Foreword

The original purely scientific purpose of this hook was interrupted en route by two events: The first was a sudden heart allack and onslaught of severe hypoxia resulting from the resurgence in Spring 2001 of a 33-year old chronic mycoplasma infection, of the modified biological warfare kind produced by a combined U.S./Canadian team, which got loose in Canada and Florida in the 1950s. I contracted this "mysterious, unknown ailment" in 1968 while in the U.S. Army and stationed in Quebec, Canada as the U.S. Army Liaison Officer to the Canadian Armament Research & Development Establishment (CARDE). The second event was the sudden terrorist attack on the U.S. on September 11, 2001, which propelled this nation and others into a war against international terrorism.

For the mycoplasma, Kenn Thomas recognized and informed me exactly what the difficulty was, and I was finally tested and diagnosed correctly in December 2001 due to the efforts of a courageous family physician. Accordingly, in December 2001 we started a yearlong (or longer) regimen of antibiotics and supplementary oxygen, with additional medication to control the runaway heart fibrillation associated with this virulent form of the disorder. If we make it through this yearlong program, we will probably survive with at least some significant recovery. Now on a much-reduced regimen, this made me realize the absolute necessity of passing the "energy from the vacuum" information and baton, so to speak, to those sharp young graduate students and post doctoral scientists who are interested in this area. They simply must not have to spend 30 years of their lives getting to this point. Instead, they should start where I am now, correct any errors I have inadvertently made, and go much farther.

Accordingly, we sharply changed the intent and content of the book to comply with that new purpose. We also deeply considered the potential U.S. and World energy implications of that second shocking event of 9/11 when international terrorists struck the World Trade Center in New York Center and the Pentagon, having also targeted the White House.

In the new asymmetric form of warfare, the internal aspects of a nation -its civilian population, its vulnerable installations, its energy infrastructure, its food crops, and its transportation modes — are the targets. Terrorist teams and groups in significant numbers are already inside every targeted developed nation, and these teams have weapons of mass destruction including biological weapons and even nuclear weapons. For confirmation of the hostile nuclear weapons already secreted in large U.S. cities, read Lunev's book1 to see how the former Soviet Union brought them in, along with the Spetznaz teams to detonate them on call. The nuclear weapons and the Spetznaz teams are still here. Other hostile nations have inserted terrorist teams with weapons such as anthrax, smallpox (camel pox is nearly identical to smallpox, and widely available), bubonic plague, etc. At the end of the 1991 Persian Gulf War, most of Iraq's calutrons and its nuclear program escaped the weapon inspectors and were hidden. In the few calutrons we did get, weapons-grade U235 residues were found. In a formal threat study for a foreign nation, begun before the Gulf War and delivered after its end, my analysis team and I estimated that Iraq had produced sufficient U235 in 1991 for from 7 to 12 nuclear weapons, particularly of the gun assembly type. My personal estimate now would be that Iraq has made sufficient weapons grade U235 to build three dozen to six dozen nuclear weapons. If so, then some of those weapons are undoubtedly long since spirited into the United States, and planted in our large cities.

In modern asymmetric strategic war, the first phase of the war is conducted in "peacetime". The first phase is to insert the weapons of destruction into the targeted nation and hide them at the intended targets, along with the teams to detonate and unleash the weapons when desired. In that sense, the first phase of WW III has already been accomplished.

According to Vice-President Cheney,2 "The war on terrorism will not be over in our lifetime. It is different than the Gulf War was in the sense that it may never end. At least not in our lifetime. The way I think ofit is, it's a newnormalcy. "

With much of the cheap oil of the world in its borders, the MidEast is a powder keg ready to explode. If a clash between the U.S. and Iraq occurs, Saddam Hussein has already clearly shown that he will attack and destroy his foe's energy infrastructure and he will also use weapons of mass destruction. Simply witness the hundreds of oil wells set afire in Kuwait by Iraqi forces during the Persian Gulf War, and the use of chemical weapons on his own people. As this is being written, Pakistan and India are skirting the brink of war, and both have nuclear weapons. Either side

1 Stanislov Lunev and Ira Winkler, Through the Eyes of the Enemy, Regnery, Washington, D.C., 1998, p. 26.

2 Vice President Richard B. Cheney, October 21, 2001.

that decides on war will have to make a nuclear strike on the other. They have no antimissile defenses, hence making the "first knock-out" or preemptive strike is each nation's only chance of survival. Hopefully cooler heads will prevail, but If that war erupts, the Mid East, oil, and present energy infrastructures will never again be the same, for the entire world.

