## Getting Creative with Fundamental Unis

In physics, the choice of fundamental units one chooses for one's model is arbitrary. Usually mass, length, time, and charge are used, but a perfectly valid model can be generated using only a single fundamental unit.

This is well known to modern physicists and leading electrodynamicists, but sometimes comes as a shock to electrical engineers! Jackson {134} expresses it very succinctly: Quoting:

"For example, theoreticalphysicists active in relativistic quantum field theory and the theory ofelementary particles find it convenient to choose the universal constants such as Planck's quantum ofaction and the velocity oflight in vacuum to be dimensionless and ofunit magnitude. The resulting system ofunits (called 'natural' units) has only one basic unit, customarily chosen to be length. All quantities, whether length or time orforce or energy, etc., are expressed in terms ofthis one unit and have dimensions which are powers of its dimension. There is nothing contrived or less fundamental about such a system than one involving the meter, the kilogram, and the second as basic units. It is merely a matter of convenience."

So let us consider what happens if we use the joule as the single fundamental unit for a model of physics. Then each of the entities "mass", "length", "time," and "charge" will become totally a function of energy. Since the dawn of relativity and the nuclear age, the notion that "mass is energy" is no problem, and everyone is familiar with Einstein's E = mc2. Solving for m in that expression, one realizes that spatial energy E has been compressed by the factor c2, to yield what is called "mass m". More rigorously, compressing the 3-space energy by the factor c , and then leaving it in 3-space, produces what we call "mass". However, if we

42 Energetics is an old term from the early birthing days of electrodynamics. Russian scientists resurrected the term to cover their use of an expanded electrodynamics in a unified field-engineering manner, particularly in new superweapons developed and tested after WW II and deployed in 1963 and subsequently.

remove it from 3-space and place it over on the fourth Minkowski axis ict, it becomes what we call "time" because t is the only variable in ict. Hence time has or can have similar energy density to mass. Specifically, 1 sec => 9xl016 joules of spatial EM energy, when transduced (decompressed) into spatial energy by a transducing charge.

In our new model using only the joule for our fundamental unit, we can also legitimately state that "time is energy", and be rigorously accurate. In that case, we must see what happens to 3-space EM energy when it is shifted to the time domain.

First, we take "EM energy in 3-space" as EM wave energy, in the usual transverse EM wave model (see Figure 1-4 of Chapter 1) of a field entity. We choose, say, the vector E oscillating in the x-direction, and another field entity (say, the vector B) oscillating in the y-direction. If we then rotate each of these vectors into the time axis, then that is an orthogonal rotation for each, which is what the velocity c actually is. So we have to do two orthogonal rotations, and the two resulting c's multiply to give c2. With these two orthogonal rotations into the time axis, we have completely rotated the EM field wave energy vectors into the time axis. We have also compressed that EM field energy by c2.

Hence "time as energy" is just EM spatial energy compressed by the factor c2, but rotated into the time-axis as "time" rather than remaining in 3-space as "mass". Again, by this second analogy time has the same energy density as mass, but the highly compressed spatial energy has been rotated into the time domain to "produce time" rather than remaining in 3-space to "produce mass" {135}.

This sheds new light upon the scalar (time-polarized) photon of quantum field theory. Note that, prior to compression of the wave energy into time, the magnitude of the electric field E in the EM wave was oscillating lengthwise along its x-direction, which means that, with respect to x, it was a longitudinal EM wave. A similar consideration exists for the oscillation of the magnitude of B in the y-axis. Along the time-axis, we also have a "time-energy" vector having magnitude, and the magnitude of that time-energy can only vary along the time axis. Oscillating the time energy produces a longitudinal EM wave in the time dimension (on the fourth axis). What is actually varying is the time-density itself. This is a time-polarized or scalar EM wave, where by use of the term "scalar" we mean that it has no vector component in 3-space. In fact, this variability of time density produces a "galloping motion" in the speed of light itself, which has been recognized {136}.

We have uncovered a direct connection between the time-polarized EM wave (which can only oscillate its time-energy magnitude longitudinally in the time-domain) and the longitudinal EM wave in space. Such waves can only be observed when coupled or paired with an interaction existing between them, very similar to what Mandl and Shaw {167, 168} argue for the time-polarized and longitudinal photons of quantum field theory.

