Evoking the Initial BediniNegative Resistor Effect

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Figure 5-9 shows the first phase of Bedini's negative resistor process. Consider the battery in normal load-powering operation. From the external circuit, a very sharp leading edge rise of a pulse of electrons and potential is sent to the battery plates in "back-popping" or "battery charging" mode. The back-popping electrons drive in nearly instantly, piling up on the negative plate 148 and trying to force the heavy ions to start moving in the battery recharging direction. The pile-up that results in the stopped electrons on the battery plate surface represents an increase in local current density, hence an increased potential. This produces the 100 volts potential, during the time that the ions have not yet responded to any appreciable degree.

Due to much larger m/q ratio of the sluggish for a moment they lag due to their greater inertia, and this allows the much more agile electrons to "pile-up", producing a substantial overpotential as the local current density increases. The lagging ions are being steadily overpotentialized during this "lag time", up to about 100 volts in a normal 12-volt battery. At the same time, electrons are being forced back out of that higher 100-volt area and into the external circuit and its load, which had been at 12 volts. Recall now that these electrons can move longitudinally only at the drift velocity. Hence all electrons in the external circuit are now highly overpotentialized, and in load-powering mode. The overpotentialized electrons are thus producing excess power in the external circuit, much more than normal.

148 We are not using conventional "positive current and positive plate" as the high side of the potential. We are using "electron current and the negative plate" as the driving potential plate.

Free Energy Negative Resistor

1 Sharp leading edge voltage pulse produces Intense electron clustering and large potential (negative resistor) at interface Sluggish ions on\y beginning to move

2 Bidirectional Poynting energy flow from potential overpotentializes both the electron cluster and the ions, which are only beginning to move in charge mode

4 Large back emf Into circuit returns overpotentialized electron current, powering circuit with excess energy pouring from negative resistor potential Continues dunng ion delay

1 Sharp leading edge voltage pulse produces Intense electron clustering and large potential (negative resistor) at interface Sluggish ions on\y beginning to move

2 Bidirectional Poynting energy flow from potential overpotentializes both the electron cluster and the ions, which are only beginning to move in charge mode

4 Large back emf Into circuit returns overpotentialized electron current, powering circuit with excess energy pouring from negative resistor potential Continues dunng ion delay

5 Simultaneously overpotentialized ion current is overcharging battery

Figure 5-9 Phase I of the Bedim negative resistor process in a storage battery.

Then the overpotentialized ions very slowly (compared to the electrons!) slow, stop, and begin to move in the opposite direction. They reluctantly respond and move in battery recharging mode. During that ion-response lag time, and the slower initial portion of the response, the electrons in the pulse continue to furiously surge in and pile-up on the negative plate, overpotentializing both the ions and the external circuit's electrons, while also some of them are being impelled back out into the external circuit to power it with extra overpotentialized energy dissipation. The charge density at that plate sharply increases due to the pile-up where the charges are "squeezing" together (clustering). There is a much higher potential suddenly rising in the squeezed charge cluster, because of the increased charge density there. As we stated, this potential nominally may be about 100 volts during this initial phase.

We call attention to the simple equation W = VQ, where W is the potential energy added to charges Q exposed to voltage V.

Simplified, the excess energy WIONS freely impressed upon the ions is

where Q is the total coulombs of charge of overpotentialized ions and f( 100 -12) is the magnitude of the overpotentialization of the ions.

At the same time, an excess energy is impressed upon the electrons in the external circuit by the same potential extending along the conductors into the external circuit. Again, this excess energy WE is given by

where QE is the total coulombs of charge of the overpotentialized electrons and f(100 -12) is the magnitude of the overpotentialization of the electrons.

But the emf on the electrons from the pile-up is directed in load-powering direction, as can be seen. Consequently the ion current and the electron current have been deliberately dephased by 180°, and so the overpotential energy of the ions is delivered in battery-recharging mode, while the overpotential energy of the electrons is delivered in circuit load powering mode.

