Grays Splitting the Positive Pole Engine

One of the real pioneers in early application of causal positron energy was inventor Edwin V. Gray of Van Nuys California. In WW II Gray learned radar during his tour in the U.S. Navy, having previously attended advanced engineering school in the Army until discovered to be under age 15 and discharged. After the war, by 1958 he had learned to perform what he called "splitting the positive pole", using "cold electrical energy" (his name for negative EM energy) as well as the normal positive electrical energy. His first motor was operating by 1961. Preparing to put units into production, in 1974 the Los Angeles District Attorney confiscated all Gray's records and prototypes. To escape bogus charges, Gray later pleaded guilty to two minor infractions and was released. His prototypes were never returned. After several mishaps, moves, and more prototypes, Gray died in Nevada under mysterious circumstances in April 1989. We quote directly from Lindemann {341}:

"In the early 1980's,Grayoffered the U.S. Government his technology to augment Reagan s SDIprogram. He actually wrote letters to every member ofCongress, both Senators and Representatives, as well as the President, Vice-President, and every member ofthe Cabinet. Remarkably, ... Gray did not receive a single reply or even an acknowledgement!"

In fact, during his early experiments, Gray discovered he could power light bulbs with cold energy, etc. Later he was to demonstrate this fact in a sensational manner: With a light bulb lit from his generator, he simply immersed the lamp — electrical leads and all — in water, where it remained lit. With his hands in the water, he would have been electrocuted or severely shocked if the electrical energy involved had been positive (diverging) energy. Instead, it was negative (converging) energy.152 Another demonstration was to hit the coil of an electromagnet with some 3,000 volts, which hurled the electromagnetic into the air — but did not heat it. The electromagnet's coil would have been instantly melted if the energy had been positive, and the magnet would have been heated.

The reader should recall the timing of Dirac's theory of the electron {498a-b, 249}, which included the negative energy electron as early as 1930. Dirac also pointed out that we would observe this negative energy electron as a positive energy electron of opposite (positive) charge and positive mass, going in the opposite direction. The observed 3-positron and the unobserved negative energy 4-electron are quite different entities, producing quite different EM fields. The positron produces positive energy EM fields and positive gravity while the negative energy 4-electron produces negative energy EM fields and negative gravity.

In 1930, to his previous theory of the electron Dirac introduced the vacuum energy: the electron sea filled with electrons occupying negative

152 By convention, "positive" energy has been associated with diverging EM energy, which is heating. Negative EM energy is associated with converging EM energy, which is cooling. In scalar interferometry {79}, one can control whether the distant EM field energy emerging in space in the distant interference zone shall be diverging (positive) EM field energy or converging (negative, cooling) EM field energy. This is determined simply by the biasing of the electrical grounds of the interferometer transmitters. The weather control referred to in 1997 by Secretary of Defense Cohen {89} is accomplished by using multiple scalar interferometers, some to gently heat the atmosphere in certain selected local areas (forming low pressure areas by expansion of the air) while cooling it in other selected local areas (forming high pressure areas by contraction of the air). By then moving these highs and lows around adroitly, one can capture and steer the giant jet streams, thereby steering the weather as one wishes, and directing significant weather changes into an area. By placing fairly sharp turns on the jet streams, one can induce great spin energy, thereby spawning tornadoes. Interestingly, by sharply pulsing the interferometer and controlling its electrical ground bias, distant cold explosions or hot explosions can be produced at will. Such weapons have been tested worldwide, and many test incidents are given in our older books Fer-de-Lance and Gravitobiology. Information on such incidents is available on website .

energy states. The holes are treated as the positive electrons (as if observed). This vacuum energy medium is now referred to as the "Dirac Sea." First, Dirac attempted to identify these holes with protons, but that was falsified. Later the positron was experimentally discovered.

