## Aharonov Bohm Effect Geometric Phase and the Motionless Electromagnetic Generator MEG

[Decision that hydrogen fuel is the future]. "We are at the peak of the oil age but the beginning ofthe hydrogen age. Anything else is an interim solution. The transition will be very messy, and will take many technologicalpaths ...but the future will be hydrogen fuel." [Herman Kuipers, Royal Dutch Shell.].

[Vacuum energy is real] "...the acceptance of a structured vacuum described by an O(3) gauge group leads directly to the existence ofnovel charges and currents in the vacuum. These are conserved, orNoether, currents and charges and are clearly topological in origin. They springfrom the fact that the vacuum is a topological space. Four such entities emerge: [1] A topological vacuum electric charge, also proposed empirically by Lehnert et al. [2] A topological vacuum electric current, also proposed empirically by Lehnert et al. [3] A topological vacuum magnetic charge, proposed also by Barrett andHarmuth. [4] A vacuum topological magnetic current, proposed also by Barrett and Harmuth.

Each ofthese four objects can provide energy, which can be loosely termed 'vacuum energy': energy coming from the topology of the vacuum. " [Evans] {458}.

[Aharonov-Bohm effect] "...the Aharonov-Bohm effect is a local gauge transformation ofthe true vacuum... [which] produces a vector potential from the true vacuum. [This gauge transformation]produces topological charge..., the electromagnetic field, which carries energy, and the vacuum charge current density firstproposed by Lehnert ... anddeveloped by Lehnert and Roy... ". [Evans and Jeffers] {459}.

[Geometric phase] "The concept ofthe geometric phase is closely related to the effect of a state function acquiring a non-zero phase factor after a quantum system undergoes a cyclic evolution. This means, that ifa system after some time returns to its original state, the result of such an evolution will be recorded in the phase ofthe wavefunction. Moreover, this phase factor can be measured by interfering initial and final states. ... Although there are no widely recognizedpractical applications ofthe geometric phase, its experimental observations have been reported in many fields ofscience. The largest group ofexperiments have been carried out on polarized light ...andpolarized neutrons ... The geometric phase has also been observed in magnetic resonance experiments ..., mesoscopicstructures ...and molecular systems ...Analogues ofGP — the Hannay angles — have been shown to exist in classical mechanical systems ..., the mostfamous example ofwhich is the Foucaultpendulum." [Aleksiejunas]198

[Practical use of geometric phase]. "The motionless electromagnetic generator is the first practical macroscopic use ofthe geometric phase. " [T. E. Bearden, 2001, to a correspondent].

[Impact of extracting energy from the vacuum] "Ifthey [quantum fluctuations ofvacuum] can be [tapped], the impact upon our civilization will be incalculable. Oil, coal, nuclear, hydropower, would become obsolete — and so would many of our worries about environmental pollution." "Don't sell your oil shares yet — but don't be surprised if the world again witnesses the four stages of response to any new and revolutionary development: 1. It's crazy! 2. It may be possible — so what? 3. I said it was

198I am much indebted to Dr. Rimvydas Aleksiejunas for this clear statement of the geometric phase. See his very elegant summary, " Introduction to The Geometric Phase Decomposition," on his Internet website at http://signalogram.free-hosting.lt/Research/gp dec.htm. His own publications in scientific journals and proceedings are also listed on the website, and many are available for downloading. His doctoral thesis dealt with geometric phase and he is a specialist in that field.

a good idea all along. 4. Ithought of it first." [Arthur C. Clarke] {460}.

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