## Surprising Thing About Thermodynamics and Reservoirs

Thermodynamically, it is fashionable to state that one cannot take energy from a reservoir at constant temperature. That is true for equilibrium conditions, but not for nonequilibrium conditions {408}. That is, we cannot take energy from a reservoir in equilibrium at constant temperature. We can indeed take energy from a reservoir at constant temperature but not in equilibrium. More exactly, we can take energy from a nonhomogeneous reservoir at constant temperature.

We quote Hsu-Chieh Yeh {409} for a vivid statement of this little-recognized fact:

"From Planck's statement of the second law of thermodynamics it is generally inferred that it is impossible to construct an engine which produces work at the expense only ofheat taken from the air or the ocean. ...[It is demonstrated that]... when the air and the ocean are combined as a nonhomogeneous reservoir of uniform temperature, it is possible to construct an engine which produces work by extracting heatfrom the said reservoir. This does not constitute a violation of the second law of thermodynamics, rather that the "reservoir" in the Planck's statement must be clearly stated as being in equilibrium.

Yeh's article falsifies the general, mistaken inference that Planck's statement of the second law of thermodynamics requires it to be impossible to construct an engine that produces work at the expense only of heat taken from the air or ocean. The experiment described in Yeh's paper demonstrates that when the air and the ocean are combined as a nonhomogeneous reservoir of uniform temperature, it is possible to construct an engine that produces work by extracting heat from the said reservoir. This does not constitute a violation of the second law of thermodynamics, but rather shows that the "reservoir" in Planck's statement may be in equilibrium or disequilibrium, and the statement holds only for the equilibrium case. Also, an entire reservoir can be in "overall" equilibrium, but in raging disequilibrium between various parts of itself. Classical thermodynamics only applies with the reservoir or part of it that is used by the system in its supersystem, when that part is in equilibrium.

We bring this out to show the analogy to our concept of the two additional components of the supersystem as the "reservoir" or external environment of the system itself.

We also point out that the concept of temperature itself is not strictly defined under disequilibrium conditions, as pointed out by Gabriel Laufer {410}.

The proof and a schematic diagram of a machine to do just such an energy extraction process at constant temperature in an environment in disequilibrium are shown by Yeh {408}.

### 6. J.9 Latent Heat Work of the Correas

In addition to their glow discharge work previously discussed, Paulo and Alexandra Correa have demonstrated a method to optimize some anomalous form of energy from the sun, which transduces into heat, producing an anomalous T0 - T difference registered in Orgone Accumulators178 invented by W. Reich in 1939-1940. They have also

178 This is Reich's terminology, not used in conventional physics. We suspect that proper application of quantum field theory with its four photon polarizations could employed the optimized difference in this "latent" heat — their term — to drive a low dT Stirling engine of the MM6 type, to perform free work {41 la-b}. The Correas employ their own new theory of the aether {412} to explain the effect.

Against the assertion that this is just normal solar energy warming, they have demonstrated the successful driving of the Stirling engine for several hours during nighttime {413}. With their latest improved version, they report speeds of the Stirling engine of 150 rpm during daytime (with dT values reaching 22.5° C), and speeds of 30 to 80 rpm during nighttime (with dT values of 3.1 to 9° C). There appears to be no obvious standard thermodynamic explanation or standard theory to explain how the anomalous heating occurs — although once it does occur, the explanation from then on is thermodynamically normal.

The Stirling energy is driven on a difference in temperature created between the top plate and bottom plate of a box by this anomalous energy. It is the production of the heat that is anomalous, not the driving of the engine. For comparison, imagine a bank of solar cells that would somehow operate at night, when no normal radiation from the sun was striking them. The Correa effect demonstrates such an anomaly.179

Dr. Eugene Mallove, an excellent scientist with impeccable credentials, has personally observed the Correa accumulator system driving the Stirling engine, and has examined it inside and out {414}. Though small, the heat and the motive power are real and the engine is really driven, in the absence of any kind of conventional batteries or other known power source.

be applied to transform the notion of "orgone" energy into specialized EM energy. We further suspect that orgone energy is really the transduction of the time-polarized photon energy into normal photon energy. We are assured by quantum field theory and the giant negentropy solution to the source charge problem that the instantaneous scalar potential involves this process.

179 We point out that local regions of the sun may well produce Aharonov-Bohm effects, and probably do. Such reactions in the sun would localize some ofthe B-fields and emit curl-free magnetic vector potential radiation into space, striking the earth. Close examination and analysis of the possible reaction of uncurled A-potential radiation with the accumulator box and plates in the Correa process might yield a novel mechanism for the observed heating (scattering) effects, including the difference between daytime and nighttime levels, periodic variations, etc.

