## Possible New Aspect of the Curl Free Magnetic Vector Potential

We propose what may possibly be a unique new aspect of the curl-free Apotential — and thus of the Aharonov-Bohm effect — that has been uncovered in our MEG experiments. We caution, however, that this is a tentative interpretation and remains to be further validated.

First we state that the equation, usually accepted as the

"definition" of the magnetic vector potential A, is not even a definition, because no equation is a definition. 00 If we rewrite the equation as the identity B = VxA then it is a proper definition — though not of the Apotential, but of the B-field itself, given that the A-potential exists and is primary. It also states that the B-field is simply a magnetic vector potential having swirl; i.e., the notion of the B-field captures that swirl aspect of a swirling A-potential. Hence the statement that B = zero implies only that the A-potential remaining is swirl-free and hence a linear EM energy

200 No equation is a definition, a priori. It merely states the relationship of the total magnitude of the entities on the left to the total magnitude of the entities on the right. It does not define any entity on either the left or the right. One of the gross non sqeuiturs in physics texts is to continue to present equations as "definitions".

current flow. Note that the B = 0 condition does not specify the magnitude of the remaining A-potential, but only specifies that it has no curl. This is a rigorous answer to the original question posed by Aharonov and Bohm of how two different A-potentials can have the same magnetic field B (the same swirl). It is no more mysterious than two different rivers having a whirlpool of exactly the same swirl magnitude.

At least to first order, it appears we have arrived at a "semi-definition" of the A-potential along these lines:

The magnetic vector potential A is an EM energy current in 4-space, which can be swirling or linear, or can have two components where one is swirling and the other is linear. The swirling component ofthe A-potential is also known as the B-field, and the linear component is known simply as the "curl-free A-potential". The A-potential exhibits a remarkable property: If its swirl component is localized and confined, the remaining space where the swirling A without localization would have been is filled by a remaining unswirling linear A-potential energy current. In short, by swirl-localization the swirling A-potential can be freely 'regauged' into two separated entities, with the sum oftheir energy being greater than the apparent energy ofthe previous swirling A-potential. Hence swirl-localiza tion is a method of asymmetrical self-regauging ofthe A-potential itself with the excess energy coming directlyfrom the active vacuum.

If we take the view that any curled A is identically a B-field, then the "natural" A is not curled, because it requires a curl operation applied to it to produce a "curled A" or B-field. Therefore the "natural" magnetic vector potential A is simply a magnetic energy current in space, since it is a vector and has direction {458}. That is a longitudinal EM energy flow process?201 We shall be very interested in the uncurled A-potential; i.e., in that linear energy current in space that is uncovered and freely produced

201 Interestingly, around a toroidal localization zone, the uncurled A-potential does curve, but is only linearly following the curving current and the moving E-field from the moving charges in the current. In the MEG, the uncurled A-potential is even more complex, since we use each half of the toroid-like localization zone differently, with the B-flux going one direction (say, counterclockwise) in the left branch and the B-flux going in the other direction (say, clockwise) in the right branch, and with a crossover point in the middle.

when the B-field is localized. Indeed, we shall perturb it to make a large E-field, which we intercept and use to furnish emf to the secondary circuit and power loads.

Given a localized B-field so that we have an uncurled A-potential outside the localization region: If we now increase the magnitude of the A, that produces an increased linear energy flow rate outside the localization zone, in addition to increasing the B-field in the localization zone. If we decrease the magnitude of the A, that produces a decreased nonlocalized energy flow rate and a decreased localized B-field. In our view it follows that, when we oscillate the magnitude of the A-potential by any means whatsoever, we oscillate the nonlocalized linear EM energy current flow rate as well as the localized B-field. In fact, that creates a normal oscillation of the localized B-field, and also creates a nonlocalized longitudinal wave of electric field E by the equation E = - dk/ct, if the conditions localizing the curl operator — and hence localizing and holding separate the concomitant B-field produced by a changing E-field — continue in effect.

