## Broken Symmetry of the Dipole

To recap from Chapters 1 and 2: In 1956, Lee and Yang {187} strongly predicted broken symmetry in physics, suggesting experiments to detect it in the weak interaction. In early 1957, Wu et al. {188} experimentally demonstrated broken symmetry, thus furnishing the experimental substantiation of broken parity in the weak interaction. The emergence of broken symmetry was such a dramatic change to the view of physics, that in December of the same year, 1957, Lee and Yang were awarded the Nobel Prize.

One of the asymmetries shown by Lee et al. is the asymmetry of opposite charges. That means that a dipole, which consists of slightly separated opposite charges, exhibits broken symmetry in the seething vacuum virtual particle flux. In short, a dipole — any dipole or dipolarity — must absorb or receive virtual photon energy from the active vacuum, integrate at least some of it to observable state, and re-radiate that integrated EM energy in observable form in 3-space.

We stress: The ends of a dipole, being oppositely charged, exhibit broken symmetry. An 'isolated' charge, considered with its clustering virtual charges of opposite sign, is a set ofcomposite dipoles and also exhibits broken symmetry.

Figure 3-1 The source dipole experiment, demonstrating continuous energy flow.

Let us now consider a gedanken experiment, as shown diagrammatically in Figure 3-1, to illustrate Kosyakov's quotation cited above. At a point in the laboratory corresponding to the origin of a 3-dimensional frame, a dipole is produced instantly by separating charges, such as in a flash-charged capacitor. Along two radial lines in 3-space from that origin, we have previously placed perfect EM field and potential detectors, at distances ctapart, where t= 1, 2, 3, 4, n,... and so on in seconds, with the radials extending across the universe, and where c is the speed of light. We neglect the transient pulse that momentarily occurs at each instrument package, since we are examining steady state conditions.

At the end of one second, the instruments at t = 1 instantly read, and those readings remain thereafter. One second later, the instruments at t = 2 instantly read, and those readings remain thereafter. And so on with each of the instruments progressively farther from the origin reading at the proper light-time travel, and with all field readings then remaining continuously thereafter.

This gedankenexperiment demonstrates that what is emitted from the dipole, from its moment of creation at the origin, is a continuous flow of EM energy in all directions in 3-space.59 This energy continuously flows from the dipole, indefinitely or as long as the dipole physically exists. Other than paying once to initially separate the charges and make the dipole, we have neither added nor input any additional energy. Yet energy continues to flow out from the dipole in all directions, unceasingly, as shown by the continued of the reading on each field energy density instrument, once the leading edge of the energy outpour reaches that instrument and passes it by. In short, the experiment shows that it is not a "pulse" that passes each instrument, but a continuous and sustained flow of EM energy, remaining steadily thereafter so long as the dipole remains.

One year after making the dipole, the instruments at one light year distance suddenly read, and their readings remain. The energy density of a volume ofspace one light year in radius has now been changed, and that change in spatial energy density continues to spread outwards at light speed.

59 More exactly, what is observed is a spreading change in the energy density and point-like polarization of the vacuum itself, and of the local curvature of spacetime. At each point, once the change of energy density and ST curvature occur, the energy density and ST curvature remain fixed in a new equilibrium condition, steadily fed by the energy radiating from the dipole. See our point made in {181}. The discovery of giant negentropy {12} requires a change in how we view the very process of energy propagating in space. Now it has become a quite different propagation of energy circulation between time and space domains at each affected point in space.

Yet there has been no input of observable 3-space EM energy flow to the dipole whatsoever, as our instruments also verify. All observable energy flow in 3-space is outward from the origin where the dipole is located.

We have shown that the observable EM energy flow from a source dipole is not conserved in 3-space, which is consistent with a broken 3-symmetry since symmetry implies conservation. Either we must discard the conservation of energy law altogether, or it must be conserved in 4-space since we have proven the dipole does not conserve energy in 3-space. If we assume that the experiment must conform to the conservation of energy law, then 4-symmetry EM energy flow must exist since 3-symmetry energy flow is broken. The energy steadily pouring out of the dipole in all directions in 3-space must therefore be received by the dipole chargesfrom the time-domain,61 assuming we are working in Minkowski 4-space. In particle physics, this is essentially the same as receiving the energy from the virtual domain, and therefore is consistent with the proven broken symmetry of every dipole and dipolarity.