There are other very serious U.S. vulnerabilities of gas and oil pipelines, port facilities, Gulf of Mexico oil rigs, nuclear power plants, power substations, hydroelectric dams, long power transmission lines on towers, etc. that are too numerous to enumerate. With but a moment's reflection, one realizes that even normal and cheap guerrilla-type or commando-type forces with C-4 explosives and timers can destroy a very substantial portion of the energy infrastructure with minimal risk and loss of assets. For those who wonder about a nuclear power plant's vulnerability, visualize a seized Boeing 747 loaded with fuel and flown directly into the main reactor container . If meltdown occurs, the nuclear tragedy at Chernobyl in 1986 will appear tame by comparison. There are also several other electromagnetic ways (such as a portable EMP "shooter" hauled in the back of a personal SUV) to instantly destroy the electronic controls of the nuclear power plant, seriously risking runaway and core meltdown.

Consequently, increasing attention is now focused on the extreme vulnerability of the centralized energy infrastructure in the U.S. and every other developed nation. So what started for me as a purely scientific endeavor to set out the concepts and principles of permissible COP>1.0 EM systems suddenly assumed a role of potentially critical strategic significance to the U.S. and to the entire developed world. Quite simply, some 20,000 terrorists in teams already in the United States can -at this very moment —destroy large portions of the nation's energy infrastructure at will, easily and cheaply. The economy of any modern developed nation depends on the availability of cheap energy. So this kind of hostile strategic capability means that the power to readily destroy a nation's economy — and thus defeat a mighty nation itself in the ensuing economic collapse — has passed into the hands of hostile forces already in country and awaiting the order to commit their assets.

In this new asymmetrical form of warfare, it would appear that the rapid developmentanddeploymentofsignificantdistributedpowersourcesis now a critical element of national survival for many nations of the world. Decentralization does little good, however, if fuel for the decentralized generators must remain centralized and distributed by very large and complex systems.The fuel and Its distribution are still extremely vulnerable resenting easy targets allowing paralysis of the decentralized generators. Self-refueling (self-powering) of the electrical power systems is therefore a mandatory additional requirement.

So sober assessment dramatically reveals the need for self-powering electrical power systems, freely extracting their EM energy from the local vacuum. Thus an engineerable theory of permissible COP>1.0 EM systems has become essential to the national survival of the U.S. and many other nations, so that an effective decentralized energy infrastructure — with the seething vacuum as the "localized and inexhaustible free fuel supply" — can be rapidly designed, developed, and deployed.

Sadly, the leaders of the scientific community are still in a "business as usual" mode with respect to energy, and intend to remain so. They do not even recognize what powers and always has powered an EM circuit and system: EM field and potential energy extracted directly from the vacuum by the broken symmetry of the source charges and dipoles. Since no scientific research on EM energy from the vacuum is going to be launched by the scientific leaders at the top, then the results of the broken symmetry discovered in 1957 are going to have to be applied in the scientific community from the bottom up. Consequently, a rather desperate need to communicate everything possible to the young graduate students and post-docs has become imperative, if the nation is to survive.

From the beginning of my effort in COP>1.0 systems, and then my effort on this book and prior to the events leading to the attack on September 11, 2001, the appalling humanitarian need for COP>1.0 electrical power systems taking their energy from the vacuum has been obvious and overwhelming. One third of the human population usually goes to bed hungry at night. One third is infested with worms and parasites of one kind or another, in addition to other diseases. Simple things such as clean water, common sanitation, medical treatment, and jobs to support one's family are difficult things in many parts of the world.

