Death Knell of the Speed of Light Limitation

Another giant shock has emerged in astrophysics during the last few years, and it is now threatening a dramatic revision to physics. Heretofore, it has been fashionable to assume that gravity itself propagates at light speed. A great deal of very comfortable physics theory has been built around that assumption.

Well, the assumption is not true. Experiments in astrophysics continue to refute it. It now is almost certain that the speed of gravity is at least 2 x 1010 c. A beautiful though somewhat controversial paper by Tom Van Flandern {628} summarized the entire situation. He articulates the comfortable general relativity view held to date {629} as follows:

"...GR proposes that such changes appear to act instantaneously in the near field', but eventually show their true, light-speed-delayed character in the 'far field', which is conveniently beyond our present ability to observe. The necessity ofthis dual behavior is to prevent the logical need for changes to continue to appear to act instantaneously at ever increasing distances, even to infinity."

In fact, Van Flandern {630} points out that general relativity already admits superluminal effects in the near field region. He also pointed out the startling nature of the experimental results to relativists, and points out that an attachment to a paradigm has been involved:

"To many, this result [astronomy's verification that gravity's speed vg>=2xl010c] is so contrary to 'common sense' in the light of relativity theory as to be absurd. But Thomas Kuhn has cautioned all scientists to avoid the trap ofbecoming so steeped in aprevailingparadigm that it starts to seem like common sense and makes other ideas sound and feel wrong. Eventually, even one's professional status can become linked to a prevailingparadigm.

As Van Flandern further emphasizes, it is not difficult to show by computer calculations of astrophysical situations that any strong limit on the speed of light destroys conservation laws:

"...anyone with a computer and orbit computation or numerical integration software can verify the consequences of introducing a delay into gravitational interactions. The effect on computed orbits is usually disastrous because conservation ofangularmomentum is destroyed."

So here we have a new paradigm in the making. This is a startling change to standard relativity. Either we have to give up the conservation of angular momentum, or we have to accept superluminal speed of gravity in the far field. Years of struggle to detect quadrupole gravitational wave radiation have failed; no direct detection has ever been made. Indeed, the rather arbitrary nature of the entire quadrupole radiation assumption is not required by general relativity, as long pointed out by leading Russian scientists. For example, Vlasov and Denisov {631} et al. bluntly state it in these words:

"...Einstein's well-known quadrupole formula, which is usually employed in general relativityfor calculations, is not a consequence ofgeneral relativity and is not contained in it.

Therefore, it may not really be so surprising that physicists have not been able to detect such quadrupole radiation in a great many laboratory experiments. It is not in general relativity at all.

Of course, our thesis developed in this book is that what we have long called "EM radiation" is in fact gravitational radiation, always involving paired scalar and longitudinal photons and hence time-density waves and longitudinal EM waves. We have pointed out that prior to observation there is no such thing as a separate photon, but there is such a thing as two correlated photons, one time-polarized and the other longitudinally polarized. We believe that there is sufficient meat in our proposed explanation of the anomalous cold fusion results and the anomalous instrument results at China Lake to warrant serious and strenuous investigation of these hypotheses and proposed mechanisms.

Another oddity - usually never stated by Western physicists - has long been known but ignored. When Einstein characterized the gravitational field as a pseudotensorial field, and not a field in the sense of the Faraday-Maxwell field, the consequences were that the 3-space energy laws of the familiar kind really do not exist in general relativity. Shortly after Einstein published his theory of general relativity, this absence of familiar energy conservation was pointed out by Hilbert {632} in these words:

"I assert... that for the general theory of relativity, i.e., in the case ofgeneral invariance of the Hamiltonian function, energy equations... corresponding to the energy equations in orthogonally invariant theories do not exist at all. I could even take this circumstance as the characteristic feature of the general theory ofrelativity.

With our publication of the giant negentropy of 4-space once arbitrary 3-space symmetry and time-symmetry in EM energy flow is removed, one of the truths involved in Hilbert's remark was finally recognized. In addition, what Sen called "the most difficult problem in classical and quantum electrodynamics" {633} has been explained by giant negentropy {12}. Also, it is consistent with an appropriate reinterpretation of Whittaker's 1903 decomposition of the scalar potential {600, 615}. Finally, it is consistent with quantum field theory {634}.

Hilbert was evidently not understood by his contemporaries, since neither Einstein himself nor other physicists recognized the fact that, in general relativity, conservation laws for 3-space energy, momentum, and angular momentum — in the sense we are accustomed to in the rest of physics —in principle may be impossible. That is because one can readily remove 3-space energy symmetry when curved spacetime is permitted. Again, Russian scientists such as Logunov and Loskutov {635} have long pointed out the "unthinkable" and "astounding" fact that the predictions of general relativity are not unique.

In the West until recently relativists were conservative, and this resulted in the sidelining of innovative Western physicists who challenged the prevailing interpretation or extended it. With the experimental falsification of one of the fundamental tenets — that gravity moves at speed c in the far field — of the prevailing interpretation of general relativity, it appears that we may be approaching an asymptotic burst of great new theoretical work and a dramatic new reinterpretation. If it ever gets into production, we believe that the Fogal semiconductor will usher in that great change of communication speed paradigms that now appears imminent.

Nonetheless, general relativity — whatever the modifications and extensions now called for — will remain a very useful tool indeed. There is simply nothing else on the horizon that can replace it, string theory notwithstanding. The reinterpretation is likely to shed additional light on many present problems such as the nature of spacetime itself, the nature of dark matter, and new insight and progress on unifying physics.

In the new openness that should result, we hope that a great extension and reinterpretation of electrodynamics will also be undertaken, and that it will reveal the underlying powerful structured general relativity infolded inside conventional EM potentials, fields, and waves, as originally revealed by

Whittaker {636}. It may even be that one of the novel concepts {637} we have proposed in this book will yet see the light of day in practical systems.

If so, then hopefully much of what we are addressing in this book will be incorporated in the emerging new physics of the twenty-first century.

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