Differences between Effects in COP and COP

In this chapter, we utilize the Dirac hole in a different manner from the received interpretation. The received interpretation assumes an electron hole in the vacuum, with the hole filled with a negative energy electron therapeutic science; one company is already working in this area, with positive results.

248 We leave to the advanced theorists the connection between this "stable equilibrium state under a change in symmetrically regauged stress", occurring as a net-force-free intensity change in the conventional Lorentz symmetrical regauging of the Maxwell-Heaviside equations.

having negative mass, negative energy, and negative charge. In that interpretation, when the electron is lifted out of the hole, the hole is said to be a positive energy electron with positive mass and positive charge, (i.e., when interacted and observed). In short, with reaction one has a complete transformation of negative energy into positive energy, negative mass into positive mass, etc. In our view, this totally destroys the notion of "how the hole exists in the vacuum prior to its interaction and observation". That kind of positron only occurs after a physical interaction and observation has occurred — in short, the positron exists only after an interaction with the Dirac hole has been made, to change the very nature ofthe negative energy hole. The positron is the 3-effect of an invoked extra 4-interaction, and is not at all the "negative energy electron" or hole as it actually exists prior to being interacted and transformed. The positron is a different beast from the beast we wish to harness and use. The conventional interpretation leaves the question of the unobserved and unreacted "hole" left behind by an electron lifted out of the hole, before another interaction is performed on the hole to change it. So it is an incomplete accounting (as all observations are).

In our interpretation, the Dirac "hole" in the vacuum is itself the true negative energy electron before its interaction and observation. It is the "causal" 4-space negative energy electron, while the received interpretation is only for the "observed" or "effect" positron. In our view, the received interpretation thus leaves out a goodly part (and the most interesting part) of the Dirac sea hole. When the negative energy hole is filled, we consider the electron in the hole to be a normal, positive energy, positive mass electron. Hence the summation of the energy of the filled hole is zero, as is its summation mass and its summation charge. This accords with the properties of the "normal" vacuum, said to contain a sea of such "filled Dirac holes".

Our purpose is to use emptied Dirac sea holes before their interaction or observation, and thus to use them as causal 4-electrons having negative mass and negative energy, but where each of those quantities is multiplied by time. So the hole has negative masstime and negative action. Unless otherwise stated, that is our interpretation of a Dirac sea hole, and that will be how we use it. This way we avoid having to replace a true negative energy, negative mass, positive charge causal (unobserved) 4-electron by a positive energy, positive mass, positive charge observed (effect) 3-electron. We do not just artificially "dispose of" the question of the "nature of the hole that is left behind" when the positron is observed. We consider the (hole x time) as the fundamental negative energy 4-electron. We will sometimes refer to that as the "4-positron".

Normal "forward flow of time" tempic force

Figure 9-3 Time potential gradient across a C0P<1.0 EM system.

See Figure 9-3. In a COP<1.0 EM system, the tempic potential gradient (tempic force) is oriented from input to output and on out beyond the system. A very slight Dirac hole current moves outward from the output, but is immediately "eaten" by the virtual electron flux fluctuations of the vacuum in the space immediately adjacent to the output. There is a slight Dirac hole current also exiting the system in its losses, but again these are immediately "eaten" by the virtual electron flux fluctuations of the vacuum in the immediately surrounding space.

No excess tempic force


Lattice holes gently released. Electron-electron pairing. Well-behaved below transition temperature.


Cooper pairs, excitons

Occasional empty Dirac sea hole Vanishing current because zero tempic force


COP = 1.0 Circuit/System Output

Figure 9-4 Time potential gradient across a COP = 1.0 EM system.

See Figure 9.4. In a superconductive system or section, COP =1.0 and on the average there is no net gradient of the time potential across the system, hence no time-force across it in either direction. Accordingly, one sees ready Cooper pairing of charges and formation of excitons. We shall not concern ourselves further with the superconductive EM system; such a system has not yet produced COP>1.0.

Figure 9-5 Time potential giadientacioss a COP»1.0 EM system.

See Figure 9.5. In a COP>1.0 EM system, there is a net tempic force across the system from the output section to the input section. However, unless the COP»1.0, the hole current in the local vacuum is mostly used up in interacting with the system material and converting to lattice holes (lattice positrons). Hence at "nominal" or moderate COP>1.0, except in fast pulsed discharges one usually has little to worry about, concerning Dirac sea holes in the vacuum, since those readily convert to lattice holes as already accounted. One effect of concern is that, if the semiconductors in the system are exposed to sufficient extra lattice holes or interacting 4-holes, their donor-acceptor arrangement is disrupted, spoiling the action of the semiconductors and perhaps destroying them.