The energy flow is indeed received from the time domain, as we have argued {189} in a wave manner consistent with (i) quantum field theory as shown by Mandl and Shaw in the photon model {190}, (ii) broken charge conjugation symmetry of particle physics using the virtual photon and observable photon concepts, and (iii) a re-interpretation of Whittaker's decomposition of the scalar potential {191} when applied to the scalar potential between the ends of the dipole {12}.

We state the obvious: A dipole is a Maxwellian system. This gedanken experiment also proves by demonstration that a Maxwellian system — e.g., a dipole — is permitted by the laws of nature, physics, and thermodynamics to output more energy than the operator inputs, since we

60 Obviously, we are utilizing the prevailing notion of the flow of energy through

3-space, which is actually a non sequitur. No 3-space observable entity can "move" in 3-space alone; it requires time to move, and so any movement is in 4-space a priori. We previously discussed this and the dldt operator being applied by the observation process. But for simplicity, we are using the conventional view here, so the negentropy of the dipole can be easily grasped.

61 Again, we have stated the positive time case only. In the spreading special

4-circulation, energy appears in 3-space at each point dipole from the time domain (courtesy of the action of the negative charge of the dipole), and then returns from 3-space back to the time domain (courtesy of the action of the positive charge, which is a time-reversal of the action of the negative charge).

input nothing to the source dipole62 once we have made it. After paying to produce the dipole initially, the operator has made no other energy input to the dipole at all, yet the dipole will continue to pour out observable energy in 3-space for the next 14 billion years if the dipole remains and is not destroyed. In addition, every positive charge and every negative charge in the universe form a dipole, regardless of the separation distance between them. That dipole is also performing the gedanken experiment process. Every dipolar EM circuit contains innumerable such dipoles — e.g., across "open paths" between the various points in the circuit, as shown by Kron {192}. Kron {193} stated:

"... the missing concept of "open-paths " (the dual of "closed-paths") was discovered, in which currents could be made to flow in branches that lie between any set of two nodes. (Previously -following Maxwell - engineers tied all of their open-paths to a single datum-point, the 'ground'). That discovery ofopen-paths established a second rectangular transformation matrix.. which created lamellar'currents... " "A network with the simultaneous presence of both closed and open paths was the answer to the author's years-long search."

By considering all dipoles in the universe, one has in fact finally defined Kron's open path. One has also defined the master mechanism responsible for the incredible EM energy density of the vacuum — the so-called "zero-point EM energy". Overall, every electrical circuit thus has innumerable energy flow broken 3-symmetries in it, with respect to exchange of EM energy flow between the time and 3-space domains. To sum all these broken 3-symmetries to an overall net 3-symmetry during the discharge of the free excitation energy of the circuit, obviously requires some specific macroscopic cohering function in the circuit. Moreover, one exists. Specifically, the closed current loop between the external circuit attached to the generator and the internal source dipole created between the terminals of the generator, is what enforces the circuit's net 3-symmetry and Lorentz symmetrical regauging. That is an arbitrary man-made condition, and not a law of nature, physics, or thermodynamics.

62 Or to a charge with its clustering virtual charges of opposite sign, if we redo the experiment with a single "isolated" observable charge and consider it more exactly as a set of composite dipoles, each of which exhibits broken symmetry in the vacuum virtual particle flux.

By our gedanken experiment's demonstration and the existence of innumerable disequilibria between the active environment63 and the system in an ordinary EM circuit, it follows that a Maxwellian circuit must be capable of exhibiting a coefficient of performance (COP) of COP>1.0. It is a giant collection of open dissipative systems, far from equilibrium in the vacuum exchange.

