000). Similar estimates for the energy saving potential in Japan, Asia and Latin America are presented in the same reference.

Improving energy efficiency across all sectors of the economy should become a worldwide objective (Energy Commission 2004). It should be noted, however, that free market price signals may not always be sufficient to effect energy efficiency. Hence, legislation on the state and/or national level for energy efficiency standards for equipment in the residential and commercial sector may be necessary. There is considerable debate whether incentives or mandates are the preferred way to improved energy efficiency.



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