Recapitulating: Pulsed pile-up of excess electrons on the negative plate interface between the two currents, while the ions are beginning to respond or only sluggishly responding, produces a much higher potential (an overpotential) on the sluggish ions — nominally some 100 volts in a 12-volt battery. On the negative plate, momentarily there is now a much higher voltage (with respect to the positive plate) than normally exists in the 12-volt battery. This voltage overpotentializes both the reluctant charging ions in the battery solution between the plates, and the powering electrons back into the circuit in powering mode due to the reversal of the emf. Since there is, say, 100 volts across the battery momentarily, there is also 100 volts now across the external circuit momentarily. Accordingly, overpotential excess powering of the external circuit load is suddenly evoked, while at the same time overpotential recharging of the battery is also evoked. 149

In short, the ion current in the battery and the electron current into the external circuit have been placed 180° out of phase, achieving one major requirement for a COP>1.0 electrical system: violating the integrity of the closed current loop circuit. The battery is recharging at the same time that

149 Another of Bedini's innovations is to shunt the excess voltage (say, above 14 volts) into an external capacitor on the circuit side. In that way with his overpotential he can be (i) overcharging the battery, (ii) powering the load, and (iii) storing excess energy in that capacitor, from the altered vacuum — all simultaneously.

the external circuit is being powered, from the same free overpotential, and both recharging and circuit powering are driven by increased emf.

We strongly accent that the overpotential at the plates represents a change in the local vacuum potential, and it identically is part of that now-altered local vacuum potential. The vacuum, since it contains enormous EM energy in virtual state, is a very powerful EM potential. Any EM potential in our circuits is automatically a change to the ambient vacuum potential, or a change to another potential that is such a change to the vacuum potential. In the most exact sense, this is a method of overpotentializing the plate interface with excess energy from the vacuum, and then letting that energy flow onto the ions to recharge the battery and onto the electrons in the external circuit to power it and its load.

The Bedini overpotential at the battery plates decomposes via Whittaker 1903 {85} as reinterpreted and previously explained, so that excess energy is entering 3-space there, from the time domain. Further, the piled-up electrons on the plates and the ions (as charges) in the solution receive such potential energy from the increased potential on them via the same decomposition process. So the creation of the Bedini overpotential on the battery plates, together with dephasing the two currents, is the creation of a true negative resistor at the plates, freely receiving energy from the external vacuum (from the time domain and virtual state) and transducing it into real potential energy and emf on the internal ions and on the external circuit electrons.

Hence Bedini has invented a process for creating a true negative resistor inside a storage battery, and for suddenly thrusting the system out of equilibrium with both the active local vacuum and the active local curvatures of spacetime. As such, the thermodynamics of open systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium applies, and that system is permitted to exhibit COP>1.0, while complying with energy conservation and the laws of physics and thermodynamics. With adroit use and collection of the excess energy, the externally collected energy can be used to close-loop the system and power all its functions. So the system is permitted to power itself and its loads, with all the energy being received from the vacuum via the broken symmetry created. Any overpotential is a dipolarity a priori, since any potential is. Hence creating an overpotential is precisely producing an extra broken symmetry of that dipolarity right there at the interface between the two half-circuits and the two dephased, localized currents.

During the "back-popping" pulse signals, one should not think of the energy pulses that Bedini inputs to the battery as the "powering" energy. Instead, one must think of each pulse as "triggering" and "timing" energy which initiates certain other key negentropic interactions to freely occur, once the electron pile-up occurs. The resulting negentropic interactions then add substantial additional energy (from the local active vacuum) to the ions in the ion current and to the electrons in the electron current. The freely added energy can be appreciably more than the switching or triggering energy that is dissipated as the "input by the operator".

In short, Bedini deliberately "switches'" and "triggers" certain kinds of vacuum exchange interactions, effectively creating a true negative resistor in the battery itself.150 Due to the broken symmetry of the increased dipolarity (overpotential) that Bedini makes in "electron pile-ups" urging reluctant and delayed ion response, the vacuum furnishes extra virtual particle flux to this pile-up of electrons on the plate, which produces an enhanced Poynting energy flow that interacts with the ions in the battery electrolyte. Being charges, these ions thus transduce some of the excess absorbed virtual photon energy into real observable energy, thus increasing their potentialization and energy.

Bedini's method does the following: (i) It forms a true negative resistor in an unexpected way, upon the plates between a pile-up of electrons and the ions in solution in a common lead acid battery, (ii) it uses that negative resistor to extract excess energy from the vacuum and furnish it both to the ions forced into charging mode and simultaneously to the electrons in load powering mode, and (iii) it adds several other stimuli (such as Lenz law effects) which further amplify the negative resistor and enhance the effect, increasing the excess energy extracted from the vacuum and collected in the battery-charging process and also in the circuit-powering process simultaneously.

