## Additional Approaches to Overunity Power Systems

"Can the quantum potential carry a signal? Ifit can, we will be led to a violation ofthe principles of Einstein s theory ofrelativity, because the instantaneous interaction implied by the quantum potential will lead to the possibility ofa signal that is faster than light... a signal has in general to be a complex structure, consisting of many events that are ordered in definite ways. In terms of our language, each signal is a supersystem ofevents, while each event is in turn a system ofsubevents At present, the answer is, of course, not known. " [Bohm and Hiley] {343}. A comment:156

156 We comment that the "event" involves observation: i.e.. it is conceived as an observed event. In that exact sense, no signal in space carries "events" because there is no interaction with mass and no d/dt operation induced on entities (curvatures) of spacetime. The effect (observed) 3-space field cannot propagate faster than light, because it cannot even propagate in the first place! The totality of light's EM interactions with matter is what makes the observed field or observed signal to appear to be propagated at light speed. It is not actually "propagating", but being iteratively recreated from point to point in space if observed at every point. Signal in spacetime is causal and hence nonobservable; the interaction of causal signal with charged mass is observable and makes an "event". When we clearly differentiate the nonobserved (causal) 4-field or dynamic from the iteratively observed 3-field or dynamic, then the nonobserved 4-field or dynamic is not limited to light speed. Propagation along the time axis, e.g., can be at "infinite velocity" because a single point in time is connected to every point in the universe simultaneously. Since all EM energy in space comes from the time domain locally at each point dipole in 3 - space and returns to the time domain from that same point dipole, it is the notion of "propagation continuously through 3-space" at any velocity that is a non sequitur. Absolutely nothing propagates through 3-space! If general relativity is re-interpreted to account the difference between observed and unobserved (effect and cause), then the unobserved cause can propagate superluminally without violation of the "observed event (effect) propagation at light speed" of general relativity. It is the notion that anything propagates in 3-space that is the non sequitur, and it should be removed from special and general relativity as well as electrodynamics.

"...contrary to the conclusions ofclassicalmechanics, there exist effects ofpotentials on chargedparticles, even in the region where all the fields (and therefore the forces on the particles) vanish. " [Aharonov and Bohm] {344}.

"...for anyforce varying as the inverse square ofthe distance, the potential ofsuch force satisfies both Laplace's equation and also the wave equation, and can be analyzed into simple plane waves propagating with constant velocity The sum ofthe waves, however, does not vary with time, i.e., they are standing waves. Therefore the force potential can be defined in terms of both standing waves, i.e., by a global, or non-local solution, and by propagating waves, i.e., by a local solution changing in time... Thus, Whittakers mathematical statement related the inverse square law of force to the force potential defined in terms of both standing wave (i.e., global) andpropagating wave (i.e., local) solutions. The analysis also showed that the electromagnetic force fields could be defined in terms of the derivatives oftwo scalar potentials. " [Barrett] {345}.

"What might appear to be empty space is, therefore, a seethingferment ofvirtualparticles. A vacuum is not inert and featureless, but alive with throbbing ermgy and vitality. A 'real'particle such as an electron must always be viewed against this background offrenetic activity When an electron moves through space, it it actually swimming in a sea ofghostparticles ofall varieties — virtual leptons, quarks, and messengers, entangled in a complex melee. The presence ofthe electron will distort this irreducible vacuum activity, and the distortion in turn reacts back on the electron. Even at rest, an electron is not at rest: it is being continually assaulted by all manner of other particles from the vacuum. " [Davies] {346}.

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