## Extending the Work Energy Theorem

The standard work-energy theorem in mechanics may be conventionally stated as: The change in the kinetic energy ofaparticle is equal to the net work done on the particle by the netforce acting upon it. As in any "model", here there are assumptions that are seldom taken into account. First, the collected/collecting kinetic energy of a particle is due to its increased interaction rate with the vacuum flux, because of its acceleration through that flux.100 In mechanics the increase in flux interaction (and

100 As we cover elsewhere in this book, any charge (which, together with its clustering virtual charges of opposite sign is a dipolarity) is a broken symmetry in the fierce flux of the vacuum. This means that every charge in the universe absorbs virtual energy from the vacuum, coherently integrates some of it into observable energy, and pours out that observable energy in all directions. The negative charge does that for positive energy; the positive charge does it for negative energy. The latter can be better interpreted as the return of positive observable energy from space to the positive charge, thence disintegration of that positive energy back to virtual energy, and subsequent re-radiation of that virtual energy back to the vacuum. One can in fact model the Bohren experiment in terms of the extra vacuum flux hence "Newtonian 3rd law resistance" is just treated as a sort of resistance to acceleration, and known as inertia.101 The actual energy of the vacuum flux interaction rate is a function of the square of the particle velocity through that flux — hence the formula K = 1/2 mx2 for the kinetic energy K of a mass m moving through the flux of space at velocity v. Relativistically, the mass of the particle is moving through the ambient potential flux, or we may view it from the particle's frame of reference where the ambient potential flux is moving through the particle but interacting with it. Only a single pass of the flux impinges upon the "particle collector", so there is only a "single-pass" type of energy collection ongoing.

All energy in the vacuum exists in "vacuum flux" or "change in vacuum flux" form. There is no force in the vacuum, although there is polarization that will produce a force upon a charge when one is introduced. The force occurs only after the "change in vacuum flux" that we call a field is interacting with a mass. The force is already a change to the mass, a priori, since mass is a part of force by F = d/dt (mv). If energy is then added by a AK energy flux (usually mistakenly called a force) performing work upon mass m, this constitutes an additional energy flux or flow impinging on the encountered and transduced by the resonant charge, as compared to flux encountered and transduced by the static charge. In the same vacuum flux density, a resonant charged particle will intercept and absorb more virtual photon energy than the same particle in static condition. Hence its broken symmetry will convert more absorbed virtual photon energy into real observable emitted photon energy.

101 If one wishes to understand that inertial reaction, here is how it works. Consider the virtual charges of the vacuum as an analog to the Drude electron gas in a conductor. At the instant an observable charge starts to move, it is momentarily affecting all the surrounding virtual charges — an enormous number, which are initially repelling and attracting it in all directions intensely. To move, the observable particle must create a change in that entire participating virtual particle "gas". Just as the Drude electron gas, the vacuum "gas" of virtual charges has a certain relaxation time constant. So a finite time delay occurs before the vacuum gas relaxes and movement of the observable charge occurs. As the relaxation continues apace, the particle being acted on by a force accelerates. Even mass with a net charge of zero is filled with charges, and even the neutrons in the atoms are continuously changing into protons and back, etc. So all mass continually exists in the "charge and charge-changing" state. Inertia is in fact due to the relaxation time curve of the vacuum virtual charges "gas". We dealt crudely with this in Bearden, "Quiton/Perceptron Physics," NTIS Report AD-763-210, 1973, p. 11; hopefully a far better treatment will eventually be undertaken by qualified higher group symmetry electrodynamicists.

particle, imposing an additional "energy collecting" and gradient across the mass. Rigorously, the dynamic system comprised of the dK gradient coupled to the particle, and interacting with it, identically is a force.102102 Depending upon the situation, it may accelerate or decelerate the particle, or change its direction, or a combination. This is summarized in the usual work-energy formula

where the work W that was done is given by the change dK in kinetic energy of the particle from its initial kinetic energy Ki to its final kinetic energy Kf.

In applying the conservation of energy law, usually physicists utilize either the work-energy theorem or an approach closely paralleling it. This application is valid in any linear single-pass collection situation. It may not be valid — and usually isn't —for a multi-pass, multicollection system where the same energy, changed in form to accomplish work in a single reaction, is then changed in form iteratively, again and again, in the same system or material. In such case, one joule of input energy can and will

102 We stress again that the hoary old mechanics, some four centuries old, is seriously in error in assuming a separate force acting on a separate mass. That remains an inexplicable non sequitur in modern physics, in its very foundations. We call attention to how classical electrodynamicists' wrestle with the problem. E.g., quoting Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd edition, Wiley, 1975, p. 28: "...the thing that eventually gets measured is a force... " "At the moment, the electric field can be defined as the force per unit charge acting at a given point. It is a vector function of position, denoted by E." Our comment is that the "definition" is in error, including the use of the word "field" for "field intensity", when field and its intensity are two entirely different things. A proper definition should be stated as "...the observable electric field intensity can be defined as the force per unit static charge and mass, existing at a given point in an interacting gradient of the virtual particle flux of the vacuum, as inferred from the changes induced upon the unit static charge and mass. " The field intensity is a vector function of position, charged mass, and vacuum virtual particle flux gradient. The standard definition substitutes an effect (of collection) for a cause (prior to collection), and this error is widespread through physics, from mechanics to electrodynamics and on into particle physics. On p. 249, Jackson shows how the electrodynamicists largely capitulate and continue to promulgate the substitution of effect for cause. Quoting: "Most classical electrodynamicists continue to adhere to the notion that the EM force field exists as such in the vacuum, but do admit that physically measurable quantities such as force somehow involve the product of charge andfield." We comment that actually mass is a component of force, as shown by F = d/dt(mv).