We have produced a mechanism for generating a nonlocalized longitudinal E-field wave without a nonlocalized B-field component being allowed to act outside a confined locality. We stress that a B-field component is produced, but remains localized in the special core material (that is one of the conditions required in the MEG).

We have also produced a mechanism for generating a nonlocalized longitudinal E-field wave with another very novel feature: the magnitude of the E-field and thus the magnitude of its energy density (its intensity) does not depend on the magnitude ofthe input energy used to perturb the A-potential, but only depends on how sharply we perturb it. Thus we have produced a mechanism for energy intensity amplification and magnification, freely. This is possible because the system is an open system far from equilibrium with the active vacuum, and specifically with the curl-free A-potential as an energy current at large in the local vacuum where it can be intercepted, collected, and used to power loads. The energy intercepted from the uncurled A-potential by the output section(s), is additional energy in excess of what is intercepted from the E-fields generated in core material B-field magnetic flux changes.

However, see our discussions of the giant negentropy process, earlier in this book. Any longitudinal EM "wave in 3-space" is accompanied by a longitudinal EM wave on the fourth Minkowski axis, in the time domain. EM energy does not observably propagate continuously in 3-space, since observed propagation is a series of frozen iterative observation processes a priori). The "energy flow" actually consists of a propagation in 4-space of a continual local circulation of EM energy from the time domain (time-polarized EM energy) to each interacting point dipole in 3-space via the negative charge of the point dipole, thence to the positive charge of that point dipole, thence back to the time domain. In a time-reversed zone, the circulation is in the opposite manner. So what spreads as the "longitudinal EM energy current in 3-space" is actually the spreading point polarization of the vacuum and this giant negentropy 4-circulation involved in every point dipole of that polarization.

We believe this previously unsuspected process is involved in the Aharonov-Bohm effect (which is a sort of polarization in the time domain), other aspects of the geometric phase, fundamental polarization of the vacuum itself, and the very notion of "propagation of EM energy through space". At any rate, the hypothesis does fit the phenomena observed to happen in the MEG, so it warrants additional careful experimental investigation as well as attention from leading theorists.

Further, the MEG is practical and produces practical electrical power, but with a purely electrical reaction in the output secondary coils of the transformer section.202 Hence there is finally a very practical use for the geometric phase: It extracts additional nonlocalized EM energy from the vacuum (and local curved spacetime) in addition to extracting and retaining localized energy. Both the extra "free" nonlocalized EM energy and the localized EM energy from the vacuum can be intercepted, collected, and utilized to power practical fuel-free MEG-type power systems.

We point out that the rate of changes of all E-fields produced in the secondary and primary coils also produce B-fields proportional to the time rate of change of those E-fields in each case. These secondary B-fields are

202 This follows from the localization of all B-fields in the core material — including the B-field of the permanent magnet, those B-fields produced by dE/dt operations, and those B-fields produced inside the secondary coils, etc. All E-fields produced, however, including in the changing flux of the core and in the dA/dt operations of the external uncurled A-potential — are free from that localization restriction and can pass out of the core and interact with the output coils of the transformer section. In short, we have produced the world's first purely electric "induction-free" magnetic transformer device. The voltage and current, measured directly across the secondary coil's ends, is in phase within 2 degrees and even that 2 degrees can be eliminated. We expect the theorists to have a field day in modeling these new phenomena.

retained in the core rather than reaching out into surrounding space. Their rate of change then further produces E-fields, which pass out of the core and interact with the coils. Hence there are very novel "multiple feedforward and feedback" regenerative loops in the MEG's highly nonlinear operation, as well as chaotic oscillations.

## Getting Started With Solar

Do we really want the one thing that gives us its resources unconditionally to suffer even more than it is suffering now? Nature, is a part of our being from the earliest human days. We respect Nature and it gives us its bounty, but in the recent past greedy money hungry corporations have made us all so destructive, so wasteful.

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