In the final analysis, the only way to get a suffering, impoverished, and undeveloped nation up and going is to provide cheap clean energy, and to do it with systems which get their "fuel" for free, such as from the vacuum itself. Once cheap clean energy and self-powering systems are widely available, then the economy and infrastructure of that nation can be slowly and steadily built up to get the society moving. Roads, bridges, hospitals, schools, teachers, industry, and jobs then follow as the economy rises. Until there is a cheap energy infrastructure available and growing, essentially fuel-free, none of that is going to happen in most impoverished nations because presently the world's fuel is monopolized, controlled, and fought over, and it will become evei more expensive as the supply vs. demand ratio falls, prices escalate, and additional wars - almost certainly involving weapons of mass destruction - are engendered. With present aid concepts, at best the politicians and warlords usually get the bulk of whatever assistance is sent in, and the warlords on the take from foreign masters will continually plunge the country into turmoil, war, and human tragedy. Assistance is necessary, but the eventual aim has to be to enable and empower the common citizens to be self-supporting, educated and trained, relatively free from disease, and living in a nation having a growing and developing infrastructure, jobs, and a decent economy. Availability of cheap and affordable energy — and clean energy if we wish to save the precious environment — is the primary key to "freeing and empowering the developing nations" as well.

Along with this omnipresent, desperate humanitarian need, the increased strategic need for decentralized energy systems freely fueled from the vacuum itself has led me to make every effort possible — particularly after the heart attack in 2001 and in continued hypoxia from severe chronic mycoplasma infection — to finish the book and at least outline the major concepts and principles that enable the construction of a sorely-needed COP>1.0 electrical power systems theory, followed by the development and rapid deployment of actual self-powering systems. The Alpha Foundation's Institute for Advanced Study (AIAS), spearheaded by Dr. Myron Evans, has also been vigorously preparing and publishing papers in leading scientific journals and other publications showing that EM energy from the vacuum is permissible, possible, and feasible.

In my three decades of work with multiple inventors of working prototype COP>1.0 electrical systems, I have been privileged to experience and work with several actual C0P>1.0 circuits and prototype systems, study them, and slowly comprehend some of the advanced and unusual principles involved. In short, thanks to the courtesy and kindness of others, I have been able to gradually acquire at least an elementary understanding of the

3 E.g, Modern Nonlinear Optics, Second Edition, 3 Vols., edited by M. W. Evans, Wiley, 2001; M. W. Evans et al, "Derivation of 0(3) Electrodynamics from the Irreducible Representations of the Einstein Group," Found. Phys. Lett., 15(2), Apr. 2002, p. 179-187; "Anti-Gravity Effects in the Sachs Theory of Electrodynamics," Found. Phys. Lett., 14(6), Dec. 2001, p. 601-605; "Classical Electrodynamics Without the Lorentz Condition: Extracting Energy from the Vacuum," Physica Scripta, 61(5), May 2000. p. 513-517; "Runaway Solutions of the Lehnert Equations: The Possibility of Extracting Energy from the Vacuum," Optik, 111(9), 2000, p. 407409.

mechanisms which enable COP>1.0 EM power systems. With this background, one can understand why conventional EM systems and circuits do not develop COP>1.0 or self-powering, even though all the energy collected and used in every electrical power system comes from the vacuum and not from the shaft energy input to the generator, chemical energy dissipated in a battery, wind energy collected by a windmill (that just "feeds" the shaft of the generator), or from the water power dissipated in a hydro turbine (the hydro turbine also only turns the shaft of the generator, which does not actually furnish the power to the external power line connected to it).

It seems appropriate that other researchers should be able to start where 1 am now, understand what I have learned or think I have learned, find and correct any errors, and simply go forward with alacrity — much farther than I have been able to go, and much faster. This is particularly true of the young researchers who have excellent theoretical and experimental skills and a vigorous lifetime ahead of them. When an old and tiring runner falters with the baton, it is time to pass it on to the fresh young runners who can carry it to the successful end of the race.

The purpose of this book, then, is to lay out in some little detail what I have learned in all these years of sustained effort, but in such a way that it ties directly into good physics. In some cases, the tie-in to physics is unavoidably to a somewhat esoteric area such as the geometric phase and to time as a special form of energy. COP>1.0 EM systems are not simple, and they involve special phenomenology rarely encountered in conventional EM circuits and systems. COP>1.0 EM systems simultaneously involve a combination of particle physics, modern active vacuum theory, advanced materials science, higher group symmetry electrodynamics, quantum mechanics, and general relativity. They also involve areas where foundations of physics are presently in error. We found it necessary to think in terms of the supersystem, defined as having three components, which are (i) the physical power system itself, (ii) the active local vacuum, and (iii) the active local curvatures of spacetime. All three components of the supersystem interact and exchange energy with each other continuously. Any legitimate COP>1.0 power system must freely receive, collect, and use some excess energy from its active environment — in this case, the latter two components of its supersystem. By definition, this COP>1.0 function requires disequilibrium between the system and its active environment, so that classical equilibrium thermodynamics does not apply. Instead, the thermodynamics of systems far from equilibrium in their energetic exchange with an active environment applies.

