Charging and Excitation Considerations For Cold Fusion Purposes

So there are several new types of charge or excitation that are involved in cold fusion and other phenomena. One may speak of charging and excitation such as gravitational charging, time charging, time-energy excitation, time-energy charging, etc.

Both the longitudinal photon and the scalar (time-polarized) photon are in fact known in physics, but usually neglected, at least at the end of calculations. E.g., Gray {612} puts it this way about the four kinds of photon polarizations and the habitual elimination of the higher ones:

All that quantum theory can say is that there are two transverse photons, a longitudinal photon and a scalar photon. It must be decided by other means which are "desirable" states and then it is customary to "eliminate" the longitudinal and scalar photons by invoking a subsidiary condition, now somewhat weakened from the Dirac form.

For our purpose in examining the cold fusion experiments, there exists a completely unsuspected "time-charge" set of excited states for an atomic electron, a proton (as in an H+ ion), etc.297 There also exists a "time-structuring" of the time-charge excited time-state, which we will see is important in certain highly anomalous instrument phenomena. Uncovering this time-charging and time-structuring interaction has been one of the major results of this author's long effort to decipher the functioning of the healing (cellular regeneration) system of the body as well as his efforts to decipher the fundamental nuclear transmutation mechanism in cold fusion transmutation interactions at feeble spatial energy.

In summary: For longitudinal photon interaction, the atomic electron "absorbs" the longitudinal photon and its accompanying scalar photon, being simultaneously spatial-energy excited (charged) by the longitudinal photon and time-energy excited (time-charged) by the scalar photon. This time-excited state (of masstime) then subsequently decays, emitting a longitudinal photon accompanied by a scalar photon in the process.

297 See again footnotes 287, 288, and 289. From our mechanism propelling a mass through time, time-charging and discharging play the causal role. The acquisition of dt by mass m produces masstime mt, then the subsequent photon emission decay of mt back to m produces "propagation of mass m forward through time" by one "jump". Time charging with -dt and subsequent photon emission is what produces "propagation of mass m backwards through time" by one "jump". Evans et al. proved that even up to the micron scale physical particles and their dynamics can run backwards in time for up to two seconds or more. The fluctuation theorem proved by Evans and his colleagues in 1993 shows us that, at the scale of a proton and neutron, there can become a high probability of significant time reversal of the physical dynamics. This means that the law of attraction and repulsion of charged particles

-such as two H+ ions in solution — "runs backwards" or is reversed, so that momentarily like charges attract and unlike charges repel. We have called the region in which this reversing of the physics occurs a time reversal zone (TRZ). With the reccentwork of Evans et al., the existence and occurrence of TRZs even well above the proton (the H+ ion ) level is now clearly established, including the reversing of the physical dynamics. These concepts have not yet been applied to cold fusion interaction results by the leading cold fusion researchers, but they now stand as explaining the most probable mechanism for the observed phenomena. In this Chapter we have written some of the typical new nuclear reactions that can occur in such a TRZ, and the exact products of these reactions are widely reported in several hundredsuccessfulcoldfusionexperiments.

We shall return to time-charging and time-charge decay when we examine and explain the odd instrumental anomalies experienced for some time in experiments at China Lake.

10.4 Time Reversal Zone and New Nuclear Reaction Mechanisms

It follows that the flow of a mass through positive time must involve a preponderance of reactions with photons rather than antiphotons, since net absorption and re-emission of photons (rather than antiphotons) is involved. Otherwise, the absorbing and emitting mass would not accomplish little "jumps" forward in positive time.

Suppose we deliberately arrange a situation where the target mass is interacting with a preponderance of antiphotons. In this case, the mass will be time-reversed, as will be the EM energetics. 298 This leads us to the novel concept of a time reversal zone just described in footnote.

A time-reversal zone (TRZ) is a region of space, or electrolyte, etc. in which given masses or charges of interest are interacting on the average with more antiphotons than photons. Consequently, in the TRZ the usual EM energetics are reversed and normal charge reactions appear to "run backwards" insofar as the spatial 3-space observer is concerned.

For example, in electrolytes in a region of highly loaded positive charges in a loading palladium lattice with properly prepared surface, a very great number of double surfaces exist. Hence a great number of scalar interferometries continually occur from that large number of double surfaces acting as scalar interferometers {613}. Because of the highly excess positive charge loading, these interferometers are predominately fed by negative EM energy from the positive charges. Hence, in the distant interference areas in the electrolyte outside the palladium lattice, some

298This is not time-travel in the classical science fiction sense. For time-travel, the traveling object must remain moving in its own forward time, while the entire remainder of the universe must be reversed in its time and must move backward in time to a past coordinate. That is not what is happening here, and no one is suggesting we can time-reverse the rest of the universe! Instead, energy can be reversed in time, as proven in nonlinear phase conjugate optics. So can mass-energy and charge-energy, as shown by the Dirac theory of the electron. An observed positron is an electron observed while traveling backwards in time, so to speak, with respect to the observer. But it is observed in observer forward time as traveling in the opposite spatial direction, having positive mass and positive energy, and with the sign of its charge reversed from negative to positive.

negative energy fields and negative energy potentials are produced dominantly. An excess of antiphotons is produced in those interference zones where an excess of antiphotons appear due to the scalar interferometry. In those little interference zones, the simple positive ions are momentarily bathed in an excess of antiphoton interactions. This is therefore a time-reversal zone of momentary time-reversed EM energy flow.

