For our purposes, we start with the important experiments of Faraday {117}, which produced experimental integration of electricity and magnetics {118}. Faraday's own work contained very little mathematics, and so he himself did not capture his own seminal experimental work in adequate theoretical fashion. That task was undertaken by James Clerk Maxwell {119a, 119b}, who deliberately set about to capture Faraday's results in a proper mathematical theory, using quaternion-like and vector expressions. Of the quaternion algebra, Maxwell had this to say {120}:

"...the virtue ofthe 4nions lies not so much as yet in solving hard questions as in enabling us to see the meaning ofthe question and its solutions.

Quaternion algebra {121a, 121b} is an advanced algebra created by William Rowan Hamilton, brilliant Irish mathematician. Hamilton was widely regarded as a "new Newton" by his peers. Hamilton coined the word "vector", wrote two books on quaternions, and hoped the books would find extensive use in physics. Vectors and tensors later came to suffice for most problems of that day, and so quaternions faded to the background.

Hamilton also grasped the importance of a science of time, and realized that such a science was possible. E.g., in 1837 Hamilton stated:

"The notion of time may he unfolded into an independent pure science... a science ofpure time is possible."

In that statement, Hamilton anticipated that a physics model can be comprised using only a single fundamental unit, and that unit could be the second.

In the early 1890s, quaternions in electrodynamics were discarded in a short "debate", mostly in the journal Nature, and vector electromagnetics was adopted. So Maxwell's 20 quaternion equations {20} in some 20 unknowns contain a wealth of electrodynamics {122} that is not included in Heaviside's {123} later vector curtailment after Maxwell's death, or in the modern tensor formulation. As an example, Nikola Tesla's patented circuits cannot be properly understood in either a vector EM or tensor EM analysis. However, very novel functions performed in them can be seen in a quaternion EM analysis, as has been clearly shown by Barrett {124}. Any electrodynamicist, who has looked at Tesla's work only in terms of tensor or vector classical electrodynamics, has no concept of what Tesla was actually doing. Since that is precisely how most academics have examined Tesla's work, they have had little idea of the functions he was actually able to accomplish in circuits — functions that U.S. electrical engineering departments still cannot perform.

Along with other electrodynamicists at the time, Faraday and Maxwell believed in a material ether — a thin material fluid filling all space. Hence there was thought to be no point in the universe that was devoid of mass. For that reason, the EM field conceived in mass and the EM field conceived in "space" — actually, in the "luminiferous ether" thought to fill all space — were identically force fields and material entities, at least in the minds of the electrodynamicists at the time. The equations of Maxwell, the later truncation by Heaviside and others, and the final truncation by Lorentz are all still material fluid flow models. They still assume the material luminiferous ether, more than a century after its falsification.

See again Figure 1-3 in Chapter 1. Contrary to the conventional view, force is not a fundamental causative entity, but is a system of two coupled entities. It involves a nonobservable, dynamic, causative 4-space entity (which may be modeled as a curvature of spacetime) interacting with a previous "frozen" observable (a 3-space mass). The output of this interaction is another observable (i.e., a change to the previous observable or an iterative output of its replica). Observables do not continuously exist, but continually recur as continual outputs of the iterative observation process (photon interaction).

Mass is a component of force, as is apparent if we define force F as F==d/dt(mv), which gives F = m(dv/dt) + v(dm/dt). Both terms on the right of the expansion contain mass; hence force F contains mass as a component. Both terms on the right also contain nonmass terms; hence force F also contains nonmass coupled to and interacting with mass. So there can be a force generated by a nonmassive non-force entity in spacetime interacting with a mass, and the force only exists when that interaction is ongoing. The ether was erroneously considered to be a material system, containing mass, and hence capable of supporting a force. Maxwell modeled his fields (in what we know today to be mass-free space) as material force fields in the material ether.

In the 1880s, the Michelson-Morley experiments {125a-125d} destroyed the material ether. However, the fundamental Maxwell-Heaviside equations assuming those material force fields in the vacuum — which depended on the notion of a material ether and are a function of it — have never been altered, even to this day. Instead, electrodynamicists just assume the force "somehow" goes to zero in the field in space, but the same field remains. The equations still assume the same old material ether.

This is a non sequitur; a force field cannot be the same as a force-free nonforce field. As an example, the EM force field in observable matter is an output of observation. It is therefore a 3-space effect containing mass. The force-free field in mass-free spacetime (4-space) is a causal 4-space component of massless spacetime. A priori, it exists prior to interacting with the charged mass. It contains no observable mass and hence no force since mass is a necessary component of force. It independently exists without the presence of the charged mass at all.

In short, the field in massless spacetime is a specialized curvature (changed region) of that spacetime. Spacetime consists of spacetime, to slate a tautology. Once one fixes the concept of the medium, then any changes to the medium can only consist of "medium-stuff. So any

"changes" in spacetime can only be changes of 4-space itself, in the Einstein general relativity sense. This area is handled quite well by Sachs' unified field theory {126a, 126b}, extending and completing the work of Einstein.

Sachs' epochal theory provides a great generalization of general relativity and electrodynamics reaching from the quarks and gluons to the entire universe. Further, Evans' extension of electrodynamics into a higher 0(3) group symmetry turns out to be demonstrably a special subset of Sachs' electrodynamics.40 Hence, for the first time, an electromagnetically engineerable unified field theory is available. Much of general relativity, quantum mechanics, etc. can be engineered directly by Evans' electrodynamics subset of Sachs' overall unified field theory. I am much indebted to Evans {127} for the following statement with respect to O(3) electrodynamics:

"In 1992 it was shown (Phvsica B. 192, 227, 237(1992)] that there exists a longitudinal component of free space electromagnetism, a component which isphaseless and propagates with the transverse components. Later this was developed into a Yang-Mills theory of electromagnetism with O(3) Lagrangian symmetry. This theory is homomorphic with Barretts SU(2) electrodynamics and has far reaching implications infield theory in general. Recently it has been recognized to be a sub theory of the Sachs theory ofelectromagnetism, based on the irreducible representations ofthe Einstein group of general relativity.41 The Sachs theory produces a non-Abelian structure for the electromagnetic field tensor. The O(3) electromagnetism also has implications for the potential ability ofextracting energy from the vacuum, and its topological implications are currently being investigated by Ranada. The O(3) electromagnetism has been tested extensively against empirical data, and succeeds in describing interferometric effects and

40 E.g., see M. W. Evans, "The Link Between the Sachs and 0(3) Theories of Electrodynamics," in M. W. Evans (Ed.), Modern Nonlinear Optics, Second Edition, Wiley, 2001, part 2, p. 469-494.

41 Evans et al, "Derivation of 0(3) Electrodynamics from the Irreducible Representations ofthe Einstein Group," Found. Phys. Lett, 15(2), Apr. 2002, p. 179-

physical optical effects where the conventionalMaxwell-Heaviside theoryfails. Implicit in both the O(3) and Sachs theories ofelectromagnetism is the ability to extract electromagnetic energy from curved space-time. Working devices based on this ability would help solve the current energy crisis."

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