However, since the "environmental energy" we are extracting is virtual photon energy from the vacuum and energy from local curved spacetime, the fundamental definitions of classical thermodynamics and classical electrodynamics have to be re-examined and altered. A closed system, e.g., can no longer be defined just as one closed to the transfer of mass across its boundary, but permitting energy to exchange across it. Since the advent of general relativity in 1915, we have known that energy and mass are the same thing. Whenever any system changes its energy, it also changes its mass by the well-known E = mc2 rewritten as dm = dE/(c2). Further, in the fierce virtual particle exchange of the vacuum with every part of every system, both virtual mass and virtual energy continually cross the system boundary. Neither classical thermodynamics nor classical electrodynamics deals with the transduction of time-energy into spatial energy in a system, which is a totally different type of energy exchange accomplished by charge.

Further, certain phenomenological areas — such as strong gradients — are already well known to violate present thermodynamics. These are presently being researched under the aegis of extended nonreversible thermodynamics. Finally, as the present laws of classical thermodynamics are stated in the textbooks, every charge and dipole in the universe already violates those laws, and has done so since the beginning of the universe. Let us put it bluntly: Every charge in the universe already freely and continuously pours out EM energy in 3-space in all directions, without any observable EM energy input. That is the well-concealed source charge problem, known but ignored by the leaders of the scientific community for. a century. All EM fields and potentials and their energy come from those source charges, according to electrodynamics itself. Either we must give up the conservation of energy law entirely, or else we must accept the fact that unobservable virtual EM mass and energy are continuously absorbed

The vacuum by the source charge, transduced into real observable EM energy, and then re-radiated in 3-space in all directions as observable EM energy, creating the associated fields and potentials reaching out across the universe. That this problem continues to be ignored by the scientific community — some 45 years after the basis for its solution has been proven and is well known in particle physics — is totally inexplicable. But it continues to be resoundingly ignored, which means that the scientific community itself is and remains totally responsible for the energy crisis and the associated vastdespoilmentofthe biosphere, because it adamantly insists on using a seriously flawed electrical energy science whose hoary basis is more than a century old.

Accordingly, we have simply extended the first law of thermodynamics appropriately, pointed out that the second law does not apply absolutely but only as an approximation when conditions are appropriate, and revised the third law and the zeroth law. In this book we simply show the results of that revision, particularly in Appendix A.

We were also able to trace the history of electrodynamics, and to find exactly how the permissible Maxwellian systems far from equilibrium with an external active environment — which are included in Maxwell's 1865 seminal theory and even in Heaviside's vector truncation later — were arbitrarily discarded by Lorentz with his symmetrical regauging of the Maxwell-Heaviside equations. The purpose of such arbitrary regauging was and is to provide simpler equations that can usually be solved analytically without resorting to numerical methods. In the name of mathematical simplicity and ease, that entire great class of Maxwellian systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium in their supersystem was just arbitrarily discarded. Those Maxwellian systems are still arbitrarily discarded in every electrical power-engineering textbook today.

So the first requirement for a COP>1.0 EM system becomes building-in a mechanism to violate the Lorentz symmetry condition, at leastfor a significantfraction ofthe time. Further, the standard closed current loop circuit — including the entire external circuit in the same closed current loop as the source dipole inside the generator is what already self-enforces the Lorentz symmetry condition. Consequently, in any legitimate C0P>1.0 electrical system, the operation of that closed current loop circuit must be violated for some portion of the system's operation. This of course places the system in disequilibrium with its active supersystem environment, allowing intake of extra energy from the environment and therefore permitting C0P>1.0. So one of the immediate requirements in C0P>1.0 electrical systems research is to seek out and find known or suspected mechanisms that accomplish just such violation of the Lorentz symmetry condition. In the book, I show a sampling of the various mechanisms I found other inventors using or that I uncovered myself, or that already exist in physics.