From a palladium lattice loaded with H+ or D+ ions, and also having a proper surface with many work grooves and thus many small interferometers, random fluctuations in the scalar interferometry occur in the adjacent electrolyte. Some of these random scalar interferometries continually form fleeting time reversal zones (TRZs) in their interference zones in the surrounding electrolyte. The very large energy required for the formation of each TRZ and its reversal of the normal laws of attraction and repulsion of charges, is available from conversion of time energy from the time domain as a result of the giant negentropy mechanism in 4-space ongoing in the loaded positive charges (614, 615} in the palladium lattice.

Figure10-1 Forces on nuclei of si mple ions in time-forward and time-reversal zones.

See Figure 10-1. In Figure 10-la, two hydrogen ions (two free H+ protons) in a normal electrolyte and in a normal time-forward zone are shown. The

Coulomb barrier dramatically increases the forces of repulsion between the two H+ ions as their kinetic energy may be driving them momentarily toward each other. This Coulomb barrier becomes so strong that it stops the approach of the two ions and forces them back apart, or to deviate aside from their paths, before each can ever enter the very short-ranged strong force region of the other. Consequently no nuclear reaction occurs, but only a common chemical reaction. The maintenance of that Coulomb barrier is all that prevents energetic ions from being driven together closely enough to engage the strong force and cause the ions to form a new nucleus (cause a transmutation).

Now see Figure 10-lb, for the same two ions that suddenly find themselves in a momentary time-reversal zone (TRZ). In a temporary TRZ, suddenly like charges attract and unlike charges repel, exactly in reverse of the normal behavior of charge attraction and repulsion. The usually increasing Coulomb barrier (repulsive force between the two approaching H+ ions) has disappeared and been replaced by an increasing Coulomb attractor (attraction force). Further, the strong force has been partially reversed and much weakened since the gluon forces are dramatically reduced and fluctuating.299 The attractive strong force is now a partially repulsive force and so it is much weaker. Consequently, the quarks in a proton or neutron are not nearly so strongly bound as they are in a normal time-forward zone (TFZ).

A TRZ represents a highly time-charged excited local state in that local region of the electrolyte. The moment a TRZ is formed, the surrounding ions in the electrolyte outside the TRZ immediately move or deviate their movements to reverse this TRZ action300 and convert it back to a time-forward zone (TFZ). Hence once it is born in the electrolyte, the TRZ decays rapidly due surrounding ion movement changes, and even more

299 Again we stress the tremendous energy density of the time-energy involved. These cold fusion interactions are actually higher total energy reactions than nuclear physics presently uses, even though the spatial energy density of the reactions is very small. Together with the now-proven fluctuation theorem of Evans et al., the TRZs and reversal of the normal Coulomb barrier into a Coulomb attractor open up a vast new nuclear chemistry of direct nuclear transmutation reactions at low spatial energy but at very high tempic energy. The ability to directly engineer the quarks and the gluon forces, e.g., opens up a new chemistry of direct subparticle engineering heretofore considered quite impossible by chemical means.

300 Their approach increases the fraction of photon reactions relative to antiphoton reactions, since the other ions are moving in a TFZ on the average.

rapidly due to the rapid variation in the fluctuating scalar interferometers in the loaded palladium lattice. In most cases, the random fluctuation in the scalar interferometry is so rapid that the TRZ decays back to a normal TFZ before the two approaching H+ ions can reach each other (reach each other's reduced strong force repulsion region). However, in a certain percentage of approaches, the two approaching like-charged ions will "reach each other" — i.e., each will enter the weakened strong force region of the other before decay of the TRZ occurs.

See Figure 10-2. In Figure 10-2a, we show the case in which the TRZ lasts long enough for the two H+ ions to reach each other's strong force repulsion zones and form a quasi-nucleus. Here they vibrate back and forth in a dynamic dance around the zero net force axis between their repulsive strong forces and their attractive Coulomb forces. In this case, a new kind of nuclear reaction is set up to occur. Decay from this excited quasi-nucleus state in a TRZ can occur into a real nucleus in a normal TFZ. Energetically, because the quarks are so loosely bound now301 the preferred decay mechanism when TRZ -> TFZ is by appropriate quark flipping.

