Bedinis Negative Resistor Process in a Battery

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5.8.5.1 Some Pertinent Lead-Acid Battery Processes A lead-acid storage battery is a highly nonlinear device. The plates may be plante, pasted, or tubular etc. They are usually highly porous and have a thin oxide layer. They may have other coatings and the electrolyte solution may include additives to enhance operation. The plates consist of a mix of crystalline materials in most cases. The plate materials include acicular

(needle-like) crystals, particularly the negative plate. The plates usually are porous, knit, and have gridded separators.

The chemistry of the battery electrolyte is complex and — even today — not all of it is well understood, particularly when mass transport is accounted. In our discussions, we will be including some of the previously neglected phenomena during mass transport (ion sluggishness in moving) that are responsible for some of that lack of understanding. In the battery chemistry, there are many double surfaces between the ions and also there is a variety of point voltages. There is a separate theory for double surfaces.

One of the most important phenomena is that the ion currents in the electrolyte are confined to the battery, and do not pass out into the external circuit. Much of the electron currents in the external circuit are blocked at the plates from moving within the electrolyte. Consequently, we will limit our discussion to two major currents of interest144 in a battery-powered system, and these currents are effectively isolated from each other (at least to first order). Those currents are (i) the ion currents in the electrolyte, confined to between the plates and therefore internal to the battery electrolyte, and (ii) the electron currents between the outside of each plate through the inside of the plate and on out through the external circuit and then around to the inside and thence to the outside of the other plate. Chemical changes occur on the plates themselves as a result of these two currents.

It is usually assumed in power systems that these two currents are in phase or almost entirely so. That need not be true at all, and Bedini takes specific advantage of deliberately arranging these two currents to be antiphased part of the time. Part of the Bedini effect can be understood from this fact alone; the other part must consider one other most unusual electrical current that is encountered only in battery-powered systems or COP»1.0 systems.

So indeed there are several (many) currents in a lead acid battery [334], not just one, and we will consider three of them — the two previously mentioned, and an additional Dirac sea hole current in the local vacuum itself. The reader interested in greater technical depth should also turn to

144 Of course, there are many other currents in a battery as well, but — although an oversimplification — these two major currents together with the Dirac sea hole current will suffice for our introductory modeling and explanation purposes.

the literature of electrode chemistry and electrochemistry {335a-f}, which is quite complex.

5.8.5.2 Dirac Sea Hole Current

In a battery-powered COP»1.0 system (and in some COP>1.0 systems), there is a previously unrecognized significant flow of Dirac hole current in the local vacuum, running from the output section of the system to the system input section and thence through the conductors into the battery terminals and onto the battery plates, and on into the battery electrolyte chemistry. This hole current may be greater — evenfar greater — than the normal electron current running from input to output.

So in the battery-powered overunity system with positive feedback, not only does an electron current run from the battery through the connecting conductors to the input section of the system, but also a Dirac hole current pours back out of the system input section, and — if not intercepted and transduced — through the conductors and back into the battery. All the while, this Dirac hole current is "eating" electrons being furnished by the battery to the system. The net result is that the battery "sees" an extra load to be powered, in addition to the ordinary load presented to it by the normal system input section. It "sees" the situation as an "extra load" because it first has to furnish sufficient electron current to fill the hole current and "kill" it, before it can furnish the additional electrons to power the system in normal fashion.145

145 An odd effect occurs in the battery, however, when the battery completely discharges in the normal sense. Actually, it is still fully charged with positive energy charge, but also has been simultaneously charged with negative energy charge. With the excess negative energy holes continuing to charge the battery with negative energy charge, the battery becomes increasingly charged with net negative energy. There is almost no limit to the negative energy charge the battery (i.e., the local Dirac vacuum portion of its supersystem) can take, except the eventual development of antigravity effects due to the inverse and increasing curvature of local spacetime in which the battery is embedded. After a battery has been used to power a COP»1.0 system for some time, one can take the battery off, place it on a normal battery charger, and it will then "eat" positive power for an extended period of time — e.g., a week or longer. During this period, one is steadily negating the inverse curvature of the local vacuum via the increased positive energy collecting in that spacetime. The battery again finally passes through zero voltage and net charge again, and suddenly starts charging up again in a "normal" sense with positive energy charge. This process actually increases the lifetime and function of a battery in a startling manner. Bedini has used batteries almost devoid of charge and energy in the normal sense, and powered systems very well with them, even for longer than a year continuously.

