How the Dipole Charges Transduce Time Energy

We present a simplified analogy69 that allows one to visualize how the dipole transduces the incoming time-like longitudinal EM energy flow into 3-space real EM energy flow for negative charge, or vice versa in the case of positive charge. With a little oversimplification, a charge may be said to spin 720° degrees in one complete rotation. For our purposes, it spins 360° in the imaginary plane (over in ict), and then spins 360° in the real plane (in 3-space). Thus the negative charge can absorb the incoming EM energy flow in the complex plane, transduce or "flip" the absorbed EM energy into 3-space to begin its 360 degrees in 3-space, and the excitation can decay during that 3-space spin part of the cycle. The only "variable" in ict is the t, so any energy flow has to be "by means of the variation of the t-variable". We already argued in a previous chapter that time can be treated as highly compressed spatial energy, having the same energy density as mass. So absorbing a very tiny amount of time-energy and transducing (decompressing) it into spatial energy produces enormous spatial energy (t multiplied by the factor c2).

The negative charge absorbs a little bit of positive time energy, transduces it into a much larger amount of 3-space excitation energy, and re-emits it in 3-space as an observable, real flow of EM energy radially outward in all directions. The positive charge receives the large amount of 3-spatial EM energy and absorbs it, transduces it back into time-energy (highly compressed energy) and re-emits it in the time domain as a little bit of highly compressed time energy.

Conversely, we may consider that the positive charge absorbs a little bit of negative time energy, transduces it into a much larger amount of negative 3-space excitation energy, and re-emits this negative 3-space energy in all directions in 3-space. That consideration is important in the cold fusion phenomenology, and in fact accounts for the formation of little fleeting "time-reversal zones" in the electrolyte solution where the law of attraction and repulsion of charged particles is momentarily reversed. The omission of the giant negentropy mechanism and the negative energy mechanism from particle physics reaction theory is why there do not exist such nuclear transmutation actions at low spatial energy (but high time energy) in

69 For simplification, the analogy treats "spin" of the charged particle as if it really were something like that of a spinning top, at least in its 3-spatial component. However, in physics the entity spin is not confined to a flat plane or even to 3-space. Consequently, we caution that the analogy is primarily a mnemonic aid.

conventional particle physics. All such permissible reactions have been arbitrarily omitted from the discipline.

For the positron (or any positive charge), we assume that the process is reversed: 3-space energy is continuously absorbed (from the active vacuum exchange) by the positive charge during its 360° spin in 3-space. This 3-space excitation energy is then flipped into the time domain as time-charge or time-energy, as the charge starts its second 360° spin in the time domain. During that latter part of its 720° spin cycle, the spinning charge re-emits the time-charge energy (time-excitation) as a flow of a little bit of very dense EM energy in the time domain.

The effects of these mechanisms in systems of charges in motion are met with as time dilation effects, spacetime curvature effects, frame rotation effects, etc. in relativity theory.

A charge that has received excess EM energy from the time domain is said to be time-charged or time-excited. Since time-charge or time-energy is c2 denser than spatial energy, a tiny amount of time-energy excitation or time-charge may be re-emitted as substantial spatial energy over a period of time. In short, the decay of time charging or time-excitation of charged particles can occur slowly and over time. The decay is marked by the presence of longitudinal EM wave radiation, by mysterious ionization phenomena appearing in some Geiger counters depending on their individual time-histories (individual initial time-charging condition), and by excess energy appearing in electrolytes and emitted as heat where such decay of time-charge is occurring.

Usually in ordinary circuits and EM systems the time-charge and time-charge-decay effects are minimal, being offset by their opposites in close adherence to equilibrium. However, when this is not the case and time charging does appreciably occur, then novel phenomena result in those circuits and systems. Such effects have occurred for some time in instruments associated with rigorous electrolyte experiments at U.S. Naval research facilities at China Lake {198}, but the researchers have not recognized the cause. We have pointed out the time-charge and time-decay solution to those novel phenomena, and explained why apparently "identical" instruments need not respond to the stimuli in the same manner {199}. Along the way, we also explained several of the low spatial energy (thus high time-energy) transmutations, including giving the typical reactions producing the excess deuterium, tritium, and alpha particles. We also explain those new nuclear reactions at low spatial energy (but high time-energy) in Chapter 10.

As we stated in Chapter 1, paragraph 1.1.3: In such electrolyte experiments where the palladium electrodes load with concentrations of positive charges on hydrogen ions of one form or another, then in the adjacent solution there can arise fleeting time-reversal zones. Such a zone is simply a very tiny volume of fluid in which antiphotons temporarily comprise the majority of the ongoing photon interactions with the local ions in solution in that zone. The result is that the normal (time-forward) law of attraction of unlike charges and repulsion of like charges is reversed; in the TRZ, like charges attract and unlike charges repel. This allows two positive ions such as H+ to be drawn together so tightly that each enters the (reduced) strong force region of the other, forming a quasi-nucleus. When the other ions move to eliminate the TRZ, during the decay of the TRZ the strong force increases more rapidly than the EM force. Hence, the preferred method of decay of the now-excited quasi-nucleus is by quark flipping to allow the quasi-nucleus to become a new nucleus. This nuclear transformation interaction allows the production of the excess deuterium, tritium, and alpha particles.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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