## Charging and Discharging a Capacitor

In electronic circuits, we usually think of charging a capacitor with electrons, and then discharging the capacitor to emit electrons again. However, we can charge the same capacitor with Dirac sea holes, or with a combination of Dirac sea holes and electrons. Then we can switch the capacitor adroitly and force it to give us back electrons. This "regauging" effect can thus be used to transduce negative energy current into positive energy current. So let us examine the charging and discharging process more closely. This is part of the Bedini process for handling the 4-hole

260 Mostly physicists think only of the spatial energy change. However, the time domain of spacetime also acts as a sink or source. Essentially one kilogram of mass only has the energy of 1 second of time. Hence the minuscule mass of the electron results in such a minuscule "sink" in the time domain that it has been inadvertently ignored. However, during that fraction of time where the electron exists as "mass time" and "charge time", it has considerable time energy, and that curvature of local spacetime cannot be neglected with respect to supersystem interactions.

current problem in overunity EM systems, to allow close-looping a system into self-powering operation.

Figure 9-6 Normal strain in a dielectric capacitor that charges with electron current

Figure 9-6 Normal strain in a dielectric capacitor that charges with electron current

Figure 9-6 shows the normal strain induced in a capacitor containing a dielectric between its plates. We charge the left plate with electrons, which repel the negative ends of the molecules in the dielectric, straining them to the right.

Figure 9-7 Strain relief in a charged dielectric capacitorthat discharges.

Figure 9-7 Strain relief in a charged dielectric capacitorthat discharges.

Figure 9-7 shows the relief of this dielectric strain, by allowing the piled electrons on the left plate to be pushed back into the circuit from the left plate. Note that the electrons emitted in the relaxation of the dielectric strain pass back into the circuit from the same plate that was charged. This is a special kind of "reflection" symmetry. For a perfect capacitor, the total

Vq joules stored in the charged capacitor and drawn from the circuit, is returned to the circuit.

Figure 9-8 Strain in a diel ectric capacitor supersystem that charges by Dirac hole current and lifted Dirac electrons

Figure 9-8 Strain in a diel ectric capacitor supersystem that charges by Dirac hole current and lifted Dirac electrons

Figure 9-8 shows a remarkable thing when we charge the capacitor with Dirac sea holes. Suppose we charge the rightmost plate of the same capacitor used before, while the leftmost plate is temporarily disconnected from the circuit (or connected to another capacitor). Now Dirac Sea holes pile up in the local vacuum connected with the right plate. Whether or not they interact with the right plate, these positively charged holes attract the negative ends of the dielectric molecules, again straining the top of the dielectric molecules to the right. The strain of the dielectric is a force interacting upon the local vacuum, and it lifts real electrons from the Dirac Sea (or pulls them from the circuit or other attached capacitor) and onto the leftmost capacitor plate. The charged capacitor in its supersystem thus has additional functions that occur. The total Vq joules stored in the charged capacitor, were this time drawn (converted) from the applied Dirac hole current and the resulting interaction upon the vacuum, to lift real electrons onto the leftmost plate.261

261 The reader should recall that a force is something automatically produced by nature to restore symmetry to a broken symmetry condition. A "4-hole negative energy force in the Dirac Sea" produced on one plate of the capacitor will evoke a "positive energy force outside the Dirac Sea" on the other plate as an attempt to restore symmetry. To produce this "positive energy force", positive energy electrons are lifted from the local Dirac Sea of that plate.

Figure 9-9 Strain relief in a dielectric supersystem that discharges after charging by Dirac holecurrent and lifted Diracelectrons.

Figure 9-9 shows the strain relief of the charged capacitor in Figure 9-8. First the charged capacitor is re-connected to the circuit or element to which one desires to provide with electron current. The strained dielectric relaxes, and electrons in the leftmost plate are returned to the circuit. The Dirac holes in the rightmost plate discharge back into the local vacuum (a supersystem interaction) and are "eaten" immediately by the readjustment of local curved spacetime.262

The result is that the Dirac sea 4-hole current arriving in the input section has been intercepted by a waiting capacitor, and has been effectively transposed into normal electron current that is furnished back to the input section from the capacitor. This additional electron current helps power the circuit and reduces the power drawn from the external power source. The 4-hole current feeding this capacitor, together with transduction of the 4-hole current into electron current, effectively comprises a true negative resistance process. In other words, energy in unusable (in this case, detrimental) form is received, transformed into energy in usable (beneficial) form, and that usable energy is discharged back into the circuit input to assist in powering the system.

Transducing negative energy into positive energy — and vice versa — in the system does not violate the conservation of energy law in the

262 From experiments, it seems that Dirac holes forming at the "output" section of a COP<1.0 device or system are almost instantly filled with electrons in the violent fluctuations of the zero-point energy. When forming at the "input" section of a COP>1.0 device, this is not the case, and usually the holes can only be filled by incoming electrons in the power input, unless special provisions are taken to convert the arriving hole current (in the input section) into electron current.

supersystem, when most generally stated. With such regauging (which involves supersystem reactions), it is the absolute value of the energy that is conserved in the system, not its algebraic sign. Regauging (by gauge freedom) is after all an effect or condition locally imposed, but with appropriate energy exchange with the rest of the external universe via spacetime curvature dynamics exchange and vacuum dynamics exchange. The algebraic sign is conserved in the universal supersystem by the additional compensating reactions occurring in the other two components of the universe's supersystem.

The reader should strongly realize that energy is only required to be conserved in the universe's supersystem, not the system component alone. Again, this is an open system far from equilibrium with its active environment. In that case, energy is conserved in the ensemble of system and environment, but not necessarily in the system itself. This is no stranger than a common windmill or waterwheel.

Figure 9-10 Strain in dielectric in a capacitor supersystem that chargeswith a mix of electroncurrent,Dirachole current,and lifted Diracelectrons.

Figure 9-10 Strain in dielectric in a capacitor supersystem that chargeswith a mix of electroncurrent,Dirachole current,and lifted Diracelectrons.

Figure 9- 10 shows a "mix-charging" variant of the 4-hole current charging of a capacitor, in which some real electrons are fed from the circuit to the left plate. Also, the Dirac sea hole current arriving in the input section is intercepted to charge the right plate, and some electrons are also freely lifted from the local Dirac Sea onto the left plate. Figure 9-11 shows the discharge of this type of charging of the capacitor, and the relief of the strain in the dielectric.

Figure 9-11 Strain relief in a dielectric that discharges after charging of capacitor supersystemwith mix of electron current, Dirac hole current, and lifted Dirac electrons.

Figure 9-11 Strain relief in a dielectric that discharges after charging of capacitor supersystemwith mix of electron current, Dirac hole current, and lifted Dirac electrons.

In Figure 9-11, for example, we accent that the holes on the right plate are maintained only so long as there is a net strain on the dielectric and a net force across the capacitor. When the capacitor is discharged, the holes are discharged into the local vacuum in such a way that they now instantly recombine with virtual Dirac electrons in the vacuum fluctuations.

There are other ways and "tricks" of transducing the Dirac sea hole 4-current into electron current, but these methods are still proprietary to Bedini and will not be included in this presentation. We accent that all such "tricks" are actually methods of re-engineering the other two components of the supersystem — the active local vacuum and the local curvature of spacetime. This is using and applying what we have referred to as "engines".

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