One of the problems with present conventional application of Dirac's theory is that the positron is not used in its unobservable causal negative energy 4-electron state by modern theorists and experimentalists, but after observation where its direction has been reversed, its charge has been reversed, time has been stripped away, and the mass has become positive. So it is actually used as a positive energy entity having positive mass, and producing positive energy EM fields and positive gravity. This defeats the entire magic of the causal (unobserved) 4-positron as the electron carrier of negative mass and negative energy {convergent electromagnetic energy) in currents in the vacuum (spacetime) itself, rather than the electron carrier of positive mass and positive energy in ordinary 3-space. By replacing the unobserved (causal) vacuum 4-positron (negative energy electron) with the observed (effect) 3-positron with positive mass and positive energy, the entire vast area of negative energy EM fields — and thus direct antigravity via electromagnetic means — is discarded.153 But the physicists avoided having to grapple with practical negative mass and practical negative energy (cool mass and cool energy). It also set back the pace of physics in discovering and engineering antigravity transportation for nearly three quarters of a century.

It appears that Gray's thinking about cold energy was more prosaic than the somewhat esoteric considerations of the Dirac Sea theory. Conventional electrical engineering circuit theory considers positive charges moving around a circuit (although some electronics technical circuits required thinking in terms of electron current). Hence the "high" side of the standard circuit was the positive polarity, or the positive pole of the terminals of a generator or battery. From this "positive pole", positive current was sent around the external circuit to the ground return line by the forward emf (forward voltage). However, forcibly returning to the positive pole from the ground return line (i.e., from the negative pole) were those

153 When the huge nondiverged Heaviside energy flow component is appreciably of "convergent" or of negative EM energy rather than positive EM energy, the antigravitational aspects are substantive and observable (and practical). The unaccounted Heaviside negative energy flow component is often a trillion or more times as great as the accounted Poynting negative energy flow component. Hence antigravity technology is possible and practical, as we present in a later chapter.

same positive charges, being forced back up by the back emf and requiring expenditure of half the external circuit's collected Poynting energy.

So to Gray, the positive pole had two currents, one useful and one usually detrimental. The positive pole had (i) outgoing positive emf current powering the external circuit's loads and losses, doing the beneficial work (dissipating energy) in the external circuit with its load, and (ii) incoming positive current being forced back up against the back emf, doing the harmful work against the back emf and using up half the energy previously collected out there in the external circuit. Gray was aware that the work against the back emf was equal to the work done by the forward emf. So he set out to split these two currents apart, and catch the incoming current against the back emf separately, then use that normally wasted or oppositional energy to further power loads and/or recharge the batteries powering the system. Something like this was the way he was thinking.

That is what Gray called "splitting the positive pole". He also reasoned (and found) that the "reverse current" must be cooling instead of heating, since it moves against the voltage and acts backwards from regular current dissipated in resistors, etc. This precisely matches the cold (negative) energy phenomena met in the Sweet vacuum triode amplifier and in the motionless electromagnetic generator, as well as other C0P>1.0 electrical systems.

Gray's later demonstrations showed that he had recognized this process or something very similar to it, in his "splitting the positive pole".

5-14 a The Gray engine

Figure 5-14 Gray's "splitting the positive" COP>1 0 engine.

5-14 b Cross section view

5-14 b Cross section view

US Patent No 3,890,548 issued 17 June 1975

5-14 a The Gray engine

Figure 5-14 Gray's "splitting the positive" COP>1 0 engine.

To take advantage of his concept and principles, Gray developed a special engine shown in Figure 5-14. In 1975 Gray received a patent on this engine {337} along with his special means of battery powering and special switching circuits.

Gray's engine uses pulsed capacitive discharge to power a magnetic motor, with recharging of the powering capacitors taking place between successive discharge positions of rotor and stator. The motor runs by initiating repulsion rather than attraction, which — apparently without Gray recognizing it in such terms — invokes the notion of the "superpole" pioneered by Bedini. The superpole is an important concept in COP>1.0 research, though most researchers in the field have never heard of it. John Bedini conceived it several decades ago and demonstrated the surprising difference between a superpole and a common pole of double strength.

When two equal and like magnetic poles are facing each other in repulsion with a small gap between them, a net stress magnetic potential (pole) is formed in that gap which has an energy density some four times as strong as the normal field energy density in the field from one of the two opposing like poles. Hence the local energy density of the vacuum in the gap has been substantially increased above the energy density in the field region between a north and a south pole facing each other. Further, this energy density is in a "field-free" Lorentz-regauged form, i.e., a stress potential form. From that superpotential outward, there exists a normal magnetic field. But in it, there is no net magnetic field, but there is a "stress" field nonetheless.