Finally, we discovered (and found the basis for it was shown in the hard literature in Heaviside's original work) that every generator and battery as an energy transducer already extracts from the vacuum and outputs from its terminals a far greater nondiverged energy flow than is accounted in the

Poynting diverged energy flow theory (which captures only that small fraction that is diverged into the circuit and captured by it). The total output energy flow from the terminals of a generator is also far greater than the mechanical energy input to the shaft of the generator. So in its energy transduction function, every dipolar electrical circuit ever built is already a "free energy circuit" and a COP >>1.0 system, extracting its utilized electrical energy from the vacuum and extracting additional energy also. But presently the electrical power system is unwittingly designed and constructed by engineers to deliberately destroy the source of that enormous energy flow from the vacuum faster than the system can use some of it to power its load. Wryly put, that does not seem to be the proper way to build energy systems or "run an energy railroad," even though it's always been done that way.

This led to recognition of a great scientific faux pas, perhaps the greatest in history. One must keep one's sense of humor! So with tongue in cheek, let us state it this way: There is not now, and there never has been, a single electrical engineering department, electrical engineering professor, or electrical engineering textbook that teaches what powers an electrical circuit. Yet the basis for it has clearly been in particle physics since 1957, as certified by the award ofthe Nobel Prize to Lee and Yang. Whatpowers every electrical circuit and system is the broken symmetry ofthe primary power system s source charges and source dipole (i. e, the broken symmetry ofthe opposite charges on the ends ofthe dipole) in its fierce energy exchange with the seething vacuum, once that dipole has been made. The modern "charge " is also a dipolarity, once its associated clustering virtual charges of opposite sign are considered. Further, any dipole willfreely extract EM energy from the vacuum, convert it into real, usable, observable EM energy, andpour out real, usable EM energy continuously and indefinitely, so long as the dipole remains intact.

The external circuit attached to a generator is not powered by the mechanical energy that is input to the generator shaft. The external circuit attached to a battery is not powered by the chemical energy expended by the battery. Astonishingly, every electrical power system and electrical circuit ever built, and every one built today, was and is powered by energy extracted and transduced directly from the active vacuum by the broken symmetry of the opposite charges on the ends of the source dipole (or a charge considered as a modern dipolarity), once that dipole is formed. A Nobel Prize was awarded to Lee and Yang in 1957 for the prediction of broken symmetry (strongly in 1956). Wu and her colleagues proved it experimentally in early 1957. So revolutionary a change in physics was that startling discovery of broken symmetry, that — in a nearly unparalleled action — the Nobel Committee awarded the Nobel Prize the same year, December 1957, to Lee and Yang. One of the broken symmetries proven was that ofopposite charges such as are on the opposite ends of every dipole, or such as constitute a classical "isolated charge" when the charge and its clustering virtual charges ofopposite sign are considered as in modern physics theory. Rigorously, every source dipole is continuously extracting EM energy from the vacuum andpouring it out of the "terminals" ofthe dipole in all directions in 3-space. And so is every charge as well. That the leaders of the scientific community continue to ignore this solidly proven fact is astonishing. But they do.

We also came to realize that the great Gabriel Kron, who was never allowed to reveal the secret of his open path, had in fact discovered the precursor of that very broken symmetry of opposite charges (of dipolarity). His open path is simply the recognition that any two points in the universe, that are at differing potentials and therefore can be considered as a dipolarity of opposite charges, acts as a source dipole that already extracts virtual photon energy from the vacuum, transduces it into real, observable photon energy, and pours out that energy in all directions. In reaching that understanding, he had applied general relativity to rotating electrical machines, simulated various forms of electromagnetics equations, and dealt deeply with quantum mechanics and the Schrodinger equation.

Sadly, the electrodynamics model used in electrical power engineering still does not even model the active vacuum, much less a broken symmetry in the virtual photon exchange between that active vacuum and all the charges in every electrical system. The electrical engineering model does not model the supersystem, hence cannot be used to design and produce COP>1.0 systems. A priori, that seriously truncated and crippled model arbitrarily discards all permissible Maxwellian systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium (i.e., with broken symmetry) in their vacuum flux exchange. And those are precisely the systems that are permitted to perform the five magic functions of great interest to the COP>1.0 energy researcher. Such a disequilibrium system can permissibly (i) self-order, (ii) self-rotate or self-oscillate, (iii) output more energy than the operator inputs (the excess energy is freely received from the active environment), (iv) power itself and its load simultaneously (all the energy is freely received from the active environment), and (v) exhibit negentropy. Every charge and dipole in the universe already performs all five magic functions.