accomplish multiple joules of work in and on the system. So for our purposes we must modify the work-energy theorem to give

where is the averaged energy collection fraction, adjusted for multipass, multicollection and also for asymmetrical self-regauging (self-increase of the potential in, and hence the energy flow from, one or more regions of the active system's source). In formula 4-2, and and still refer to single-pass collection only.

In the new work-energy theorem, "k = 1.0 for that vast number of conventional cases that have successfully utilized the conventional form of the theorem. These are almost always single-pass, single collection systems. The new C0P>1.0 systems have deliberately enhanced energy collection — and hence multiple energy collection and work amplification103 — such as multi-pass collection. For these C0P>1.0 systems, the expanded work-energy theorem form applies and in general

X '1.0. In an ideal C0P>1.0 system, X» 1.0. In some versions of the

Patterson Power Cell , for example, X =1200. In the Sweet device (discussed later), a very high value of lambda resulted, so that X = 1.5xl06. We sometimes refer to as the energy amplification factor, energy collection fraction, Poynting amplification, collection amplification, etc. Bohren and others have referred to it indirectly as the interaction cross section, the resonance absorption cross section, and the negative absorption cross section.

Again, we strongly iterate that there is no conservation ofwork law in physics! When energy is input to a system, acts on it, and is "dissipated" by a change of its form (doing work), the "dissipated" energy is still

103 There is no "conservation of work" law in physics or thermodynamics. It is energy that must be conserved. A single change in form of K joules of energy gives an equal number of K joules of work done upon the interacting mass system. However, there remains an equal number ofjoules available, just in a different form. If that second K joules of energy is then changed in form again and not allowed to escape from the system, an additional K joules of work is performed in the system, without the operator having added any extra input energy. And so on, until the inefficiency of the system and some inevitable losses allow all the "recycling" energy to escape from the system. We strongly believe that ignition, quenching, and re-ignition phenomena such as in gamma ray bursters and x-ray bursters are due to exactly such processes where iterative change of form of each initial joule of energy occurs.

available after the work (change of the energy's form) is accomplished. However, usually by "dissipated" energy we mean energy that has permanently left the system (or a component in the system) and cannot be recovered and used by the system. The original input energy is not work, because it did not undergo any change of form prior to interaction with the system to change its form. So one does not do "work" as input, which is a non sequitur. Any work accomplished in the input section of a system is due to inefficiencies of the system,104, 105 usually allowing extra change in form of some of the energy in non-useful processes called "input losses". As we stated, it is quite possible for a single joule of original input energy to perform many joules of work. During the subsequent billions of years following the formation of the observable universe and the energy in it, every joule of the primordial energy is still here. And every joule of it has been steadily performing joule after joule of work since then. Further, it has continually been recycled between 3-space and the time domain and back, and is continually being so recycled today.

Suppose input energy to a system has been dissipated (changed its form) once, doing work (single change of form of energy) in the system. If the dissipated energy in a different form is then recovered or partially recovered — without escaping the system — to change its form yet again in the system and produce additional useful work, that system is

104 Almost always due to a negative feedback mechanism such as Newton's third law, self-regauging symmetry, the closed current loop circuit, inertia as due to a self-regauging 4-symmetry, etc.

105 E.g., a transformer would be an overunity system, because the current in its primary is separate from the current in its secondary, if these two currents were completely decoupled and independent. In that case, the transformer would simply propagate and "couple" or pass energy emitted from primary to the receiving secondary, without back-coupling. However, the closed current loop in the secondary, routing all spent electrons in the secondary back through the back mmf of the secondary coil, produces a back-field coupling interaction with the primary, and this "back mmf/back emf" coupling requires energy dissipation in the primary section to overcome. In short, the transformer is designed so that the secondary lights the primary to a draw and the designer loses. With some losses and inefficiencies in the device, that makes the transformer a C0P<1.0 device (unless free external energy is received in the input). The interested reader might extract several hints and suggestions in this book, passim, of things that overunity researchers have tried in their search to break up the back-coupling of a transformer.

The simplest way, of course, would be to place a true negative resistor shunt across the secondary, so that part of the secondary current does not return back through the primary.

considered to be an open system far from single-dissipation equilibrium with its external environment.106 In that case, instead of the first dissipation simply "returning" the energy to the external environment, the energy is recovered by another change in form (which may simply be a change in direction in the internal environment). The thermodynamics of an open system far from equilibrium with its active environment applies, whether that "environment" is internal or external to the system. It is "external" to the subcomponent of the system forcing the "local change of form" of the energy.

## Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

The solar Stirling engine is progressively becoming a viable alternative to solar panels for its higher efficiency. Stirling engines might be the best way to harvest the power provided by the sun. This is an easy-to-understand explanation of how Stirling engines work, the different types, and why they are more efficient than steam engines.

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