In Conclusion

As Penrose {694} states,

"Electromagnetism is a subject that is in no way closed to stimulating new developments."

Indeed, electrodynamics is still very much an advancing subject, and in classical electrodynamicstherearefoundationserrorsand problems, afew of which we have addressed. As Bunge {695} pointed out more than three decades ago,

" is not usually acknowledged that electrodynamics, both classical andquantal, are in a sad state.

From a foundations viewpoint, Einstein {696} beautifully summed it up — and advanced a requirement for continually examining the foundations of electrodynamics and every other field of physics—in these words:

".. the scientist makes use ofa whole arsenal ofconcepts which he imbibedpractically with his mother's milk; and seldom if ever is he aware ofthe eternally problematic character ofhis concepts. He uses this conceptual material, or, speaking more exactly, these conceptual tools ofthought, as somethingobviously, immutably given; something having an objective value oftruth which is hardly even, and in any case not seriously, to be doubted. the interests of science it is necessary over and over again to engage in the critique ofthese fundamental concepts, in order that we may not unconsciously be ruled by them."

Though they have long been neglected, legitimate COP>1.0 electrical systems are good science, or they can be. They were present in the original Heaviside truncation of Maxwell's theory prior to Lorentz's symmetrical regauging. That regauging arbitrarily selected only those Maxwellian systems in equilibrium in their exchange with the active vacuum. The energy flow theory was further curtailed by Lorentz's integration trick, which discarded the huge vacuum-furnished non-intercepted Heaviside energy flow component accompanying every EM system. Every EM system already outputs for more EM energy flow than the energy that the operator inputs; thus every EM system is already a COP»1.0 system, with respect to energy transduction. The only way this giant negentropy of every EM system can be hidden is to ubiquitously continue that integration trick to discard the giant Heaviside energy flow component.

The present Lorentz-regauged Maxwell-Heaviside equations are not consistent with any bipolar EM system or circuit. The ends of any dipolarity in the universe — including any electron on Jupiter and any positron in the star Sirius — constitutes a broken symmetry in the seething vacuum flux. Actually, that is what Gabriel Kron discovered and called his "open path". Hence, that "dipole" continuously emits observable EM energy extracted from the vacuum.

Engineering use of the ubiquitous closed current loop to contain both the primary source dipole and the load — which destroys the source dipole and extraction of vacuum energy faster than the load is powered — is responsible for the successful predictions of the equilibrium EM model (which of course completely fails to explain the source charge or source dipole). That circuit is unwittingly designed to self-enforce the Lorentz symmetry condition and therefore self-enforce those predictions.

The question as to whether COP>1.0 electrical power systems are possible and practical must be resolved by direct experiment, and not by established models and cherished concepts that already arbitrarily exclude such systems! Such theoretical refutation by models that in fact contradict the experimentally observed COP = oo action of every charge in the universe, cannot be trusted at all with respect to COP> 1.0 judgment. Well-

known supporting and confirming experiments already in the literature — such as the Bohren experiment yielding COP =18 — have been cited, and these are replicable by any university laboratory. The Bohren-type experiment is well known and routinely performed in every nonlinear optics laboratory, under the guise of "negative resonance absorption of the medium".

It is indeed a critical time to re-examine the foundations of our electrical power science and engineering, along the lines so eloquently stated by Albert Einstein. With the impending oil crisis, we face a world economic crisisof epic proportions unless we rapidly develop and widely deploy sell-powering disequilibrium electrical power systems.

Also it is a critical time when the leaders of the scientific community — specifically the National Academy of Sciences, the National Science Foundation, the great national laboratories, and the universities — must at last face and correct the excruciating faux pas that has now been perpetuated in electrodynamic theory for more than a century. In short, the leaders of our scientific community must now show whether they are scientists practicing and upholding experimental basis, or are dogmatists defending an ancient faith. The fact that the source charge problem continues to be propagated in electrodynamics 45 years after the award of the Nobel Prize to Lee and Yang, is no longer excusable.

A thorough review and correction of the foundations of EM theory is required for the survival of this nation and much of civilization. It is also required for the cleanup of the increasingly polluted biosphere, survival of the threatened species of the Earth, reduction of present global warming trends, and the survival of this fragile and beautiful planet itself.

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