As a little bit more time passes, the interferometry changes and the TRZ

decays, returning back to a normal TFZ. In a change from TRZ to TFZ, the energy change is enormous because time-energy is involved, with energy density equal to mass. The only difference in a proton and a neutron is the orientation of one quark (three quarks make up each of the particles). As TRZ decay starts and progresses, the strong force changes back to a powerful attractive force. It increases its strength far more powerfully and quickly than the Coulomb attractive force reduces its reversal and changes back to a repulsive force. The addition of the extra energy from the now-increasing strong attraction force simply causes one nearly-freed quark in one of the two H+ ions to flip, converting that H+ ion into a neutron n.

Instantly the preferred decay product is the deuterium ion D+. So the H+ and the n simply draw a bit closer together, each now fully inside the

301 To appreciate the sheer raw power of the time-energy control of interactions, simply examine the enormous spatial energy density required in high energy physics to try to approach the "free quark" condition. Enormous and very expensive spatial energy accelerators are used, at the absolute state ofthe art. By going to the use of the extraordinarily dense time-energy, quarks can readily be freed or nearly freed in electrolytes, and they are nearly freed in more than 600 relatively simple and inexpensive cold fusion experiments {753) on the bench-top to allow new nuclear reactions by quark flipping, where a proton turns into a neutron or vice versa.

rapidly increasing attractive strong force region of the other. This converts what had been a quasi-nucleus of two H+ ions into a real D+ nucleus. This result is shown in Figure 10-2b.

Figure 10-2. Production of quasi-nucleus and its decay by quark-fl ipping into a new nucleus as the time-reversal zone decays back to a time-forward zone.

Recapitulating: As the TRZ subsequently decays back to a normal time-forward zone (TFZ), the new quasi-nucleus becomes an excited state, and decays. However, the quasi-nucleus decays by very novel means. Because of the time reversal, the energy changes induced in the decay start at each spacetime point inside the quasi-nucleus, deep inside the quarks, and proceed outward. The first interaction of the decay mechanism is with the quarks comprising the nucleons (in this case, the protons). With the gluon forces still very much weakened, quark flipping becomes the preferred decay mechanism. Hence one quark in one proton flips its orientation (that is the mechanism of decay!) and the nucleus — now a nucleus comprised of a proton and a neutron — becomes a nucleus of deuterium.

As can be appreciated, the clustering of different types of like-charged but relatively simple positive ions in TRZs in solution, with subsequent decay of the TRZ into a TFZ, initiates a revolutionary new family of nuclear reactions at low spatial energy (but very high temporal energy), completely contrary to, and not included in, the present forward-time high-spatial energy (but very low time-energy) reactions model known in particle physics.

In the future, as these new time-energy-based reactions are extended and mastered, scientists will simply assemble desired nuclides in solutions in the laboratory, at low spatial energy (but high time-energy) and at will. We point out but do not pursue further the fact that these new reactions also open up cheap, practical, electrochemical means of altering nuclear and chemical wastes. We therefore foresee a dramatic development in this area, in order to clean up the presently polluted biosphere of much of the chemical and nuclear waste contaminants.

Indeed, we propose that a very strong program in mastering these new nuclear reactions be launched and supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, so that the nuclear wastes storage problem can be permanently solved, much more cheaply, and without having to store hazardous nuclear wastes for centuries. Instead of merely talking about "out-of-the-box thinking and research", the DoE should actually do some of it, over the violent objections of the entrenched conventionalists of the national laboratories. Their own great national laboratories are the major part of the problem, not the solution, for both innovative nuclear reactions and innovative energy systems! The problem is that "in-the-box" entrenched conventionalists do not perform or allow "out-of-the-box" research that strongly threatens their vested interests.

The TRZ decay conversion of two protons into a deuteron — by easily flipping one quark in one proton — is an example of the so-called "nuclear reaction at low energy" that has been so controversial to the orthodox scientific community, even in the face of some 600 successful cold fusion experiments. Contrary to the assumption of the conventional physics community and the skeptics, these are not "low total energy" physics reactions at all. Instead, they utilize energy density on a level commensurate with that achieved in the largest accelerators available and even much higher. This is actually a much higher total energy physics than the presentconventional high energy physics heretofore known or used.

Particularly in a deuterium-enriched (deuterated) electrolyte, a variety of simple ion arrangements of D+ ions and H+ ions can occur. Many of these combinations and arrangements can and will occur in TRZs if sufficient loading of the palladium lattice is achieved. Below we will present and explain a few of these new nuclear reactions that have occurred in successful cold fusion experiments. First, to be tidy we must correct the present statement of the conservation of energy law by extending it to include time-energy.

The excess heat usually experienced in the electrolyte is explained by the added negentropy (added energy) from the time-domain, which then dissipates randomly in the solution, producing excess heating. Later we will cite strong experimental evidence for the involvement of such time charging (time-energy charging), with subsequent time-charge (time-excitation) decay as ordinary photons in cold fusion experiments.

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