While the Correas utilize some ofReich's orgone and aether terminology, they are quite aware that the energy being converted is not normal transverse EM wave energy. Quoting {415}:

"Aetherometry demonstrates that what traverses space is not transverse electromagnetic radiation (and certainly not sensible heat), but longitudinal electric ambipolar radiation emitted from the sun. All that electromagnetic radiation consists ofis a local production of photons (for those who care to listen): aether energy is not composed ofphotons, actual or virtual.

We can generate sympathy for that statement, although we would still not rule out time-polarized (scalar) photons and longitudinal photons from quantum field theory, each of which is individually nonobservable, but when paired the two comprise an instantaneous scalar potential. As we previously discussed, the classical notion of the EM force fields E and B implicitly assumes interaction of the unseen causal "field-as-it-exists-in-massfree space" with charged mass having been accomplished, with the E and B being the 3-effect of this interaction after observation. Thus these force fields E and B are 3-effects (after interaction and after observation) rather than 4-causes prior to interaction and observation. We suspect that the Correas are trying to get at the causal 4-photon, rather than the usually assumed 3-photon. Further, a virtual photon spends much of its time existing as a dipole comprised of a virtual electron and a virtual positron. Therefore it spends much of its time in the presence of the giant negentropy 4-circulation, involving transduction of time energy into spatial energy and vice versa. It is this negentropy circulation represented by the virtual photon (or accompanying it, whichever one chooses) that the Correas are confronting as the "aether energy".

As previously discussed, an analysis of the Drude electrons in the electron gas of a detector builds a convincing case for EM waves in space existing in longitudinal EM waves, if the spinning and longitudinally restrained electronsprecess and act as gyros. The detected transverse EM waves are in fact transverse precession waves of the gyro-electrons when perturbed by incoming longitudinal EM waves (longitudinal photons appearing in 3-space from the time-domain's scalar photon couplet). As Feynman put it {416},

"We may think ofE(x, y, z, t) and B(x, y, z, t) as giving the forces that would be experienced at the time t by a charge located at (x, y, z), with the condition thatplacing the charge there did not disturb the positions or motion ofall the other charges responsible for the fields."

The E and B force fields — and transverse photons — are not the form in which EM energy causally exists in 4-space prior to its interaction with charged mass. In that causal form, EM energy seems to exist in field-free form, as a direct curvature of spacetime — at least in Sachs's unified field approach. Further, this form may be represented as the causal precursor of longitudinal EM waves accompanied by time-polarized EM waves.

We will not repeat our past discussion of the great necessity to change the very notion of "propagation through 3-space", but that is the issue. In our opinion, the Correas have had to struggle with the use of this causal EM energy as it exists in 4-space prior to interaction with charge and prior to observation. Hence their view is solidly based that the photon does not exist until after the interaction — which in fact has much support once we remove the still-present assumption in classical electrodynamics that a material ether exists.

0ur own recommendation is that this anomalous energy should be deeply investigated with the view that all EM energy in 3-space comes from the time-domain and the 3-space aspect is in terms of longitudinal photons, as we have proposed in our solution to the source charge problem previously cited. That is the only way that the nature of the EM wave in vacuum can be reconciled with quantum field theory's findings {19} and with Whittaker's decomposition of the scalar potential {85}, slightly corrected {12}.

Mallove also points out {417} that, if this aether energy view of the Correas has validity, it "...suggests that physics is notjust wrong, it is profoundly wrong — catastrophically wrong about even the most fundamental questions ofexistence, such as: 1) Is there an energetic aether? and 2) What is the nature of light?"

We profoundly agree with Mallove's observation, and we believe we have explained the reason why physics is indeed profoundly wrong (widely substitutes effect for cause). Further, classical physics is decidedly wrong about the nature of light — from quantum field theory, experimental proof of superluminal communication, and action-at-a-distance effects.

In our view, the Correas presently have a replicable experiment that, once independently and thoroughly investigated, may force a deeper examination of the foundations of physics. Hopefully, the Correas'

experiment and others like it will finally force the separation of effect from cause, presently so mangled in physics and particularly in electrodynamics.

If the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation can be convinced of the horrible manglement of cause and effect in physics and especially in electrodynamics, perhaps they may yet wake from their long slumber and get the foundations corrected to eliminate such non sequiturs. If so, we shall have a magnificent new physics as a result.

If not, then the NAS and NSF will continue to profoundly reduce the security of this nation, since several nations have already made and weaponized such corrections to physics to produce what is called "energetics". Further, extraordinarily powerful energetics weapons have already been developed and deployed (and even employed), putting the U.S. at a strategic disadvantage because of the continuing reluctance of the NAS and NSF to correct the glaring and extraordinary errors in both physics and electrodynamics — and especially in electrical engineering.

Meanwhile, we believe that the work and experiments of Paulo and Alexandra Correa are at the forefront of capturing and transducing energy from the vacuum, in whatever form one chooses to consider the vacuum energy itself. They are also pointing the way to the corrections and changes necessary in the "old physics" if we are to better understand the world we live in.

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