When COP»1.0 (and even for some COP>1.0 systems), then there results a substantial Dirac sea hole current in the local vacuum occupied by the system, flowing through the supersystem from the output section back to the input section. This is an additional hole current component from the

Dirac hole current component converted into lattice hole current.249 This unconverted Dirac sea vacuum hole current runs through the system from the output section back to the input section of the system and beyond. If not "filled" there in the input section by the incoming input electrons from the external power supply, the 4-hole current can and will pass on back into the feed line and to the distant external power supply, eating electrons and electron current all along the way. Usually semiconductors in the path of a substantial 4-hole current will either malfunction or be quickly destroyed.

In the input section and on back into the external power source, the effect of the unrestrained Dirac sea hole current's reaction is to interact and convert into lattice holes all along the route, which lattice holes then "eat" incoming electrons from the distant power source. Thus, the external power source "sees" the hole current as a dynamic additional load in the system's input section itself (and in the external conductors leading to it) that also must be powered with additional positive energy electron current.

249 Here we wish to recognize the perceptivity of Peter Lindemann, who recognized the importance of "cold electricity" in COP>1.0 systems without going deeply into the more technical aspects of negative EM energy. As an example, we cite his book, The Free Energy Secrets of Cold Electricity available from Clear Tech, Inc., Box 37 Metaline Falls, WA 99153, U.S.A. Particularly note his efforts to explain the Gray overunity device via the negative energy that can be associated with very strong discharges. Gray referred to this appearance of an associated negative energy component associated with the normally positive EM energy as "splitting the positive pole" (a "pole", after all, involves a stress potential). The Gray engine drawing is shown in Figure 5-14, his conversion tube is shown in Figure 5-15, and his circuit for the conversion tube is shown in Figure 5-16. As Lindemann explains, Gray also apparently succeeded in converting the negative energy into positive energy in his conversion element switching tube. Bedini's successful replication of the tube along with pertinent lab notes are shown in Figures 5-17, 5-18, 5-19, 5-20, and 5-21 by permission. Since Bedini is one of only two or three persons truly experienced in converting negative energy into positive energy, his successful replication is significant and decisive. Gray's process thus transformed negative energy into positive energy, allowing positive energy COP>1.0 self-powering systems. Bedini and the present author have filed a joint patent application filed on the process explained in this Chapter. We recognize Ed Gray as being a real pioneer in the area of COP>1.0 electrical power systems and in energy conversion. His pertinent patents are E. V. Gray, "Pulsed Cap. Electrical Discharge Engine," U.S. Patent #3,890,548, 1976; "Efficient Power Supply Suitable for Inductive Loads," U.S. Patent #4,595,975, June 17, 1986.

Aside from destruction of semiconductors etc.,250 the overall effect is to increase the draw of power and current from the external source, so that the COP» 1.0 power system is thereby converted back to a C0P<1.0 system!

The increased power draw due to the Dirac hole current can be remarkable. For an external battery power supply, if the hole current is sufficient to pass on into the battery itself, the battery may charge with negative energy while also powering the circuit! A remarkable phenomenon then takes place. A battery having been appreciably charged with negative energy may appear to be discharged (and so it is, with respect to positive EM energy). Yet, it may also continue to power a circuit. Sometimes it will, sometimes it won't, depending on the circuit. However, on connecting a normal positive energy battery charger to recharge it, the battery precharged significantly with negative energy will "eat" positive energy for an extended period, filling its localized Dirac Sea holes in its negative charge all the while, with the external voltage of the battery not changing at all. When all the negative energy holes are filled in the internal vacuum environment of the battery, and the negative energy charge is thus removed, suddenly the battery will start recharging with the input positive energy in a normal manner.

The batteries in Watson's generator (again see Figure 5-12) exhibited that phenomenon. Sometimes in recharging one of his batteries that had been extensively used, the battery would "eat" positive energy from the charger for a week or more before finally filling up its negative energy charge and then recharging normally from that point on.

The Dirac 4-hole current is nature's decay mechanism for the C0P»1.0 system, sharply bringing it back to C0P<1.0. Any successful C0P»1.0 EM system must contain a mechanism for defeating (or transducing and

250 As an example, novel effects may also happen in resistors, capacitors, and coils, and the effects depend on both the materials and construction of these components.

