Additional Very Important Implications

We also formally proposed {40} that the vast nondiverged EM energy flow component — Heaviside's "dark" nondiverged energy flow component, accompanying every reaction of a charge with a field or a potential, but arbitrarily discarded by Lorentz and modern classical electrodynamicists — is the generatrix for the extra gravity holding the arms of the spiral galaxies together, after all the dark matter is accounted.18

18 Heaviside himself recognized the gravitational implications of his extra component of energy flow, which is in closed circular loops. Beneath the floorboards of his little garret apartment, years after his death, handwritten papers were found where Heaviside used this component for a unified EM approach to gravitation. See E. R. Laithwaite, "Oliver Heaviside - establishment shaker," Electrical Review, 211(16), Nov. 12, 1982, p. 44-45. Laithwaite felt that Heaviside's postulation that a flux of gravitational energy combines with the (ExH) electromagnetic energy flux, could shake the foundations of physics. Quoting from Laithwaite: "Heaviside had

In addition, my close colleague Bedini and I have filed a patent application upon a very special process to "freeze-frame and lock-in" a disequilibrium Maxwellian system in its otherwise far-from-equilibrium state, so the apparent disequilibrium operation of the system can be maintained stably as a new equilibrium condition. This appears to be a method to produce and utilize what Kondepudi and Prigogine refer to as a nonequilibrium stationary state. This stabilization is necessary in order for such a system to maintain its COP>1.0 excitation and steadily output more energy than the operator inputs, or to steadily power itself and its load {41}.

We also found that COP>>1.0 EM systems (and some COP>1.0 systems) produce (as a function of the COP) a current of Dirac sea holes (positrons) in the local vacuum environment itself, from the output section back to the input section. At COP<1.0 and COP not too greatly above 1.0, a Dirac sea hole in the vacuum almost immediately interacts with an orbital electron in the material lattice of the system. This converts the negative energy, negative mass "vacuum hole or state" into a lattice hole, which is attached to the large positive mass of the ion left by the disappearance of the electron. This "lattice positron" type of problem has been known in semiconductor design for some decades. Normal EM circuits do not usually meet the phenomenon overtly because the semiconductor designers controlled it in the semiconductors themselves by use of appropriate donors and acceptors.

There is a great difference between the actions of Dirac sea holes in the vacuum prior to observation, and lattice holes in materials (after observation). So there is a great difference between the action of a "positron" on spacetime before its interaction with mass and observation, and its action on spacetime after it interacts with mass and is observed.

For COP>>1.0, significant phenomenology and novel effects occur because a substantial fraction of the Dirac sea holes (unobserved positrons) sweeping from output to input do not convert to lattice holes (observed and bound positrons) along the way. For substantial values of COP above 1.0, Bedini's invention (patent application filed by Bedini and the present originally written the energy flow as S = (ExH) + G, where G is a circuital flux. Poynting had only written S = (ExH). Taking p to be the density of matter and e the intensity of a gravitational force, Heaviside found that the circuital flux G can be expressed as pu - ce, where u represents the velocity of p and c is a constant. "

author)19 covers the master process for intercepting and transducing this appreciable flow of negative energy from the output section back to the input. Otherwise, that flow — if not intercepted and not converted — will "eat" extra input electrons from the power supply, thus acting as a novel "extra load" appearing in the input section. That extra load then draws additional current and power from the external power supply by electron-hole annihilation20.

With the Bedini invention, the negative energy (unobserved positron) flow appearing at the input section is transduced into a flow of positive energy (a flow of electron current) from the input section back into the system. The process deliberately uses the "interaction and observation" process to phase conjugate the charge and reverse its direction of flow! In that case, the otherwise detrimental negative energy output back through the COP>1.0 system (which is nature's decay process for COP>1.0 interactions) is changed to a beneficial positive energy input within the system itself, freely received from the vacuum environment. This process is then used to close-loop the system for self-powering in a "locked" and stabilized disequilibrium condition — a nonequilibrium stationary state.

If we consider mass to be a special kind of positive energy state, then positive energy states represent curvatures of spacetime that are positive gravity. Negative energy states generate antigravity (the time-reversal of gravity).

19 Bedini personally discovered and implemented the solution before the exact nature of either the problem or the solution was recognized! My contribution was to recognize the nature of the problem and the mechanism used in the solution. We also stress that, contrary to conventional treatment, all EM circuits do involve not only lattice holes in the conductors and components, but also Dirac sea holes in the local vacuum. That the Dirac sea is involved whenever there are EM fields is clearly shown by Felix Finster, "Definition of the Dirac Sea in the Presence of External Fields," Adv. Theor. Math. Physics, Vol. 2, 1998, p. 963-985.

20 With a proper change in the curvature of local spacetime, pair annihilation can occur with no accompanying photon radiation. The condition is that the part of the curvature of spacetime representing the energy change of the otherwise emitted radiation, does not "relax" even though it is an "excited state". Rigorously, the emission of the radiation from pair annihilation occurs in two steps: (i) first the local spacetime is curved for and by the energy excitation, as a static change of the curvature, and (ii) then that curvature relaxes back to its former value, propagating that specific curvature in space, which is recognized as the radiation propagating in space. If the spacetime curvature excitation does not relax, there is no photon emission and propagation.

Before their interaction and observation, the Dirac sea hole (positron) currents — produced in natural C0P>1.0 processes in the universe — are still negative energy electrons in 4-space. They are not 3-positrons until interaction with matter has occurred. These "negative energy electrons" generate negative energy EM fields, including both the Poynting energy flow component and the Heaviside nondiverged energy flow component. These negative energy EM fields appear to be generating the antigravity whose effects are seen in the distant parts of the universe. They produce far more powerful effects than the accounted electrogravitation effects in astrophysics, which only uses the gravitational effects of the very much smaller Poynting energy flow component. Also, astrophysicists do not use the "positron before observation," when it is still a negative energy electron with negative mass. The accumulation of the negative energy (Dirac holes) in space (in the surrounding vacuum) is connected with massive objects and violent processes, where very strong gradients are produced.21 As a result, very large negative energy fields and potentials are produced. In turn, this results in cumulating antigravity. This cumulating and interacting antigravity appears to be the mechanism for the forces accelerating the expansion of the universe — rather than it decelerating as would be the case if the net gravity there were positive. In Chapter 8 we propose this explanation for the observed acceleration of the expanding universe — and the basis for the explanation can be and has been successfully demonstrated in a legitimate overunity EM circuit or system {42}. We offer this in honor of Heaviside, who first discovered the gravitational aspect of his huge nondiverged energy flow, but did not live to publish it. He also did not consider the Dirac sea prior to hole interaction with matter, as it was not yet formulated, so he had not yet recognized the way to produce and utilize the practical antigravity potential of his discovery.

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