Specifically, the delay in ion response is adroitly allowed for and manipulated by Bedini to place the battery in ion current recharging mode while the signal pulse electrons between the plates and the external circuit are simultaneously placed in external circuit powering mode. By manipulating the hysteresis and adroitly timing the electron pulses and pulse widths, Bedini breaks the usualforcedLorentz symmetry ofthe excitation discharge in a usually closed current loop containing both the

150 Again we stress that any dipolarity or potential is a negative resistor, producing giant negentropy {12}.

battery's source dipole and the external load. This is possible since his method deliberately opens the system so that vacuum energy enters freely, increasing the potentialization (energy collection) of the ions in the battery solution and upon the electrons between the plates and the external circuit as well.

We stress that Bedini has chosen to avoid the usual dissipation of half the energy collected in the external circuit to do nothing but kill the source dipolarity between the battery plates. He works on "that half of the circuit" that is usually just called the "back emf region" and ignored, and he separates and dephases that half of the circuit from the other half. By interrupting that normal "back emf battery-discharging section dynamics and converting it to "forward emf battery recharging section dynamics, while simultaneously powering the external load, Bedini temporarily produces and utilizes a negative resistor right there on the surface of the battery plates themselves.

1 Sharp trailing edge of voltage pulse produces Intense Lenz law effect Sharply Increases electron clustering and potential (negative resistor) at interface Sluggish ions delay speedup further increasing the Lenz law effect

2 Increased bidirectional Poyntjng energy flow from potential overpotentializes even further both the electron duster and the ions, which are only beginning to accelerate in charge mode

4 Large new increased back emf into circuit returns overpotentialized electron current powering circuit with new excess energy pouring from negative resistor potential Continues during ion delay

5 Simultaneously, re-overpotentialized ion current is overcharging battery even faster

Figure 5-10 Phase II ofthe Bedini negative resistor process in a storage battery

5.8.5.7 Further Increase ofthe Negative Resistor Effect by Lenz's Law See Figure 5-10. To further increase the Phase I effectjust before it would end, and requiring precise timing of his switching of the pulse leading edge and trailing edge, Bedini then invokes a second phase by carefully controlling the timing for the sharp cutoffofthe "stimulus pulse" creating the negative resistor. This is usually invoked just as Phase I is preparing to end, but experimentation and adjustment for optimization to the individual circuit conditions may be required.

1 Sharp trailing edge of voltage pulse produces Intense Lenz law effect Sharply Increases electron clustering and potential (negative resistor) at interface Sluggish ions delay speedup further increasing the Lenz law effect

2 Increased bidirectional Poyntjng energy flow from potential overpotentializes even further both the electron duster and the ions, which are only beginning to accelerate in charge mode

Invoking the Lenz law reaction by minimizing the stimulus pulse cutoff time, Bedini sharply increases the already-increased negative resistor overpotential by a Lenz's law induced voltage surge, and sharply raises it to as much as 400 volts nominally. The process also sustains the negative resistor overpotential for a longer period, while increasing it again during this second phase. Thus even more free energy from the altered local vacuum potential is delivered to the ions in charging mode inside the battery, while simultaneously even more energy is delivered to the external circuit electrons in powering mode. The overpotential period is also extended. In this second phase, the extra energy WI0NS added to the ions in recharging mode is given by

and the extra energy WE added to the electrons in system powering mode is given by

The total energy added to the system in Phase I by the negative resistor is

Wt = Wions + We = f( 100-12)(Qe +Qions) [4-7] The total energy added to the system in Phase II by the negative resistor is

And so the total energy added to the system by the Bedini process is just the summation of equations [4-7] and [4-8]. With adroit switching, Bedini need only "pay" a small fraction of that freely received excess energy, in his own operator's input pulse energy and switching costs.

So by invoking a novel negative resistance effect directly upon the driving plate of the battery, Bedini creates (in the first phase) and then further enhances (in the second phase) a "nearly free" overpotential and overpotential period inside the battery. This excess potential directly upon the electron-pileup plate acts in both directions — out into the electrolyte between the plates to overpotentialize the ions in charging mode, and back out into the external circuit in powering mode to overpotentialize the electrons now powering the load. During a fraction of the operating cycle, Bedini recharges the battery while powering the circuit simultaneously, and thus has invented a novel method for extracting energy from the vacuum and curved spacetime to enable a C0P>1.0 power system.

This is just a description of one fundamental period where Bedini applies his negative resistance process.

Several other places in the operation of the circuit lend themselves to additional phases of negative resistor formation and usage, and Bedini does use them. We do not discuss them here, since our purpose is only to advance the fundamentalprinciple involved.

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