A resistor can act as a true negative resistor and cool rather than heat, a capacitor can have its current lagging its voltage, and a coil can have its current leading its voltage. Mixtures of all three of these effects can happen in each of the three components, since each usually has some aspects of resistance, capacitance, and inductance. The emf s and back emf s in the circuit can also be altered and disrupted in a manner varying with the individual circuit and the individual operating conditions. Nonlinear oscillations and discharges of negative energy are particularly difficult to foresee and understand. Effects in dielectrics may vary widely, as can effects in conductors because of their internal impurities, etc.

using) this Dirac sea vacuum 4-hole current into its input section and beyond. We shall cover that subject shortly. The 4-hole current decay mechanism can sometimes become significant for semiconductors in the lattice 3-hole stage at COP = 5 or more, though the exact figure varies as the type and size of system and the semiconductor type. At COP > 10 or so, some systems will frequently begin to ravage themselves back into equilibrium with the vacuum, and destroy their overunity performance, unless the 4-hole current phenomenon is dealt with.

Let us recap. We have assumed — to first order — a sweeping generalization that COP<1.0 systems exhibit an overall average spacetime curvature across the system (from input section to output section and load) such that excess positive energy electrons exist in the Dirac sea, without any appreciable accompanying excess Dirac sea holes interacting in the circuitry itself. 251 The slight excess of Dirac sea holes that are generated is "swept" forward out of the output section, and "eaten by the vacuum interaction" (particularly by the vacuum fluctuations) immediately upon exit from the output section. In that case, we do not have to concern ourselves particularly with Dirac Sea 4-holes and Dirac sea 4-hole currents, or at least they are usually negligible in most cases.252

For COP»1.0 systems, however, the overall average spacetime curvature across the system — from output section and load to input section — is such that Dirac sea 4-holes and their currents do independently continue to exist and independently flow in the local vacuum occupied by the physical system. Specifically, we shall have to consider the tempic effects upon such holes and hole currents, which are oriented from the output section back through the system to the input section.253 In the COP»1.0, the

251 In short, the requisite number of Dirac holes have interacted with and do interact with the lattices, converting into the normal "lattice hole" type of positron connected with positive mass, positive energy, but slowly migrating around the circuit in the opposite direction from the electrons. Here the true Dirac hole current exists only in short "hops" from atom to atom as the lattice holes are steadily filled by the "hopping" electrons.

252 As stated, a kind of "hole" phenomena still exists in the circuit, but now as lattice holes and currents. Since these are attached to ions each having a mass much greater than that of an electron, the lattice hole currents may usually be neglected except in semiconductors, where they are taken into account in the very design of the semiconductor component itself.

253 When we state a concept such as "negative mass" or "negative energy", we have conceptualized it as if observed. Hence, unwittingly we have made it an instantaneous, but iterated, concept. Rigorously, no such thing as mass or energy effect of the increased tempic force is to sweep a Dirac sea 4-hole current back through the system from output to input, and even on out into the conductors from the external power supply, and on further out into the external power supply itself. The 4-hole current continues its "reverse feedback into the powering end of things" until quenched by filling it with incoming electrons. This conversion of 4-hole current to filled Dirac sea 4-holes by induction of lattice holes also squelches the concomitant negative EM energy fields, potentials, and waves associated with Dirac 4-holes as sources. 254 The reason is that a filled Dirac hole is a dual system of two opposite charges, hence produces counteracting positive and negative energy fields.

The "4-hole-eating and filling process" is therefore the exact decay mechanism that squelches the natural electrogravitation associated with Maxwellian circuits which use Dirac 4-holes and 4-hole currents, negative energy fields, negative energy potentials, etc. When the circuit converts its free Dirac 4-holes into lattice holes, all electrogravity capability is lost, insofar as practicality is concerned.

For electrical power system purposes, the external environment of the C0P»1.0 system furnishes an extra "electrical load" demand upon the external power supply, so that the extended system consisting of the (external power supply + power system) decays back into overall C0P<1.0 condition and operation. For this reason, any appreciable involvement of Dirac 4-hole currents in a C0P>1.0 EM power system must be transduced into positive energy electron currents, which requires just a special form of regauging. One need not confine regauging and gauge freedom to positive energy potentials and positive energy fields alone.

From the vacuum consideration and particularly from Dirac's theory of the electron, in C0P>1.0 EM systems and circuits we shall consider that the Dirac sea 4-holes involve negative energy states (negative mass), and that positive energy states involve positive mass. In our approach, we shall consider a negative energy state (Dirac 4-hole) in the vacuum as having independently exists except at one instant in time. Instead, mass exists in a continual iteration of m —> mt —> m —> mt... and energy exists in a continual iteration of E —> Et—»E—» Et and so on. So during the masstime or energy-time (action) state, time and either mass or energy are intimately interactive. See our previous discussion in this book of the mechanism for the flow of a mass through time.

254 Obviously that kills the antigravity aspects, because it kills the negative energy fields that would give negative curvature of local spacetime.

negative mass, which means that antigravity can be involved as well.255 In this treatise, we consider only electron states, thus only negative energy and positive energy electron states.

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