China is the largest solar water heater market and producer in the world, with three-fourth of the world capacity and some 2000 manufacturers, many of which are small, cottage-type enterprises.
Over 80 million square meters of installed capacity provide 10% of China's hot water needs [2,3]. Excluding large hydropower, small hydropower remains China's largest renewable energy sector with 34 GW currently installed. China has approximately half of the world's capacity of small hydropower and a mature industry .
China is quickly ramping up their solar PV manufacturing base. They are now the third largest PV producer, after the European Union and Japan, and have 400 MW of manufacturing capacity. This is expected to double by the end of year 2007 . Most of this PV is currently exported, but the off-grid market continues to be a key sector. Of the ambitious 1.8 GW target for 2020, about half of this is expected to be for PV rooftops, with 25% for off-grid and 25% for centralized plants .
Although China has world-class wind resources, they have only recently begun to overcome internal barriers and ramp up capacity. They exceeded 1 GW in 2005, a goal which had originally been targeted for the year 2000. New targets are aggressive, but China may finally have the momentum to reach them. There are several wind turbine manufacturers in China, most of which produce 600-750 kW turbines, with pilot production of megawatt-scale turbines. Additionally, China leads the world with the dissemination of some 200,000 small-scale wind turbines that provide power in remote areas, like Inner Mongolia .
Most of China's 2300 MW of biomass power capacity is in the sugarcane bagasse sector. China has significant untapped biomass potential, especially in agricultural and forest residues. However, China lacks mature conversion technologies. The government has set ambitious targets for biomass power generation and is offering a significant financial incentive as discussed below. The biofuels sector is likely to see rapid growth, as China is now the world's second largest oil consumer and importer. China is already the third largest biofuels and third largest ethanol producer in the world and has set a target of 14 billion liters of ethanol production in 2020.
Table 2.5 shows the current installed capacity or production from renewables as well as targets for 2010 and 2020. By 2010, renewable energy power generation should total 191 GW, or approximately 30% of China's total installed power generation capacity. By 2020, this should reach 362 GW or 34% of the total. With associated increases in renewably generated heat and fuels, China's total use of renewables should increase to 540 million tonnes of coal equivalent or 16% of China's primary energy consumption by 2020, thus exceeding their recent announcement.
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