Compared to an ordinary magnetic motor using attraction as well as some repulsion, the exclusive use by Gray of the Bedini "superpole" principle caused an extra symmetrical regauging154 of the local vacuum energy input to the system (to the gap between the poles) as the magnetic superpole

154 Every conventional electrodynamics text already assumes and uses the Lorenz-Lorentz symmetrical regauging as being absolutely free. Symmetrical regauging assumes that the energy of the system has been freely changed twice, but in such a way that the two free fields formed are equal and opposite, forming a stress potential. Gray found how to split apart and separately use these two "free-flowing exchanges of energy between system and active vacuum" that comprise the overall stress potential of the system, and thereby violated the Lorenz-Lorentz symmetry condition, freeing the two equal and opposite EM fields and their free energy to be used individually and beneficially to (i) provide extra power to the load and (ii) recharge the powering batteries so they did not run down. Using a different method. Bedini has done likewise.

(stress magnetic scalar potential). However, this stress potential is comprised of bidirectional longitudinal wavepairs, as shown by Whittaker in 1903. This superpole or stress potential thus can and does "split" into two different fields in antiparallel directions from each other. Since the north pole is deemed "positive" in magnetics, then using the two anti-fields comprising the free positive superpole is indeed "splitting the positive pole". Gray coined a very apt phrase for what he was doing.

Each of those antiparallel fields also involves an associated and unaccounted phase conjugate field {338a-c}, hence it is a time-reversed field (after observation). So opposing time-polarized EM waves also accompany Whittaker's decomposition waves. In short, the scalar potential accomplishes optical-type pumping in the time domain, and can be used to demonstrate time-reversal (as in Becker's bone-healing method).

Before observation (interaction with charged mass) and while still in the causal state, the EM field from the positive pole is actually an EM field from a negative energy 4-electron, and the field can be taken to be a negative energy field! In our view, positive energy enters every point dipole in the polarized vacuum at the negative charge, thence to the positive charge, thence back to the time domain. From the positive charge, the positive energy is leaving 3-space back to the time domain. Hence positive EM energy diverges from the negative charge and converges on the positive charge, then "disappears", so to speak, back to the time domain from whence it came. The "disappearance" of positive (divergent) energy is the disappearance of heat energy; hence it is a cooling process rather than a heating process. Or said another way, negative EM energy enters 3-space at each point dipole, entering from the time domain to the positive charge. Thence it moves to the negative charge, and back to the time domain. We see or detect the positive energy flow in 3-space directly, while the negative energy flow in the Dirac vacuum is evidenced by the "backwards" interaction creating Newton's third law reaction force.

By splitting the positive superpole, one has effectively destroyed the Lorentz symmetry condition. Hence the excess energy in the superpole will be capable of performing real work in the system in two directions. One direction is from the system to the external environment so that it produces the dissipation of energy (therefore work) in the loads and losses. The other direction produces a "negative resistor" or negentropic action that adds that much excess usable energy to the system back into its input section. By adroitly intercepting and switching that energy into capacitors and/or batteries, Gray was able to charge capacitors, recharge batteries, and even power loads with cool energy (as demonstrated later by immersing a lighted electrical line and a lit light bulb in water).

A positive-energy resistor becomes a negative resistor when fed with negative energy. Then it converges positive EM energy from the external environment and outputs it into the circuit in which the resistor is connected. Note that this is the same statement as the resistor receiving (extracting) negative energy from the circuit and emitting it back to the time-domain. That's like extracting back emffrom the circuit and tossing it offto the time domain. A conductor to positive energy flow is an insulator or dielectric to negative energy flow. Hence the normally "conductive" water was a neat insulator for Gray's "dunking" demonstration of negative power, as were his own normally conductive hand and body. To negative energy, a coil seems to produce capacitance rather than inductance, while a capacitor seems to produce inductance rather than capacitance.

