Gedanken Experiment Multicollection by Regenerative Feedback

After a COP>1.0 collecting process with subsequent proper discharge of the energy, more work output as "dissipation of the collected-energy" exists than the energy being input by the operator or experimenter. By regenerative, clamped, carefully controlled positive feedback of a portion of the output positive energy107 to the system input, the system can be converted to a self-powered (self-asymmetrically-regauging) system that powers both itself and its loads. However, see Chapter 9 for special considerations of the Dirac sea hole current and excess negative energy that arises for COP»1.0 EM systems. Positive clamped feedback will fail dramatically for any COP»1.0 EM system, and for many COP>1.0 systems it will also fail unless conversion of negative energy — arriving at the input section — to positive energy is accomplished.

To ease visualization of the energy multicollection process, consider a gedanken experiment iteratively retroreflecting a steady small EM energy input. Particularly see Figure 4-2.

106 The vacuum environment is also "internally" penetrating throughout any macroscopic system, to the finest level! So the notion of separated "external" and "internal" environments requires strong qualification in any system engaged in iterative, work-amplify ing interaction with its local vacuum.

107 The output may contain appreciable negative energy as well as positive energy, however. In that case, in the feedback loop the negative energy must be transduced into positive energy by regauging, else it will appear in the input section of the system as an extra system load there in the input itself. It will "eat" incoming electrons from the external power supply, so that the external power supply has to power this "extra load" in the input section as well as powering the normal system load presented. This reduces the system COP to COP<1.0.

4-2b Result

Figure 4-2 Heater wire in a hollow sphere with certain retroreflectivity properties.

4-2b Result

Figure 4-2 Heater wire in a hollow sphere with certain retroreflectivity properties.

As shown, a heater-emitter is placed inside a closed hollow sphere, through a tiny hole for the two wires connecting the heater wire into the external power supply (the external power supply is not shown). The heater emitter is 100% efficient; any joule of energy absorbed by it is re-radiated by it. One joule of energy (one watt of steady "input power" — conventional electrical engineering terminology where rate of work and rate of energy flow are confused!) is furnished from the power supply to the heater element inside the sphere. The inside of the sphere is coated with a substance that acts as a phase conjugate mirror (PCM) reflector with, say, 0.5 reflection coefficient. In other words, when scattered photons are emitted from the wire in all directions, they strike the inner surface of the sphere. Half are retroreflected precisely back to the spot on the resistor from whence they came, where they are absorbed and "recollected" to further heat the resistor, causing emission of additional photons from it. The other half of the absorbed photons on the inner surface of the sphere diffuse through the cylinder walls as heat, and escape as heat radiation from the sphere to the outside world.

If that sphere's operation could be maintained intact and stable, without change of the physical characteristics and mechanism, then the buildup of energy in the heater wire inside the cavity — and the buildup of the energy icing emitted from the outside of the sphere — would be ever increasing. It would increase without bounds as time passed. Wait a short time, and the sphere would be outputting 10 watts of power while one would still be inputting one watt. Later, the sphere would be outputting 1,000 watts of power, while one would still be inputting one watt. And so on. Indeed, the rise in energy density of the output would be asymptotic, and would increase toward infinity. The only limitation as to the energy output for a steady 1 joule per second input, would be the limit at which the mechanism goes unstable and changes occur to dampen and curtail the process.

Before the reader objects on conservation of energy grounds, one should realize that this rise in the energy density inside the sphere is an example of iterative regauging. The principle of gauge freedom — one of the axioms of quantum field theory and well established — assures us that the potential energy of a system can be changed at will, and freely108 What the gauge freedom principle does not state is a mechanism for providing the additional potential energy and a source for it — nor do the quantum field theorists and electrodynamicists. Without such a source and mechanism specified, the conventional gauge freedom principle assumes total violation of the conservation of energy law.

108 Conventional scientists are almost always very careful to regauge symmetrically, so that the two excess force fields that result are equal and opposite, and sum to a net zero resultant field. That "zero-summed system" comprises a stress potential a priori. So such symmetrical regauging alters the stress in the system and alters its potential energy, but only in the form of additional stress energy. There is no net force and "force field energy" that can be used to dissipate that additional free stress energy in an external load, thereby doing free work. This regauging is a purely arbitrary practice by the electrodynamicists. We are far more interested in "asymmetrical regauging", where only one potential is freely changed or the two are changed unequally, resulting in a net nonzero force field that can then be dissipated in an external load to perform free work. Only by asymmetrically regauging an otherwise inert system can usable field energy be added and any work then be done by it anyway. In conventional systems, we do the "asymmetrical regauging" by adding the voltage (potential difference). As current flows with dissipation of energy from the circuit in the loads and losses, the system is able to develop "power" and thus do work in the external load. Unfortunately, the electrodynamicists are still obsessed with symmetry, so they ubiquitously employ in all electrical power systems the closed current loop circuit. This guarantees that the circuit will kill its source dipole (the source of the potential and potential energy generated from the virtual flux of the vacuum by the broken symmetry of the opposite charges of the dipole) faster than it powers its load. That way, lovely symmetry is maintained, beautiful free energy and negentropy are avoided and tossed away, and ugly pollution and destruction of the biosphere continues worldwide to fulfill the ever-increasing and insatiable thirst for electrical power.

In our supersystem view, the gauge freedom mechanism providing the energy is straightforward: the excess energy is freely supplied from disequilibrium in the active vacuum interaction with the system and in the disequilibrium represented by the local curved spacetime. Since a change in system potential energy is also a free change in spacetime curvature, then it follows that simply changing the potential energy of the local vacuum (the vacuum is also an electromagnetic system!) and of the local curvatures of spacetime is also "for free", or it can be. One does not have to perform work oneself upon spacetime to curve it! The mere presence of a spatial energy change — including a free potential energy change allowed by gauge freedom — is sufficient to freely curve spacetime also. That is a real energy change, because any curvature of spacetime acts back upon mass. Higher group symmetry electrodynamics does indeed include vacuum energy and energy current {259a-259c}, and it is possible to extract useful EM energy from the vacuum.