It is the purpose of this book to clearly show that all EM systems are already powered by vacuum energy, and always have been. We cite the references and experimental proof that this is true, and the interested reader can check the extensive references himself or herself. The intent is to show that only a part of what has been discovered and is already known in particle physics is presently included in the woefully inadequate and ancient electrical power-engineering model. And frankly, unless there is a groundswell from the bottom of the scientific community, the leadership of the scientific community has no intention whatsoever of funding or allowing significant research in extracting copious EM energy from the vacuum (very simple) and learning to use it effectively (more difficult). A single 200 million dollars of good research in EM energy from the vacuum would solve the energy crisis forever, and dramatically reduce the pollution of the biosphere. The scientific community will spend many times that amount on their favored "big science" projects, but not one cent on EM energy systems powered by energy extracted from the vacuum.

Also, we show a sampling of the present work ongoing in inertial propulsion and antigravity research. Working with Sweet, in the 1980s I designed and Sweet performed a highly successful antigravity experiment.4 I share with the reader the concepts and theoretical basis for that experiment, why it worked and how it worked, and the excellent results achieved. One of the tragic losses to science was the loss of the Sweet C0P»1.0 vacuum triode amplifier (VTA) system with the death of Floyd Sweet. Nonetheless, we apply the mechanism we conceived so long ago to propose a mechanism generating the antigravity recently confirmed to be accelerating the expansion of the universe. We offer the long-neglected, Lorentz-discarded giant nondiverged Heaviside energy flow component accompanying every field-charge interaction as the probable generatrix of the excess gravity holding the arms of the spiral galaxies together. And we offer that same component — when connected with a flow of negative EM energy and with negative energy EM fields and potentials — as the specific generatrix of the excess antigravity that is accelerating the expansion of the universe. Both theses are testable on the laboratory bench.

Our target audience is several fold. Even though presented conceptually, the material is not oversimplified, and it is targeted at (i) the sharp young grad students and post-docs interested in extended (higher group internal

4 Floyd Sweet and T. E. Bearden, "Utilizing Scalar EIectromagnetics to Tap Vacuum Energy," Proc 26th Intersoc. Energy Conversion Eng. Conf. (IECEC '91), Boston, Massachussets, 1991, p. 370-375.

symmetry) electrodynamics and in researching and developing COP>1.0 electrical power systems, (ii) the forward-looking electrical engineering professors who will at least consider that extended electrodynamic models and the laws of nature do permit COP>1.0 electrical power systems, and (iii) the still open-minded leaders of the scientific community, such as the National Academy of Sciences, National Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy, the great national laboratories, etc. In one area of physics much better models of electrodynamics enabling COP>1.0 power systems, antigravity, and novel propulsion systems already exist (and a few such systems experimentally exist in the hands of independent inventors as well), while in a second area of physics that part of electrodynamics dealing with permissible COP>1.0 EM systems and unified field theory has been arbitrarily excluded at great cost to society, to the environment, and a tragedy to science and technology. Additional secondary targets are (iv) governmental leaders responsible for advanced research and development planning and funding, to argue that the "energy crisis" is a direct result of an inexplicable and sustained shortfall in the scientific mindset, and not as a result of the laws of nature and the need for cheap oil, coal, and gas or nuclear power plants, (v) science writers, journalists, and entrepreneurs to sensitize them to (hopefully) a coming energy revolution of unparalleled proportion, (vi) strategic and tactical planners in our Department of Defense to make them aware that the great logistics burden of modern highly maneuverable armed forces can and will be dramatically lowered by rapidly developing and using self-powering power systems "fueled" directly by the local active vacuum, and by adapting novel new propulsion methods, (vii) theoretical and experimental physicists to make them aware that the easiest thing in the world is to extract copious EM energy freely from the vacuum; just pay once to make a little dipole or assemble a charge and do not let it be destroyed, (viii) the Department of Energy upper level managers to bring into their awareness the coming advent of (and terrible need for) self-powering decentralized EM power systems worldwide, and the pressing need for a major role to be played by the DoE, (ix) the struggling but serious COP>1.0 researchers and inventors, to give them a technical overview — rather than just anecdotal material — of much of what has been done, tried, and conceived, and what seems to be successful and what is still to be determined, (x) the environmentalists devoted to cleaning up the biosphere and saving this precious planet, to make them aware that the answer to the world's energy problems and saving the biosphere cannot come to them from their conventional scientific consultants, who are trained in applying the very scientific disciplines responsible for the problem in the first place, and (xi) the long suffering undeveloped and impoverished nations and peoples of the earth. Our fervent message is one of hope after all, once a change occurs in the scientific mindset. There is a cheaper, cleaner, and better way to get their economies and nalional infrastructures up and running, and it is imminently doable.

