Chungs Negative Resistor

A highly simplified diagrammatic illustration representing the Chung negative resistor is given in Figure 5-6. In a July 9, 1998 keynote address at the Fifth International Conference on Composites Engineering in Las

128 A possible exception is provided by Barrett's extensions {286a, 286b} of Tesla's

"potential shuttling" technique {124}, which can only be seen in higher group symmetry electrodynamics such as quaternions. However, as far as we know, Barrett has not applied energy shuttling techniques to electrical power systems.

Vegas, Dr. Deborah D. L. Chung, professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering at State University of New York (SUNY) at Buffalo and Director of the Composite Materials Research Laboratory, reported that she had observed apparent negative resistance in interfaces between layers of carbon fibers in a composite material prepared under pressure.130 The negative resistance was observed in a direction perpendicular to the fiber layers. By varying the pressure at which the composite material was prepared, Chung et al. were able to control whether the material would exhibit negative, minimal, or positive resistance. Apparent negative resistance was also observed in carbon fiber cement-matrix composites and in bare carbon fibers held together by pressure.

je negative resistor itracts energy from vacuum e half the extracted energy dipolanty n far from equilibrum with jum environment

Figure 5-6 Chung's negative resistor (diagrammatic).

A formal technical paper was later published by Wang and Chung {311}. A few years earlier a patent {312} had been issued to Chung and assigned to The Research Foundation of State University of New York, Albany, NY for a superconductive material using a laminate combination of carbon

129 Professor Chung holds the Niagara Mohawk Chair in Materials Research at SUNY and is internationally recognized for her work in smart materials and carbon composites. The reader may peruse a curriculum vitae, research work, and papers at'chung/researchl.doc.

130 The preparation of "locked-in" stress in Chung's carbon fiber material is reminiscent of Moray's similar preparation of his amorphous semiconductors with locked-in stress also.

je negative resistor itracts energy from vacuum e half the extracted energy dipolanty n far from equilibrum with jum environment

Figure 5-6 Chung's negative resistor (diagrammatic).

fibers and metal. 131 The patent mentioned mesoporous carbon filaments, strikingly similar to our previous discussion of the surprising explosion of porous silicon at the Technical University of Munich, as well as possibly a special kind of "porosity" consideration in the fiber fuse phenomenon (in the material of the fuse itself).

An initial offer on the State University of New York at Buffalo website to provide a technical package with respect to the negative resistor — for which a patent had been filed — to those submitting a nondisclosure agreement was abruptly withdrawn. The project may have been classified, or — far less likely — it may have been retained as deeply proprietary by the University. We suspect that both the technical package and the patent application have been classified by one or more U.S. government agencies.132

In our opinion, Chung's fruitful discovery deserves rigorous and continuing investigation, particularly in higher group symmetry electrodynamics and in terms of supersystem interactions to include Dirac sea hole current interactions. We also believe Chung may have been required by referees (or by declassifying authorities, if such were involved) to use the term "apparent" in the paper. The reported measurements in the technical paper do seem to unequivocally include true negative resistance with current running backwards against the voltage. It is not clear, however, whether this is Dirac hole current or electron current or a mix of both.

We also call attention to the fact that Dirac sea holes in the local vacuum — as will be discussed in Chapter 9 — will and do run backwards against the voltage. Further, such hole current can be transformed from negative energy to positive energy by the Bedini process shown in Chapter 9. The pressure used by Chung et al. in fabricating the material produces a stress potential in the material and thus decomposes into our reinterpreted Whittaker 1903 decomposition, preciously discussed. So giant negentropy is involved in the composite material, which implies that true negative resistance can be involved, at least in some operational regimes as pressure

131 We stress that the issuance of this unclassified patent does not rule out a possible negative resistor (hence C0P>1.0) patent that may have been classified. Some sensitive defense work in special materials is indeed performed at SUNY at Buffalo.

132 At least the gist of the work is not lost, however, due to Naudin's duplication of the Chung effect and placing the results and building instructions on his website in France; see

etc. are varied. Such results were found by Chung et al. and are reported in the paper.

Naudin reported independent success with a simpler variant of the Chung negative resistor {313}. This assures that at least the effect will not just be buried.

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