That concept of course is contrary to the entire present mindset of electrical engineering and Maxwell-Heaviside-Lorentz classical electrodynamics. Those disciplines merely continue to accept the source charge as if it freely created from nothing all that energy in its associated fields and potentials reaching across the universe. Ironically, so long as the giant negentropy of the common dipole and its disequilibrium with its active environment (the local active vacuum and the local active curvatures of spacetime) are unaccounted, engineers and scientists will continue to produce the inane Lorenz/Lorentz-regauged power systems they produce today and have produced for more than a century. Also, they will continue — wittingly or unwittingly — to implicitly prescribe that every charge and dipole in the universe violates the conservation of energy law and is thus a perpetuum mobile of the grossest kind: a system which massively and continuously creates EM energy from nothing.

We now point out something deeper and very important. In modern physics, the observed positive charge is regarded as the time reversal of the observed negative charge. See Figure 3-2. If the negative charge is responsible for EM energy flow from the time-domain into 3-space, then as observed the positive charge must represent a time-reversed situation. We observe time reversal in the charge domain as a parity reversal and a charge reversal, but with the energy remaining positive. In other words, one imagines that one records a process on videotape, and then runs the video backwards to observe the "time-reversed" situation. When observed, both the sign of the positive charge and its direction of motion appear to us to be reversed from the negative case.

63 In paragraph 3.10 and in Chapter 9 we will introduce — more deeply — the notion of the supersystem, consisting of three parts: (1) the system and its dynamics, (2) the active vacuum and its dynamics, and (3) the active spacetime curvatures and their dynamics. All three components of the supersystem interact with each other. In our gedanken experiment, the system (component 1) must receive the excess energy from the system's external environment, which consists of components 2 and 3 of the supersystem.

It follows that the positive charge as observed involves a flow of (positive) energy from 3-space back to the time domain. If we wish, before observation we can accept that "observed positive energy inflow" as an unobserved outward radiation of negative energy. Thus, a dipolarity involves a continuous flow of energy from the time domain into 3-space, and back from 3-space into the time domain (Figure 3-2). The energy flow circuit (circulation) is completed by a remaining energy flow across the dipolarity in the time-domain only, from the positive charge where the energy enters the time domain, to the negative charge where it exits again

Figure3-2 Circulation of energyflow in a dipole, between time domain and 3-space.

64 Rigorously, we should speak of +qt and -qt. Charge q is an observable, and therefore an instant frozen snapshot. No observable exists continuously in time, but instead it recurs continually as the photon interactions — iteratively producing the d/dt (LLLT) = LLL observations — continue. The moment a charge q absorbs a photon, it changes to qt in form. The moment the charge-time qt emits a photon, it changes back to q in form. This incessant change of q -> qt -> q -> qt —» is continual, at every level of the macroscopic charge, with its entire ensemble of photon interactions, including both virtual and observable photon interactions. As can be seen, the "charge as it persists" and "moves through time" has a rich dynamic substructure essentially ignored in present electrodynamics. It is, however, recognized by leading theoreticians and Nobelists.

However, even each of the clustering virtual charges and each of the differential charges of the observable charge, may be further broken into a central charge and clustering charges of opposite sign, in the modem view of the vacuum and its polarization. Hence, at any level — electron or positron — we actually have a dual and slightly separated bidirectional flow, at least in the observable equilibrium condition. The "positive energy" and positive flow of time is usually associated with "inert" matter with the electrons on the outside, so that the observer observes normal matter through the "forward time" situation mostly. Hence much of the accompanying backwards or time-reversed flow — from the positive charges in the nuclei, etc. — is "buried in the vacuum virtual state" in the Dirac sea and in Dirac sea hole flows.

