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Source: From Badelin et al. 2004. Current experience with supporting wind power in European electricity markets, Global Windpower Conference 2004, Chicago.

Source: From Badelin et al. 2004. Current experience with supporting wind power in European electricity markets, Global Windpower Conference 2004, Chicago.

Germany is only moderate, except for sites close to Germany's coastlines. Insulation conditions for solar applications are also not ideal due to the unsettled climatologic conditions in contrast with countries, in the Mediterranean region. However, the goal of the German government to double the share of energy supply from renewable energy sources by the year 2010 in comparison with figures from 2000 are quite ambitious; this means that at least 4.2% of Germany's primary energy consumption and 12.5% of the electricity supply shall be produced by renewable energy sources. In the medium and long term, the targets are to achieve a share of 20% by 2020 and 50% by 2050 of the primary energy consumption. The results reached by now are very promising. Germany counts the world's highest number of wind turbine installations. In 2004, some 16,000 MW wind capacity fed 26 TWh or approximately 6% of Germany's total electricity supply into the public grids. The cumulated capacity of PV installations surpassed the 700 MWp level. The market for solar thermal absorbers is by far the largest in Europe; more than 6 million square meters equivalent to 4,400 MW are mounted to the roofs of German homes. Biomass in solid, liquid, or gaseous form is used for many applications, domestic heating, cogeneration, and transportation; nowhere else more biodiesel is sold to fuel cars and farming vehicles. In total, 5.1% or 131 TWh of Germany's end energy supply for electricity, heat, and transportation was provided with renewable energy sources. The structure of different energy sources for the supply with renewable energies is shown in Figure 2.2.

These promising achievements have been possible only with the assistance and support of policies, guidelines, and regulations in favor of renewable energy and energy conservation. Looking back three decades in history, the activities in the field of research in renewable energies and energy conservation came into focus again after the first oil crisis back in 1973. Several and continuous measures for technology push and market pull activities were initiated by the German Federal and State governments in order to pave the pathway towards a new and sustainable energy future. Some milestones in German energy policy measures for the promotion of renewable energies have been from the 1970s until 1998.

• The demonstration program "250 MW Wind" (1989.ongoing) to gain practical and long-term experience with a large number of wind turbines by different manufacturers,

Final energy supply 131 TWh

FIGURE 2.2 Distribution of renewable energy sources to end energy supply.

□ Hydropower

Biofuels transportation

□ Biofuels, electricity

□ Biofuels, thermal

□ Solar thermal

Photovoltaics

FIGURE 2.2 Distribution of renewable energy sources to end energy supply.

technologies and at various site conditions in Germany. Most of the participating operators received their annual support by production (per produced kilowatt) instead of an initial investment subsidy. This has proved to be a very simple but efficient regulation to motivate operators to keep their turbines operating in a good condition.

• Special Loans with reduced interest rates by the German State Bank who put up nearly 3 billion Euros between 1990 and 1998 for financing renewable energy projects.

• The Electricity Feed Law (EFL, 1991-2000) which guaranteed grid access and a fixed premium tarifffor electricity produced by renewable energies which is fed into the public grid. The EFL in combination with the "250 MW Wind" program and the special loans can be seen as the main drivers for the boom of wind energy applications in Germany.

• More than 1 billion Euros of support for energy research programs of the Federal government between 1990 and 1998.

• The 100,000-roofs-PV-program which boosted the installation of more than 2000 PV systems up to 5 kW peak power.

• The Federal market stimulation program for the promotion of renewable energies.

• Subsidies for solar heating and heat pumps for private house owners.

• Additional measures for education, information, and dissemination.

• Support to the European Union for research activities and the development of renewable energies and energy conservation in a European context.

• Further support of about 1 billion euro was granted by state and regional governments, communities and utilities.

In autumn 1998, the conservative government was replaced by a government led by the "Red" and "Green" parties. One of their targets and major projects is the implementation of a new era of energy policy. The Federal government points out their target to reduce the CO2 emissions by 25% in comparison with 1990 until the year 2005. The main aims are to strengthen renewable energies for a sustainable energy supply, to reduce the demand of energy and to back out of the nuclear energy program. The achievements that have been reached since 1991 and the savings which will be due in the forthcoming years are shown in Figure 2.3.

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Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable.

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