Gain in Intensely Scattering Optically Active Media

This modern work — which may be regarded in one sense as extending the anti-Stokes emission effect — is largely being pursued in intensely scattering optically active media. A very nice example is given by Lawandy's experiment {295a-d}, shown in Figure 5-4. Figure 5-4a shows a comparison experiment in water without an intensely scattering optically active medium but with a fluorescent dye to show the emission interaction. Figure 5-4b shows the same experiment with titanium dioxide particles added to the fluid. The TiO2 particles are sized so that their optical resonance is within the laser's frequency domain.123

First, as shown in Figure 5-4a, a small, weak laser beam is aimed into the solution, and a small "warm little glow" of fluorescence results just around that region where the laser beam interacts with the solution. Scattering in the medium is rather normal, and provides nothing of any great interest to the overunity researcher.

123 In passing, we point out the involvement of the Bohren effect due to particle resonance. This collects additional energy from the usually nondiverged large Heaviside energy flow component.

Heaviside Energy Flow Component
Figure 5-4 The Lawandy experiment

Then the titanium dioxide particles are added, and the same weak illuminating laser beam is directed into the colloidal solution. Figure 5-4b shows the new and spectacular results.124 Immediately a very bright, room-filling emission of scattered coherent light fills the entire room. The intense optical scattering includes extensive retroreflections for some "ping pong" between individual particles, so that the optical gain is enormous. A highly enhanced energy emission is now evoked, for the same energy input by the operator as was used in the first experiment without the TiO2 particles. Lawandy's experiment is inexpensive and can be repeated in any university nonlinear optics laboratory and by many individual experimenters. It gives results every time, without fail.

Oddly, no one seems to clearly state that, for a single pulse of input laser energy to the suspension of TiO2 particles, precisely how much energy was input and how much energy was then emitted by the medium. Instead, "gain" is mentioned, but never the COP = (energy output by medium emission) / (energy input by operator). One suspects that journal referees would probably not allow such a clear and unequivocal statement of

124 This is a very easy and very convincing argument for the presence of the long-ignored Heaviside component of energy flow arbitrarily discarded by Lorentz more than a century ago, and still discarded by modern electrodynamicists.

overunity, but would apply quibbling and spin control to prevent stating that more energy is output by the medium than is input to it by the operator.

It follows that, if sufficient "ping pong" iterative retroreflection and multiple collection occurs in the medium, the COP>1.0 because more work is done on exciting the medium than the energy input to it by usual (Poynting) calculations. No one accounts the energy unwittingly input to it by the ignored Heaviside component accompanying the Poynting component. Usually the output/input is just referred to as "optical gain". We stress, however, that we are considering only the actual laser beam energy being furnished into the colloidal solution as input, and we are not calculating the efficiency of the laser, its pumping, etc. Anyway, for this stimulated emission process, it is possible that the COP>1.0, and one can see the parallel to anti-Stokes emission. In short, we are considering the TiO2 solution itself as exhibiting a true negative resistor action.

The field of high gain stimulated optical emission is advancing rapidly {296}, although many experiments still use external pumping furnished by the operator. If the operator has to pay for the replenishment (pumping) energy as well as the input energy, then the COP<1.0 overall. But the experiments are tending toward sustained self-oscillation and self-pumping conditions. If such conditions are obtained in sufficient magnitude, the process will then become a legitimate COP>1.0 operation overall. In that case, it will be usable as a basis from which to develop self-powering COP>1.0 electrical power systems, particularly for infrared "heating" systems etc.

The more recent experiments have shown positive feedback loops both in the time-forward and time-reversed paths; trapping of light flow energy (both time-forward and time-reversed) in large random walks of more than 1,000 individual interactions; weak Anderson-type localization; and constructive interference of forward time and reversed time light paths. since such experiments can be performed in the infrared, they point toward a potential "vacuum-energy-powered overunity heater" as a feasible achievement in the future. In our opinion, there should be a determined and major Department of Energy program oriented to develop exactly that kind of system.

Such a heater can become self-powering by the presence of greater governed positive feedback during self-oscillation conditions, which will allow sufficient excess collection due to multipass multicollection from the usually wasted giant Heaviside energy flow component. This process —

with the self-excitation occurring spontaneously as a "kick-in" positive feedback process in an exploding gas — probably accounts for the phenomena observed in the gamma ray burster and other such violent "burster" cosmic phenomena. Re-ignition, afterglow, and similar effects are observed in gamma ray bursters. They are also observed with remarkable similarity in the latest experiments in intensely scattering optically active materials the laboratory. Similar phenomena occur in x-ray bursters as well, and perhaps even in the recently observed and confirmed gamma ray emissions from intense storm clouds.

Finally, we point out that many magnetic materials are also photorefractive, and they readily produce nonlinear optical effects at various frequencies. Some barium compounds are typical examples. As an example, multivalued phase conjugate reflection can occur {297}. Such effects did occur in the Sweet vacuum triode amplifier, to be discussed shortly. It may be that Sweet's conditioning of his magnets conditioned their barium nuclei into self-oscillation, self-pumping, and thereby into self-replenishing stimulated optical-type emission at ELF frequencies.

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