Indeed, the vast hierarchy of nested structures and nested dynamics in charge as it exists in the vacuum, is recognized in physics, as is the fact that it involves infinite energy. E.g., quoting Nobelist Weinberg {194}:

"[The total energy ofthe atom]... depends on the bare mass and bare charge ofthe electron, the mass and charge that appear in the equations ofthe theory before we start worrying about photon emissions and reabsorptions. But free electrons as well as electrons in atoms are always emitting and reabsorbing photons that affect the electron s mass and electric charge, and so the bare mass and charge are not the same as the measured electron mass and charge that are listed in tables of elementary particles. In fact, in order to accountfor the observed values (which of course are finite) ofthe mass and charge ofthe electron, the bare mass and charge must themselves be infinite. The total energy ofthe atom is thus the sum of two terms, both infinite: the bare energy that is infinite because it depends on the infinite bare mass and charge, and the energy shift... that is infinite because it receives contributions from virtual photons of unlimited energy."

Here again we have met Kron's "open path" in a new and unrecognized form.

Hopefully we now are in a position to rigorously define charge — or try to — for the first time in physics.65 Charge is the ongoing circulation of EM energy flow between the time and 3-space domains, as seen by the observer. Negative charge is the ongoing absorption of positive EM energy input from the time domain (from ict), transduction of the absorbed energy into positive 3-space EM energy, and re-emission of the EM energy in all directions in 3-space. Positive charge is the ongoing absorption of EM energy input from 3-space, transduction of the absorbed energy into the time domain, and re-emission of the EM energy in the time domain. Or contrary-wise, one may regard the positive charge as the ongoing absorption of negative EM energy input from the time domain, transduction of the absorbed negative energy into 3-space, and re-emission of the negative EM energy in all directions in 3-space. The negative charge then absorbs the negative EM energy impinging on it from 3-space, and transduces it into negative energy flowing back into the time domain.

Any overall curvature of spacetime, as seen by the observer, results in one of the two flows predominating as seen by the observer. Usually, at COP < 1.0, this Dirac sea hole current does not bother our circuit's operation, but remains confined to the local vacuum. It is often not bothersome or is minor for other than very high COP's. The reason is that, for such moderate and small COP's, most of the Dirac sea hole currents react either with (i) the seething local vacuum virtual particle cauldron, or (ii) the atoms in the material lattice to form lattice holes.

As the COP increases, the fraction of Dirac holes interacting with the lattice to form lattice holes increases. As the COP further increases greatly, a large fraction of the Dirac sea holes do not react with the local vacuum cauldron (they become stable forms in that cauldron) or the lattice, but flow into the input section of the system to react with and "eat" incoming electrons from the external power source.

If the inflow of electrons is insufficient to fill the arriving Dirac sea hole current at the input section, the hole current passes back into the feeder line and into the distant power source, eating electrons all the while. This

65 This is still a first order, macroscopic definition. For a more comprehensive statement, one must spell out the hierarchy and dynamics of the virtual state, the participating mass of the charged particle and its generatrix, the operations and dynamics of the d/dt observation operator, etc. We have not yet succeeded in getting all that into a single reasonable but sufficiently short statement!

includes eating electrons in the distant power source, which simply "sees" that it must furnish additional current and voltage (power) toward the distant circuit or system.

In that operational COP region where strong interaction with the lattice occurs, the attachment of the lattice positron (lattice hole) to the mass of the atom or other ion, results in a very sluggish response of the overall ion with EM fields, compared to the response of an electron or a negative energy state electron hole (Dirac sea hole). Hence much of conventional electrical power circuit theory ignores the lattice holes and hole currents which no longer have negative energy because they have reacted and been "observed". Semiconductor designers, however, account for it and handle it in the semiconductor (in a given range of operation) primarily by the use of donor and acceptor materials.

At COP»1.0, however, the Dirac sea hole current must be strongly taken into account because it produces substantial and novel new effects in the power system itself. This Dirac sea hole current "flows in reverse" with respect to the circuit — from output back to the input. In short, it flows through the vacuum from the output section of a unitary COP»1.0 system, back through the middle section of the system, and back into the input section where it "eats" incoming electrons from the external power supply. The power supply thus must furnish electrons to "kill (power the killing of) the Dirac sea hole current arriving in the input section", while still furnishing the necessary amount of additional electrons to power the circuit's losses and loads.