A COP»1.0 EM system is an excited system far from equilibrium in its exchange with its active environment. For all such excited systems, there exist significant decay mechanisms to bring the system back into equilibrium with its environment, since equilibrium yields the lowest energy state and maximum entropy. The Dirac sea hole current (negative energy current) is nature's unexpected natural decay mechanism to sharply decay a COP»1.0 system back to an overall COP<1.0 system when the external power supply is considered also.146

So when Dirac hole current back through the local vacuum and through the system is involved, the battery first has to furnish electron current to fill these holes at the rate they are appearing in the input section, thereby furnishing a primary "hole-filling" electron current component which "disappears" into the Dirac vacuum and is lost.147 Only after the holes in the hole current are filled — and the hole current is being steadily nullified

146 It decays the true negative resistor power system back into being only a dijjjerential negative resistor section of a slightly extended metasystem including the power system and its external power supply. This novel decay mechanism also prohibits close-looping the now differential negative resistance power system for self-powering, unless the hole current is first converted into electron current, as discussed in Chapter 9 and in paragraph 4.9.6 below.

147 The filling of these Dirac sea holes is not pair annihilation in the usual sense, and no radiation is emitted. Instead, the energy of the radiation that would otherwise be emitted is added to the negative energy curving the spacetime. Hence the net curvature of spacetime relaxes because of superposition. In effect, the vacuum/spacetime itself reabsorbs the energy as relaxation spatial energy added to the curvature energy of the curved spacetime, reducing that curvature. Particularly see Mendel Sachs, Quantum Mechanics from General Relativity: An Approximation for a Theory of Inertia, Reidel (now Kluwer), 1986. A generalization of quantum mechanics is demonstrated in the context of general relativity, following from a generally covariant field theory of inertia. Nonrelativistically, the formalism corresponds with linear quantum mechanics. In the limit of special relativity, nonlinearity remains and several new features are derived: (i) Particle-antiparticle pairs do not annihilate; an exact bound state solution is derived corresponding with all experimental facts about annihilation/creation — which, in approximation, gives the blackbody radiation spectrum for a sea of such pairs, (ii) A result is proven, without approximation, that is physically equivalent to the Pauli exclusion principle-

which in linear approximation gives the totally antisymmetrised main-body wave function and Fermi-Dirac statistics, (iii) The hydrogen spectrum is derived, including the Lamb shifts, in agreement with experiment; new results are found for high-energy electron-proton scattering, (iv) Finally, several applications to the elementary particle domain are demonstrated, in agreement with results from experimental high-energy physics.

— can the battery then send additional electrons which do not disappear and which are accepted in the system input section to power the system. We discuss this Dirac hole current in some detail in Chapter 9, including how to convert it into useful input electron current to the system, reducing the current load on the external generator and enabling self-powering. Bedini invented the method of transducing available negative energy hole current in the vacuum into electron positive energy flow to charge the battery and power the system, preventing decay of the C0P»1.0 system back to C0P<1.0.

We shall not discuss the complexity of the additional chemical reactions ongoing in the battery electrolyte and on the plates. The two main mass-containing currents and the negative energy Dirac hole current will suffice to explain the Bedini negative resistor formation and usage, at least to first order and sufficient to stabilize systems.

