## Explaining Time as Energy

See Chapter 1, paragraph 1.1.3 and 1.4.1; see also Chapter 2, paragraph 2.1.3. As highlighted in the quotation from Jackson {599}, it is well known that the fundamental units chosen to model physical phenomena are arbitrary. In a physics model whose only fundamental unit is the joule, time is obviously modeled solely as a function of energy, just as mass is modeled today as a function of energy — hence the term "mass-energy". We may also equally well use the term "time-energy", since in a model using the joule as its only fundamental unit the second is purely a function of energy. Specifically, for our purposes 1 sec = 9 x 1016 joules of spatial energy, compressed by the factor c2 and placed on the 4th Minkowski axis to constitute one second of time. If the compressed spatial energy had been left in 3-space, it would be recognized as mass. For our purposes, time has the same energy density as mass.

The flow of time becomes a special form of EM energy flow, analogous on the fourth axis to mass flow (translation) in 3-space. Further, as previously pointed out the overall flow of time has extensive internal structuring of component time-energy flows. However, time-flow is in the imaginary plane or connected with it, since in Minkowski space the 4th dimension is modeled as -ict. Note that the only variable in ict is the t, hence anything varying on the fourth axis is a variation of time and time-energy a priori.

Further, we can apply conservation of EM energy to the time domain as well as in 3-space. And we can have "broken symmetry" in time-energy flow as well as in 3-spatial energy flow, so long as the net energy flow is conserved. The most fundamental conservation of energy law is giant negentropy: the automatic circulation of energy from the time domain into 3-space via decompression by the negative charge, thence the slight flow of 3-space energy to the positive charge where the 3-space energy is re-

289 Matthew Chalmers, "Second law of thermodynamics 'broken'." New Scientist, 19

compressed, thence from the positive charge back into the time domain.290 That was our solution to the long-vexing problem of the source charge and its associated 3-space fields and potentials and their 3-space energy. From special relativity, one already knows that time can dilate and then un-dilate, but each action is associated with an appropriate change in spatial energy. While that change in spatial energy can be kinetic, it does not have to be. It can be a change in potential energy instead. In short, a static object rotates its frame with respect to the observer (lab) frame, whenever it absorbs or emits potential energy.

We also pointed out the connection of time-energy to electromagnetics and to quantum field theory, via the four polarizations of the photon considered to travel in the z direction in 4-space. These four polarizations are with the energy vibrating along x-, y-, z-, and t- respectively. Vibration of the spatial energy of the photon along the x- or y- axis gives an ordinary transverse photon. Vibration of the spatial energy of the photon along the z- axis gives the longitudinal photon. Vibration of the time-energy component along the t- axis gives the scalar or time-polarized photon. We assume a similar four polarizations for EM waves in 4-space.2 1

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