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Austria

Ethanol from sugarcane (Brazil)

Ethanol from corn (US)

Gasoline (wholesale)

Ethanol from grain (EU)

Ethanol from cellulose

€0.00 €0.20 €0.40 €0.60 €0.80 €1.00 €1.20 Euros per Liter Gasoline Equivalent

FIGURE 1.14 Cost ranges for ethanol and gasoline production, 2006. (From Worldwatch, Biofuels for Transportation—Global Potential and Implications for Sustainable Energy in the 21st Century, Report prepared for the German Federal Ministry for Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection, Worldwatch Institute, Washington, DC, 2006. With permission.)

As in the case of other new technologies, it is expected that cost competitiveness of the RE technologies will be achieved with R&D, scale-up, commercial experience and mass production. The experience curves in Figure 1.17 show industry-wide cost reductions in the range of 10%-20% for each cumulative doubling of production for wind power, PV, ethanol, and gas turbines (UNDP 2004). Similar declines can be expected in solar thermal power and other renewable technologies. As seen from Figure 1.17, wind energy technologies have already achieved market maturity, and PV technologies are well on their way. Even though concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) is not shown in this figure, a GEF report estimates

Biodiesel from waste grease (US,EU)

Biodiesel from soybeans (US)

Biodiesel from rapeseed (EU)

Diesel fuel

€0.00 €0.10 €0.20 €0.30 €0.40 €0.50 €0.60 €1.70 Euros per Liter Diesel Equivalent

FIGURE 1.15 Cost ranges for biodiesel and diesel production, 2006. (From Worldwatch, Biofuels for Transportation—Global Potential and Implications for Sustainable and Energy in the 21st Century, Report prepared for the German Federal Ministry for Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection, Worldwatch Institute, Washington, DC, 2006. With permission.)

Ethanol from sugarcane (Brazil)

Ethanol from corn (US)

Gasoline (wholesale)

Ethanol from grain (EU)

€0.00 €0.20 €0.40 €0.60 €0.80 €1.00 €1.20 Euros per Liter Gasoline Equivalent

FIGURE 1.14 Cost ranges for ethanol and gasoline production, 2006. (From Worldwatch, Biofuels for Transportation—Global Potential and Implications for Sustainable Energy in the 21st Century, Report prepared for the German Federal Ministry for Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection, Worldwatch Institute, Washington, DC, 2006. With permission.)

Biodiesel from waste grease (US,EU)

Biodiesel from soybeans (US)

Biodiesel from rapeseed (EU)

Diesel fuel

€0.00 €0.10 €0.20 €0.30 €0.40 €0.50 €0.60 €1.70 Euros per Liter Diesel Equivalent

FIGURE 1.15 Cost ranges for biodiesel and diesel production, 2006. (From Worldwatch, Biofuels for Transportation—Global Potential and Implications for Sustainable and Energy in the 21st Century, Report prepared for the German Federal Ministry for Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection, Worldwatch Institute, Washington, DC, 2006. With permission.)

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