The main message of this book is that there is not now and there never has been an electrical energy availability problem. Every large centralized power generator actually outputs enough EM energy flow, extracted directly from the seething vacuum, to power all electrical loads on earth, if all the energy pouring from its terminals were caught and utilized. However, there is certainly an EM energy flow interception problem, to get more of the available energy flow from a source dipole intercepted and diverged into the circuit in a manner not complying with the Lorentz symmetrical regauging condition. Also, once the excess energy has entered the circuit and been collected, there certainly is a problem in using the intercepted and collected energy in the circuit without destroying that part of the generator or battery — the source dipole — that is actually extracting all the energy from the vacuum. Or at least to use the circuit's collected energy in such fashion as to destroy the source dipole in the generator slower than the energy is used to power the external load.

That conglomerate of the two sub problems — the "energy flow interception, collection, and usage problem — is the single energy problem. There is no other energy problem, and there has never been any other. One finds it very ironic that, in the conventional agencies, universities, the DoE, the National Science Foundation, the National Academy of Sciences, the national laboratories, etc., not one of them is working on the real, solitary electrical energy problem, even though they are importantly spending billions of dollars purporting to do so.

We fervently hope that the content of the book will reach a sufficiently interested audience to begin to change that century-old erroneous scientific mindset. We hope that the book, along with the important contributions of other COP>1.0 inventors and researchers having success, will spark a new creative drive in the scientific spirit that solves the problem of cheap, clean energy in three years or less. This is a doable. I firmly believe in the scientific method and what it can do once it is unleashed from the century-old dogma that COP>1.0 systems are against the laws of nature, physics, and thermodynamics. Just turn the young scientific and engineering tigers loose on the problem, give them some funding, and watch them do it.

As we stated in a formal rebuttal to a charge of perpetual motion nonsense, it only takes one white crow to prove that not all crows are black. And with respect to COP>1.0 EM systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium with their active environment, every charge and dipole in the universe is already a "white crow" pouring out EM energy freely and continuously with the speed of light, and exhibiting COP = oo. This is in fact reluctantly recognized in physics, but it has essentially been buried from the attention and knowledge of generations of electrical engineers and most physicists.

A C0P>1.0 experiment well known to nonlinear optics is the Bohren-type experiment, demonstrating the known negative resonance absorption of the medium. A typical experiment of that type outputs some 18 times as much EM energy as the experimenter inputs by standard calculations. We note that a single replicable experiment can and does negate any theoretical model that contradicts it. Hundreds of such materials experiments proving the feasibility of C0P>1.0 EM systems are performed every year in any major nonlinear optics laboratory without a second thought. Together with the known but avoided source charge problem and proven broken symmetry of any dipolarity, it is almost unthinkable that our electrical engineering departments still do not incorporate the active vacuum exchange — and every EM circuit's broken symmetry in it — into the classical electrodynamic model used. In short, to really understand what powers every EM circuit, just now the electrical engineer would have to go across campus to the particle physics department and investigate broken symmetry of opposite charges — as are on the ends of the source dipole, once created in the generator or the battery, or as are involved with the single "isolated charge" considered with its associated virtual charges of opposite sign.

It is high time that our electrical power engineers and scientists heed the message of all these demonstrated white crows of nature, and begin developing and deploying self-powering C0P>1.0 electrical power systems with alacrity.

We have a biosphere, a planet, a strong world economy, and an uplifting for the long downtrodden poor people of the world to recover. We strongly urge the scientific community to accept the challenge and meet it head-on.

Tom Bearden

22 July 2002.

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