But back to our sphere, where the internal potential energy of the sphere is rising asymptotically without bound.

In the real world, of course, the reflection coefficients and the materials characteristics will change as the energy density changes, the sphere will heat, etc., and these changes will start damping the perfection of the retroreflection process to limit it to some finite plateau value which may be a C0P>1.0 or C0P»1.0 condition. Or, the materials will melt or soften so that the sphere ruptures and explodes, sharply quenching the process entirely and emitting a violent burst of energy to signal the disruption of the localization of the process.

Nonetheless, a successful real bench experiment similar to this should be possible with some tinkering, and it should readily yield C0P>1.0, after one waits for build-up and stabilization at some level. We would hope that a sharp young graduate student may eventually prepare a doctoral thesis on this experiment or a variant. The principle is demonstrable.

Similar buildups by regenerative feedback and multiple collections by the collectors do appear to occur in nature, up to and including such phenomena as gamma ray bursts, x-ray bursts, etc. These occur in some systems such as exploding gases (and in some cases, even in the upper atmosphere of the Earth). In such a system, the "physical particles in suspension in space" do move and continually disrupt the geometry for the increasing buildup, resulting in decay of the process after a time delay.

However, there is a finite time during which the movement of the particles is still insufficient to appreciably break the geometry and cause quenching.109 During this "nearly linear stage", the build-up applies and the energy density very rapidly increases. Build-up occurs and continues while the relaxation time of the initial countering symmetry-restoring mechanism for the old or former state or condition (the initial reaction) is occurring. A well-known conventional example is the Lenz law reaction. Then as the geometry changes significantly, a rapid damping of the energy density increase occurs, quenching the asymptotic rise and "discharging" or "decaying" back to a less-than maximum condition. However, the decay position or state (in the quenched condition) will be different from the initial condition before asymptotic rise (regauging) set in. The system usually will have itself absorbed and collected additional potential energy, and so it will be "hotter" or more energetic. This is often called the "afterglow". In the simple case, parts of the system will be in greater motion (more energetic).

An intermediate plateau can appear as quenching occurs and it can stabilize. However, if no stable plateau is reached during the damping, then further rapid quenching and a rapid reduction of the increased energy density occurs as the geometry changes become decisive and break the asymmetric self-regauging. Thus the "damping" of the process may yield a plateau of steady COP»1.0 operation, or it may simply go immediately into full catastrophic quenching and decline back to some lesser level of COP>1.0 operation, but still more energetic than the beginning condition. The latter case produces a sort of "afterglow" - - observed in the gamma ray bursters, e.g. — of increased energy density from the beginning of the quenched phenomenon. Indeed, in that new system of more energetic gases or particles, once the new state is stable, continuing regenerative feedback versus the new geometry can then reinitiate or "re-ignite" another "burster" followed by subsequent quenching. And so on.

We submit that the gamma ray bursters fit this schema and are consistent with it. So do the phenomena observed in intensely scattering photoactive media on the nonlinear optical laboratory bench. We hypothesize that the gamma ray burster and similar violent burst emission phenomena are generated by this mechanism or a similar version of it.

109 Regardless of what we call it or what it has been conventionally named, any impulsive, explosive process involves at least momentary broken symmetry, resulting in instant and countering broken symmetry. Then a relaxation time passes, and the countering broken symmetry is dissipated by change of the system to a new potential energy state, the new dynamics state, etc.

Figure 4-3 diagrammatically shows a proposed range of such "excess energy" emissions due to this regenerative positive feedback and multiple collection mechanism. As can be seen, this may place our view of very powerful astrophysical emission phenomena in a completely different light, arranged energetically by the length of the initial "nearly linear" phase of exponential increase. There is a scale of stability levels up to just before the Big Bang itself {260}. A so-called Big Bang, of course, would result when the "containment" ability of 4-space itself is breached, resulting in a rupture of 4-space and a consequent violent blow-out into n-space (where n>4), with a very rapid "false vacuum" created outside the blow-out region and pumping itself up by asymmetrical self-regauging in a "new" 4-space. When a new stability level is reached outside the blowout hole from the spawning 4-space, it represents an outside "new" 4-space and a new, infant 4-spatial expanding 4-universe, freshly born.

Figure4-3 C0P>1.0 stability levels forthe asymmetrical self regauging process invoked by multipass and mu lti collection of same energy.

So from inside the spawning universe, the burster phenomenon would be so great as to "burst" 4-space, producing a sort of "super black hole" as seen by the spawning universe. We hypothesize that the asymmetrical self-regauging mechanism produces a great burst of EM energy in its universe if a stability plateau is reached that is below the threshold of 4-space rupturing. If such a stability plateau is not reached, the asymptotic rise in local spatial energy density increases until the primary 4-space ruptures to produce a "blowout" seen from the old universe as a sort of black hole. There is a sort of "white hole" in the new universe being spawned on the other side of the blowout. This white hole and its associated phenomena produce the birth of another 4-universe outside the original spawning 4-universe. At least we propose that as a hypothesis.

We propose that this could be a legitimate process for the birth of multiple 4-space universes in the infinite-dimensional cosmos.110 It has an added advantage of accommodating the vexing question of "What existed before the beginning of time (in this universe)??? The answer then would be, "The existence of time in another universe that birthed this one. " We emphasize our interpretation of time as just a special form of EM energy, and not at all a "mysterious river down which we float helplessly as if in a drifting boat in the river's current."

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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