Thus when the "positive pole is split" in the system, the system has broken its Lorentz regauging and is an open system in disequilibrium with the external vacuum environment, freely receiving excess energy from it.155 With adroit switching and energy capture, such a system is permitted to exhibit COP>1.0 because it has violated the free Lorentz regauging once the excess energy in the superpole region is discharged and used.

155 When one analyzes the supersystem of any Lorentz-regauged EM system, one realizes that the extra stress potential energy — entering the system and "locked up" as a stress potential due to the Lorentz condition — is actually a special relativistic rotation of the frame of the power unit away from the laboratory frame. That is, the system when rotated away from the lab frame, takes on free symmetrical regauging energy in that rotated frame as an excess stress potential. Gray's "splitting the positive" process simply separated the two appositive fields comprising the stress potential, then produced excess free energy from that broken free regauging Lorentz condition. Literally Gray splits Lorentz's stress potential into halves, the halves being its two opposing EM fields and their energy. This is equivalent to the system being rotated back into the lab frame, releasing its excess energy it possessed in the rotated frame back into the lab frame. Richard "Scott" McKie has also filed a patent on an invention deliberately rotating a capacitor's frame and fully charging it — while it is in its rotated frame. The rotated capacitor can be charged with less energy furnished from the lab frame, than is obtained back out of the capacitor in the lab frame when the charged capacitor is suddenly rotated back and discharged. At least in theory, McKie's overunity process should be workable if the switching costs are negligible. Our contribution to McKie was to advance the theoretical mechanism for the experimental mechanism he had discovered and was using.

Figure 5-1S Gray's conversion tube

Figure 5-1S Gray's conversion tube

From US Patent No 4 661747 issued 28 April 1987

Also in U S Patent No 4595,975 issued June 17,1986

used with power systems,

Gray also utilized a special conversion discharge tube, shown in Figure 5-15. This tube uses the fact that a very sharp pulsed discharge in it results in a temporary COP»1.0 condition. This COP»1.0 condition instantly involves causal Dirac sea 4-positrons, moving as negative mass current and negative energy current in the local vacuum, which sweep back from the output side of the discharge to the input side.

We also point out the severe overpotential that must accompany any such violent pulse discharge process. The overpotential is a departure from equilibrium conditions, and is the difference between the actual potential and the equilibrium potential. The overpotential is well known and utilized extensively in electrochemistry {339a-c}, but is little used in conventional circuit theory. Nonetheless, it is involved in cold fusion processes due to the double layer phenomena {340a-b}, and it is involved in all electrode discharges (as from a cathode to an anode). It is also involved widely in electrochemistry and ion processes in solution.

Figure 5-16 shows Gray's circuit containing his conversion tube. Figure 5-17 shows Bedini's successful replication of the Gray conversion tube. Figures 5-18, 5-19, 5-20, and 5-21 show four pertinent pages from Bedini's laboratory notebook on his replication of the Gray conversion tube and the Gray motor system.

From U S Patent No 4 661 747 issued 28 April 1987

Also in US Patent No 4 595 975 issued June 17, 1986

Figure 5-16 Gray's circuit containing his conversion tube.

From U S Patent No 4 661 747 issued 28 April 1987

Also in US Patent No 4 595 975 issued June 17, 1986

Figure 5-16 Gray's circuit containing his conversion tube.

Figure 5-17 Bedini's successful replication of theGray conversion tube.
Figure 5-18 Page 1 from Bellini's lab notebook on the Gray conversion tube.
Figure 5-19 Page 2 from Bedlnl's lab notebook on the Gray conversion tube.
Figure 5-20 Page 3 from Bedini's lab notebook on the Gray conversion tube.

In science, when a novel experiment is replicated independently, that experiment then is established as a scientific fact. It then becomes the task of the theorists to either change the theory to accommodate the experimental results, or come up with a new theory to explain them. With Bedini's successful replication of Gray's work and extension of it, that work has now been scientifically established. With his "splitting the positive pole", Gray was referring to an actual, useful mechanism he evoked and used in the processes ongoing in his motor, in his conversion tube, and in his power system.

Bedini Gray Tube
Figure 5-21 Page 4 from Bedini's lab notebook on the Gray conversion tube.

For further discussions about the Gray motor, conversion tube, and the history of it all, one is referred to the book by Lindemann {341}.

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