Concept of EM Energy Flow Through Space

The concept of the connection of EM energy and space did not occur until 1876 in a faulty work by Croll {654}. In the 1880s Heaviside {655} showed the huge nondiverged component filling all space around a circuit (see Figure 2-4 in Chapter 2). Poynting {656} never even considered the external nondiverged flow missing the circuit, but assumed only the diverged energy flow component that enters the circuit. Figure 2-4 in Chapter 2 shows both components of EM energy flow laterally, so they can be seen clearly.

It is stressed that the Heaviside nondiverged component of EM energy flow around every circuit is far greater (by many orders of magnitude) than the circuit's intercepted, diverged, and collected Poynting energy flow component. This follows from Heaviside's own original papers. So when the entire output energy flow is considered, every generator and every battery is already a COP»1.0 energy transducer, outputting far more energy flow than the rate at which mechanical energy is input to the generator shaft or the rate at which chemical energy is dissipated in the battery.

In the 1880s the electron, atom, nucleus, special and general relativity, quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, and active vacuum had not been discovered. There was no knowledge of any possible active vacuum interaction source for such an enormous energy flow pouring from the terminals of the generator or battery and surrounding the circuit, filling all space around it. Heaviside's extra energy flow component was thus shocking and inexplicable, smacking of "perpetual motion" and total violation of the conservation of energy law. Heaviside — a brilliant, self-taught hermit who never attended university - spoke cautiously and obliquely of its magnitude in terms of angles with respect to a reference direction {657}.

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