How Circuits Are Powered

Let us now look at the great magnitude of the energy flow that nature gives us from that dipole. We have to get into the subject a bit, because EM energy flow theory has been rather thoroughly confused for more than a century.

First, batteries and generators do not use their available internal energy — the shaft energy we input to the generator, or chemical energy available in the battery — to power the external circuit. Instead, each uses its available internal energy {209} to perform work on its own internal charges, forcibly separating the charges to form the source dipole.

See again Figure 3-4. All the hydrocarbons ever burned, all the nuclear fuel rods ever consumed, and all the dams ever built, added not one single watt directly to the power line. All the energy from those activities was

81 As we previously explained, a charge is just a set of composite dipoles.

input to the generator shaft after normal losses en route, to provide internal magnetic energy available to the generator. In turn, the generator used that available internal magnetic energy only to do internal work on its own internal charges to force them apart, forming the source dipole connected to the terminals. Generators are energy transducers only; they do not directly power their own external circuits.

Batteries and generators expend their internal energy available to them, to make the source dipole, and for no other purpose! None of their internal energy is used to power their external circuit. It never has been, and it never will be.

Once the source dipole is formed, it does all the hypothesized 4-functions we pointed out previously. It induces the spreading giant negentropic reordering of the vacuum energy, extracts (transduces) EM energy from the continuously reordering vacuum, and pours out from the terminals of the generator (or battery) a vast 3-flow (as observed) of EM field energy along the external circuit. As indicated by Kraus's illustration of the Poynting component {210}, this giant EM energy flow fills all space surrounding the circuit, out to an infinite lateral radius.82 The energy flow is generally parallel to the conductors of the circuit. Only a tiny component of this flow — due to the surface charges of the conductors and the little boundary layer of energy flow that slides along the surface of the conductors — strikes the surface charges and gets diverged into the conductors (by the lateral withdrawal of the surface charges — with the "stub" or "base" of their field energies — laterally into the conductors. The electrons move mostly laterally, withdrawing from one side of the conductor surface to the opposite. Only the tiny component of its field vector integrated over that small distance is withdrawn into the conductors to power the electrons. This small amount of "withdrawn" energy is the diverged Poynting component, "collected" by the circuit. It also is the small component then used (dissipated) to power the Drude electrons and the circuit. 3 All the rest of that vast EM energy flow in the surrounding

82 We accent that Kraus, along with other authors, only shows the 3-space Poynting component of that flow; i.e., he shows the very small amount of that external 3-space energy flow that is diverged into the circuit to potentialize the Drude electrons and power the circuit. Kraus does not show the remaining Heaviside component that is not diverged.

83 As shown by Kraus, some of the energy flow at the various radial distances from the wire is withdrawn, as the surface electrons and the "stubs" of their near fields precess laterally into the depths of the wire when potentialized. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Second Edition, Wiley, 1975, p. 223 also points out the nonlocal space, that pours forth from the terminals, just misses the circuit entirely. It roars on off into space and is wasted.84

The diverged, utilized, and accounted energy flow component — the Poynting component — is only a tiny, tiny fraction of the entire giant EM energy flow produced by the source dipole for every circuit.

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