5.8.5.3 Changing Symmetrical to Asymmetrical Regauging To first order, we reiterate that the electrons flow from one plate of the battery through the external circuit to the other plate, but the lead ions do not. There is thus a sharp "two separate currents" interface at the plates and thus a sharp separation between the electron current and the ion current. In short, there are actually two half-circuits in the battery-powered system if one chooses to use them semi-independently.

The current carriers in the two half-circuits are quite different. Therein lies the opportunity to separate and antiphase the two currents, using one to recharge the battery while the other is used to power the loads. It also allows a good opportunity to asymmetrically regauge both half circuits, greatly and freely increasing the Poynting energy component intercepted, collected, and used by each half-circuit's carriers. This is the basis for a profound "opening" of the system and influx of excess vacuum energy.

The two half circuits meeting at a common interface allow a stress potential upon that interface to individually use the two halves of what is normally Lorentz's symmetrical regauging. That usually symmetrical regauging (if the complete circuit were unitary) is now comprised of two separated asymmetrical regaugings, one for each of the two circuit halves, because the net stress potential (net Lorentz symmetrical regauging) — consisting of two opposing fields and forces — is split into two now-individually-separated and separately utilized force fields.

We accent this process by an analogy. Suppose we suddenly place a scalar potential upon a point in the middle of a transmission line. Immediately the potential races off (spreads) in both directions simultaneously, at nearly light speed. Further, in each direction there is a moving gradient of <(), hence an E-field by E = - V(|). These E-fields or "emfs" are oriented in opposite directions, so there is a movement of charge from the middle of the line toward each ofthe ends. The same "dephasing" current effect can be applied to any conductive medium or to the interface between two conductive circuits.

In Bedini's negative resistor case, the placement of the potential — for its movement in both directions — is on the interface (the face of the lead plates) between the two half circuits and therefore between the two different current carrier types. An initial "Lenz's law" reacting with the suddenly placed E-field onto the plate surface, creates an E-field in opposition, forming a stress potential which is much higher than the normal potential of the battery (in a nominal case, 100 volts instead of the 12 volts of the battery).

Immediately this potential "takes off in both directions", with a powerful E-field and emf back into the outside circuit and its load, while a powerful E-field and emf also proceed into the battery electrolyte in the opposite direction. So the ions in the battery have a sudden, much higher energy interception and collection forced upon them, with the excess emf now being in battery-charging mode. The electrons in the outside circuit simultaneously have an excess emf and potentialization in the load-powering mode. Let us see how the two very different current carriers react to these "dual emfs" in the overall circuit.

5.8.5.4Mass-to-ChargeRatios ofthe Two Current-Carrier Types We stress the dramatic difference in the mass-to-charge (m/q) ratio of the two currents. The lead ions' m/q ratio is some few hundred thousand times the m/q ratio of electrons, as we recall. For our purposes, all we need to know is that the m/q ratio for the lead ions is very much larger than the m/q ratio for the electrons. For a given force, the ions in the internal half circuit in the electrolyte will therefore respond very much slower than will the electrons in the external circuit half.

5.8.5.5 Hysteresis Between the Responses ofthe Two Half-Circuits Because of this great disparity in the m/q ratios of the two mass currents, there is obviously a relatively significant hysteresis (time delay) between the response of the more massive ion current and the response of the far less massive electron currents that interact at the plates to try to change the ion current and its momentum. This time-delay between ion response in the electrolyte (the effect) and electron pileup urging (the cause) can be adroitly manipulated. Specifically, it can be used to alter the local vacuum potential and cause it to add excess energy to the ions in charging mode and simultaneously to add excess EMF to the electrons in circuit-powering mode. In short, the response delay can be manupulated to "asymmetrically regauge" the mass currents in the system, freely changing their potential energy, and dramatically increasing how much potential energy is available for battery recharging and how much is available for powering the external circuit (loads and losses). Further, during the antiphase condition of the two current halves, the battery can be charged simultaneously while the external circuit half and load is being powered. Excess energy is fed into both actions by the overpotential (the stress potential) created at the surface of the plates.

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