Again see Figure 1-3 in Chapter 1. Any observable is an instantaneous, frozen 3-spatial snapshot (or 3-intersection) of a 4-dimensional ongoing event. "Observation" itself may be taken as a process where a d/dt operator is invoked upon 4-space (spacetime), leaving a purely 3-spatial output. However, the resulting observable does not "exist or persist in time", since rigorously it is what was "caught" in only a single, frozen "3-slice" at one single instant, forever fixed.

For that reason, time is not an observable. It cannot be directly observed, even in principle, since a priori it is discarded by the observation process itself!

For further work along such lines, we recommend the Sachs unification approach to a combined general relativity, quantum mechanics, and electrodynamics, generalized from a topological standpoint {126a, 126b}. To work electromagnetically in that theoretical approach, we recommend the 0(3) electrodynamics as extended by Evans {137a, 137b}.

2.1.3.2. The Four Polarizations ofPhotons and EM Waves In quantum field theory, four polarizations of a photon are recognized {138}. These are the x-, y-, z-, and /-polarizations, where x-, y-, z- and tare assumed as the four dimensions in a 4-space. By agreement, z- is used as the direction of motion of a free photon or an electromagnetic wave. So at least in theory, there must also be four polarizations of electromagnetic waves, even though not all these waves are yet experimentally known.

The x- andy- polarizations are the familiar transverse photon and the transverse wave. The z- polarization along the line of propagation gives the longitudinal photon in 3-space and the longitudinal EM wave in 3-space.443

43Hereweareapplyingtheconventionalmodelofthe"EMwaveinspace",whichis knowntobeerroneousbutisinubiquitoususage.SeeRomer,{84}forascathing characterizationofthaterroneousmodelButherewearestuckwithit,sowilluseit as "just a model".

### 2.1.3.3 Imperfect Longitudinal EM Waves in 3-Space

When attempting to produce longitudinal EM waves (LWs) in 3-space, from transverse EM waves (TWs) input to some sort of polarization transduction process, only imperfect LWs are produced and a residue of TW content remains. The resulting imperfect LW is referred to as an undistortedprogressive wave (UPW). Some work has been done on UPWs {139}. UPWs are expected to have remarkable characteristics including wave velocities either slower or faster than c {140}.

The t- polarization in the time dimension is quite unique: The spatial energy overall is in equilibrium and not vibrating at all; instead, the energy of the photon or wave is vibrating in the time domain and therefore exists in the time domain. That is called a "scalar photon" (time-polarized photon). Its wave version does not yet seem to be known in the literature, although in 2000 we uncovered its secret hiding place {12}. It was unexpectedly hiding in Whittaker's {85} decomposition of the scalar potential in 1903, but had been slightly misinterpreted.

### 2.1.3.4 Photons and EM Waves Carry Energy and Time

On the other hand, the concept of "EM waves flowing in 3-space" may be in need of a thorough overhaul {141}. A photon y is a "piece of angular momentum" in the form of y = (dE)(dt). Hence the photon carries an increment of spatial energy dE and also an increment of time-energy dt. The time-energy component (dt) may be regarded as ordinary spatial energy that has been compressed by the factor c2 {142}.

As can be seen, since c represents an orthogonal rotation in n-space, the multiplication or division by c and by powers of c changes the dimensionality of an entity, as seen by the observer in the laboratory frame.

So the photon transports two types of energy: (i) a "weak spring" (spatial, decompressed) energy dE, so to speak, and (ii) a "very stout spring" (time) energy dt, so to speak.

When a mass m absorbs a photon (dE)(dt), the (dE) component is compressed spatially by c2, turning it into an extra amount of mass dm, so that the mass becomes (m + dm)*dt the same time, the (dt) component is joined, so that what results is (m + dm)*dt. In short, mass m is changed to masstime mt by photon absorption. So in the absorption of a photon y by a mass m, we have y+m-> (dE)(dt) + m -> (m + dm)dt

In short, the mass m turns into masstime mt, by absorbing a photon, and masstime mt is as different from mass m as impulse Ft is different from force F. We point out that "mass" m alone does not even exist in time, but masstime mt does exist in time. This is proposed as a simple but fundamental correction to much of present physics. Further, the state "mt" is an excited, time-charged state, excited by very dense time-energy.

