Intense Discharges in Ionized

Intense sudden discharges in ionized gases are especially of interest due to the presence of optical frequency components and the involvement of iterative optical retroreflection etc. These processes seem to be involved in several investigations and inventions. Further, it appears that such intense discharges do produce bursts of negative EM energy as part of their overall discharge energy.

In the case of plasmas, some are known to transduce an input transverse EM wave into an output longitudinal EM wave, and vice versa. We know now that such a longitudinal EM wave is also accompanied by a time-polarized (scalar) EM wave in the time domain. The connection with the Whittaker 1903 decomposition of the potential, and with the new 4-symmetry negentropy law, is apparent. Several C0P>1.0 researchers — notably Shoulders {381a-f} and Paulo and Alexandra Correa {382a-e} — have performed extensive research into anomalous discharge phenomena, and also have developed experimental devices capitalizing on the novel effects available.175' 176 The Correas' U.S. Patent No. 5,449,989 includes many tests of a Correa glow discharge apparatus, one of which in 20 minutes of operation produced 0.988 kilowatt-hour of energy output for an input of 0.258 kilowatt hours. Using the known negative resistor characteristics, the Correas achieved sustained self-oscillations in the discharge.

As an aside, we point out that the well-known anti-Stokes emission — which produces more energy output than the experimenter inputs, and hence exhibits COP>1.0 — has long been validated in certain gases such as aniline vapor {383} and H2 {384}. Stimulated anti-Stokes radiation occurs in many solid materials such as oxides and doped oxides {385}. Assuming the excess energy comes from the internal energy of the molecules, this is a prime candidate for free replenishment of that furnished internal energy of the molecule, via the broken symmetry of the molecular dipoles in their fierce virtual energy exchange with the local active vacuum and local curved spacetime. Of course, conventionally the energy furnished by the molecules, etc. is not replenished from the vacuum, hence anti-Stokes emission can be used for coherent light cooling effects {386}. Apparently the Correas' process accomplishes the energy replenishing, hence the COP> 1.0 performance over a 20 minute period.

Formation of longitudinal EM waves in the plasma forms in certain gas tubes, such as in Priore's gas-filled tubes {387}, may also occur in the Correa experiments and probably do. Longitudinal EM waves, of course, always involve their concomitant, accompanying time-polarized EM waves, since the combination comprises the scalar potential and hence the local curvature of spacetime provided by that scalar potential. The replenishment mechanism involved in longitudinal EM waves and scalar potentials — time-energy transduced into 3-space energy — apparently is

175 Both Shoulders' electron cluster discharges and the discharge phenomena of Paulo and Alexandra Correa have been independently verified. Fox and other scientists have verified C0P>1.0 in Shoulders' work, and Mallove has formally observed a self-powering Correa system. Both these highly reputable scientists are well known, have the highest integrity, and I would trust either of them with my life. Further, we point out that strong gradients — as exist temporarily in strong discharge phenomena — are already known to violate thermodynamics. That is one of the areas being researched today to advance thermodynamics, under the aegis of "extended thermodynamics". See Appendix A.

176 In addition, the Correas have demonstrated a form of energy that demonstrates latent heat. See discussion in Paragraph 6.3.9.

invoked and utilized in the Correas' sustained self-oscillations in the plasma discharge.

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