The hole current arriving back in the input section of the unit poses an additional "power system load". These holes must be filled with incoming electrons (which disappear into the Dirac sea hole in the vacuum without radiation, due to the concomitant relaxation or change of the local curvature of spacetime) before any incoming electrons are left to power the circuit in normal fashion. So the hole current appears as a highly undesired extra "load" formed in the input and "eating input power from the external power supply".

We further discuss this situation and how to deal with it, in Chapter 9.

Finally, we propose a formal modification of the concept of "EM energy flow through space" (perhaps the first since its formulation independently by Heaviside and Poynting). The EM energy flow connected with the charge is a circulation of EM energy flow between the time domain and 3-space and back, as a result of dipolarity. This 4-circulation flow occurs at every point in 3-space (at every point dipole in the 3-space vacuum).

The formation of an observable charge results in an immediate, continuing, spreading re-organization (polarization) of the polarization of the vacuum virtual particle flux itself. It is this spreading polarization of the vacuum — and its accompanying giant negentropy EM energy flow circulation in 4-space connected with the spreading dipolarity and the observable "source" charge — that moves outward in all directions at the speed of light in 3-space from the newly formed charged particle or group of them.

We also define charge itself as that continuously spreading dipolarity in

3-space66 accompanied by the giant negentropy EM energy flow

4-circulation from the time domain to 3-space and back.

The giant negentropy circulation in 4-space — represented by the spreading vacuum point-polarization and hence broken 3-symmetry — is what (observably) moves out in all directions from the newly formed observable charge. Since we "observe" only the 3-space aspect, we "see" it as the spreading appearance of 3-space EM energy (the polarization change of the vacuum itself) moving in 3-space, because we "see" it as the iteratively observed frames of a motion picture. As observed, that is one way of expressing it. As it actually exists and happens prior to observation? 7the so-called "flow of EM energy in space" is not that at all. It is the radial spread of the appearance of a giant 4-space negentropy EM energy flow circulation between the dipoles formed in the polarization of space. In that process, the special 4-symmetry between time and space is maintained but with broken 3-energy flow symmetry and broken time-energy flow symmetry with respect to the 3-space observer.

66 I.e., the spreading partial restructuring and re-organization of the vacuum energy or energy flux.

67 The sharp-eyed reader will note that we clearly distinguish between the operation of a "tree falling in the forest" without an observer to see it, and a "tree falling in a forest" as an observer sees it. Without observation, there is no observed tree, no observer, and no "observed falling". Yet there exists the "tree x time", the "observer x time", and the "falling x time" whether or not their observation occurs with its resulting d/dt differentiation operation. One set (the causal set) is 4-spatial, and the other set (the event set after observation) is 3-spatial. The cause is 4-spatial and unobserved, and the effect is 3-spatial and observed. They are not the same, though related by the d/dt observation operator and by the interaction of the 4-space cause with a previous 3-space frozen observation to change it to a new 3-space frozen observation. Note that one can and does have a cause without an effect in any legitimate theory of causality, but not an effect without a cause. The cause only assumes the potential for interaction and observation, whereas the effect assumes that the interaction has occurred, yielding the observation as the effect.

The 4-circulation (giant negentropy) of the EM energy flow "from" or "connected with" a charge, is intimately connected with the spin of the charged particle, since the charged particle spins in both the time domain and in 3-space, as discussed in paragraph 3.3 below. We believe the spin itself is the basic giant negentropy generator.68 If that hypothesis is true, then giant negentropy, the circulation of EM energy between time-domain and 3-space and back, broken 3-symmetry and broken time-energy symmetry (as seen by the observer), the flow of EM energy through space (as observed), the nature of charge itself, and polarization of the quantum mechanical vacuum are all just different sides of the same coin.

Without amplification, we state that his giant negentropy outflow process has additional important ramifications in electrodynamics, general relativity, particle physics, and unified field theory. However, we leave further discussion of the subject for a future paper or book and for the advanced theorists.

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