For the simplest case, in the next instant the excited state mt decays and a photon is re-emitted, and so we have

So emission of a photon changes the excited masstime state (time-charged state) back to mass (uncharged state with respect to time-charging), in the simplest case.

See again Figure 1-3 in Chapter 1. "Observation" and "observable change" are in fact generated by the photon interaction. The total photon interaction with a mass creates the "flow of that mass" through spacetime, macroscopically as seen by the observer and microscopically in myriad streams of virtual time changes. Mass is continually charged to the masstime state, and the masstime state is continually decayed to the mass state. Time flow itself thus has a myriad internal EM energy streams and a vast dynamic EM energy substructure.

The photon itself is not observable, as it exists prior to interaction. It is thus a "causal" entity in 4-space. It is not a simple 3-space observed "frozen snapshot" particle! When the causal photon is absorbed, its spatial energy component goes through the c compression function, thus adding a small amount of new mass to the previous mass (previous effect), but simultaneously connecting its dt time-tail, so that the slightly increased mass in fact now exists as masstime and not mass. Observation has not been completed at that point.

In the next instant, a photon is re-emitted (from masstime, never from mass!), in the simplest case removing that extra little mass increase and orthogonally rotating it back into 3-spatial EM energy, coupling that spatial energy increment dE to that "time-tail" dt and tearing it away as the photon is re-emitted. That leaves behind a frozen 3-space snapshot of the mass (the interacting particle) and completes the "observation". In the simple case, this is a replica of the previous particle (frozen 3-space snapshot) with which the causal photon interacted. So this process accounts for the so-called "persistence in time" of an object or mass, as seen by the observer's continual recall process accompanying his stream of iterative observations. Mass does not continuously exist in time, but continually recurs in time.

As is well known, what we call "observable" change must involve the expression in equation [13] in the fashion discussed and with the observation mechanism given.

We first pointed out the preceding mechanism for the "flow of a mass through time" in 1971, as a graduate student at Georgia Institute of Technology, and later published it in a crude paper {143} in 1973. It still needs a far more thorough theoretical treatment, which perhaps some graduate student will take up as the subject of his or her doctoral thesis.

2.1.3.5 Photon Interaction: Mechanism Generating Flow Through Time See Figure 2-1. Mass does not really "travel through time" continuously per se, but proceeds with an overall serial change mechanism as m (mt) m > (mt) -» m -> [14a]

where (mt) symbolizes a nonobservable ongoing "coupled" interaction state prior to observation completion. Equation [14a] represents the results of the continual photon interaction process, observation process, and "flow of a mass through time" process, at the highest single-photon interaction or quantum change level, and as "seen" or measured by the external observer.

Figure 2-1 Mechanism for the flow of a mass through time.

Also, in that overall quantum level "flow" there are anyt number of ongoing streams and "sublevels" in the underlying subquantum level (in the virtual vacuum and in its virtual photon interaction with observable mass). We might write one of these "internal time-stream interaction flow substructures" as:

lùmj -> (5mt) fôm) (8ml) -> (dm) -> [14b]

In equation [14b] we have used parentheses, because all terms individually are nonobservable. We hypothesize that each stream continues until one of its terms participates in a summation which eliminates it by enfolding it into another interaction.

When a mass is observed as in [14a], a photon has been emitted (we observe the mass as the "effect" remaining). Time has been stripped away by the resulting d/dt operation, leaving a frozen 3-spatial snapshot, which we will see as (having been) a particle (simplest case). That occurs just after major ("observable") photon emission from the masstime state {144}. Immediately another observable photon is absorbed, and so state mt occurs. The particle of mass actually oscillates at a very high rate between the m and mt states — so high a rate that by arranging the interaction conditions one may interact with it either as a wave (react predominantly in the mt state) or as a corpuscle (react predominately in the m state).

Hence we propose that the process in [14a] may account for the duality of particle and wave.

