b BMWA - Energiezahlen, http://www.bmwa.bund.de/Navigation/Technologie-und-Energie/Energiepolitik/energiedaten.html Informationsdienst des Instituts der deutschen Wirtschaft Köln, http://www.iwkoeln.de/default.aspx?p=content&i=17329
FIGURE 2.3 Total and share of wind energy to reduction of CO2 emissions in Germany. (From Durstewitz, et al., Wind Energy Report Germany, 2005, ISET, Germany, 2005.)
The main policy measures which should pave the way towards a sustainable energy future were:
• The adoption of the "Renewable Energy Act" (REA). This law intends to guarantee fair market chances for renewable energies and remove obstacles and bottlenecks which hinder an intensive use of renewable energies. A revised version of the REA came into force in August 2004.
• The establishment of an "energy consensus" with the energy industry to search for a broadly accepted way towards a sustainable energy mix without nuclear energy.
An intensified promotion for the production and market introduction of renewable primary energy (market stimulation program). This subsidy program supports the installation of technology for the generation of heat and/or electricity. Depending on the kind of technology investment subsidies or special loan programs with options for partial abatement of debt can be granted. Since the start of the Market Stimulation Program in 1999, more than 400,000 projects were funded with more than 500 million Euros. These subsidies or loans have triggered a total investment volume of more than 4 billion Euros.
The implementation of a 100,000-roofs-PV-program (1999-2003) aimed to increase the number of PV installations in Germany. In 1999, about 50 MWp capacity was online in Germany, until 2003 additional 100,000 roofs or 300 MWp should be equipped with photovoltaic systems, most of them on rooftops of private houses. The program was very efficient and contributed significantly to market penetration and cost reduction of PV systems. One stimulus for the private investments of total 2.4 billion Euros was the very convenient conditions for the loans, 1.9% annual interest, term 10 years, 2 years free of redemption, and possibilities for a partial abatement of the debt).
Loans with favorable interest rate for investments in environmental technologies from the German state bank are preferred by investors for financing their projects. The KfW Forderbank, a 2003 merger of Deutsche Ausgleichsbank (DtA) and Kreditanstalt far Wiederaufbau (KfW) supports financing of investments into renewable and energy-saving technologies with different programs since many years. From 1991 until 2003 KfW-Forderbank respectively its predecessors put on the following support measures and gave loan agreements for investments into renewable energies and energy-saving projects in a total of 11.1 billion Euros.:KfW-CO2 reduction program (1997-2003, 422.3 million Euros)
KfW-CO2 building redevelopment program (2001-2003, 20.5 million Euros) DtA-ERP-environment and energy-saving program (1991-2003, 6,942 million Euros) DtA-environment program (1991-2003, 3,679 million Euros)
The backbone of the loan programs is the DtA-ERP-environment and energy-saving program, where ERP stands for "European Recovery Program." As a matter of fact, this source of financing was originally granted to the German Federal Republic after the Second World War by means of the Marshall-Plan (1948). This fund was primarily used to rebuild the industry and economy in Western Germany; however, the capital is still circulating and partially used to finance renewably and energy saving projects.
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