2.1.3.6 The Overall Flow of Time Has an Internal Dynamic Structure During the transition in any mass to masstime state by reaction of the mass with an "observable" photon, a myriad of fleeting virtual photon interactions involving very tiny (dE) (dt) components occurs with the mass m. These tinier increments of time, and their increments of energy, constitute internal structures in the time flow process. Therefore they may be considered as "energy currents" or "time-like energy currents" and dynamic structures or streams inside the flow of time. This is particularly straightforward if we use a model having only a single fundamental unit, the joule. In that case, time is energy, and we are speaking of energy flow and its constituent internal structures of energy flow.

So the dt component of masstime at the observable-photon action level has a myriad of energy-time structured dynamics infolded within it. Hence the mt state is very dynamic in time, particularly for fundamental particles. The mt state is in fact a "collection of time-energy dynamics" and therefore "wavelike".

See again Figure 2-1. A major point is that mass does not emit a photon; masstime does. Mass "travels through time" by an extremely high oscillation between corpuscle-like state m and wavelike state mt, and with a vast internal "dynamic streams" of other such high oscillations between corpuscle-like m states and wavelike mt states.

The concept can be very much extended, of course, but this suffices for our concept of energy currents in time, the interaction of such energy currents with mass in a mass system, and the internal dynamic structuring of the "flow of time".

This internal structuring is important in the event of "time-energy" charging. There the internal structure of time has experimental consequences. We will discuss those consequences in later chapters.

2.1.4 The Ubiquitous Substitution of Effect for Cause See Figure 1-3. To repeat, no observable exists or persists as such in time. An observable as such only exists at all when time has been momentarily stopped. It then quickly changes into (observable x time) form, for a time interval after a photon absorption. Then it changes again to observable form by photon emission and the corresponding d/dt differentiation imposed by that photon emission.

What happens when we think we see an "observable moving through space" is that we make or suppose a continual series of very fast d/dt 3-spatial snapshot observations, one after the other in serial fashion (much like the individual frames of a motion picture film). For more than a million years, human brain and mind processing have "always interpreted" this serial set of iterative operations occurring in the eyes and in the physical senses — and continually recalled and processed by the mind — as an "observable persisting in time", which it is not.

This age-old "natural" and inbred, instinctual mental practice and assumption by humans — and therefore by scientists — has provided a major problem in physics and especially in electrodynamics. It has resulted in the substitution of the "effect" for the cause in a great number of models. Even a rapid and continual series of 3-space effects after reaction of an observable (frozen snapshot) with a 4-space causal entity, does not and cannot constitute that 4-space entity which interacts with the previous "frozen snapshot" observable and causes the resulting "comparative change or sameness" of the new observable with the former. Hence, e.g., Romer's scathing condemnation {84} of the conventional drawing of an "EM wave in space".

In general relativity, it is straightforward. The curvature of spacetime — the cause — is not the mass (the 3-space observable effect) that is further changed or created again in the ongoing interaction, as seen in the "next

3-space snapshot" (next output of observation) when comparing that snapshot to the previous one.44

The same non sequitur — unwitting substitution of effect for cause — has existed for hundreds of years in mechanics, for example. There it is strongly passed on in the erroneous old notion of a separate force acting upon a separate mass. Prior to the interaction, no "force" exists. During the ongoing interaction, force exists because it is the product (interaction) of a "non-force" causal entity (e.g., a field in 4-space, as a certain curvature of spacetime there) and a previous effect (a 3-spatial frozen snapshot called "mass"). The force exists during the interaction and only during the interaction, when both cause and previous effect are coupled (and will produce the new effect at the completion of the next serial d/dt operation as a photon is emitted). The force can only exist when the mass (previous effect) is coupled to the cause (the curvature of spacetime), since a priori mass is a component of force {145}, and curved spacetime is another component of it. After the interaction "ends" in a new d/dt observation, the mind compares the new effect with the former, to determine whether there is a "change" or a replica (sameness). This comparison of the new observation (observable) with respect to the former, occurs in the brain and mind processing, and gives the sense of "persistence of an object in time" as well as of an object "changing in time".

So a great faux pas in physics — and especially in electrodynamics — is this widespread substitution of the effect for the cause. Understanding this non sequitur clearly, and correcting it, is a prerequisite to understanding the principles and concepts of legitimate COP>1.0 Maxwellian systems. Also, if we would ever hope to adequately correct electrodynamics, this tremendous faux pas must be recognized and rooted out of the model. Indeed, the same is true for mechanics and other branches of physics.

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