## Iterative Retroreflection and Collection in a Circuit

The normal circuit attached to a generator or other external power supply is the "external" portion of the overall closed current loop circuit passing back through, and including, the source dipole in the power supply. In a DC external circuit, we may consider that the energy flow pours forth steadily from the terminals of the generator (from the dipolarity between them) into space surrounding the external circuit. Since the external conductors act as a sort of guide, this transmitted external energy flow is generally parallel to the external conductors.

The external circuit further acts as a receiver. The surface charges and their fields intercept and interact with some of the transmitted energy flowing parallel to the conductors and outside them. This interaction diverts a component of that passing energy flow into the conductors, powering the Drude electrons. This powers the external circuit. The nondiverted component of the passing energy flow — usually much larger — escapes on out into space beyond the external circuit. According to Heaviside's energy flow theory {261}, this escaping nondiverged energy flow may be interpreted to exist in closed circulations.111 Laithwaite

110 After all, a "dimension" ultimately is just a fundamental variable in a physics model or, in other words, a "degree of freedom" in mathematical modeling. We may construct any number of dimensions we desire, merely by assigning a sufficient number of variables, including both overt variables and hidden variables, etc.

111 We point out the interesting possibility of re-interpreting this "closed circulation" Heaviside component as the giant negentropic circulation of EM energy from the

{172b} has specifically commented upon the potential importance of this aspect of Heaviside's theory.

As we shall later address, Heaviside worked out but never published a draft theory of gravitational effects from this extra escaping energy flow {262}. Interestingly, since Lorentz's integration of the energy flow vector around a closed surface surrounding any volume element of interest, the discarding of this "excess nondiverged energy flow" has been ignored by electrodynamicists, and it has been ignored by gravitational theorists.

Consider a theoretically "perfect" generator, loss free. Consider the presence of the Heaviside nondiverged component emerging from the generator terminals — and filling all space around the external circuit. That is the part of the energy outside the circuit that is not caught and processed by the circuit, but is just wasted. By definition, in this "perfect" situation the magnitude of the Poynting or "caught" component of energy flow will precisely equal the magnitude of the mechanical energy input flow (rate) to the generator.112

But the presence of the additional huge Heaviside component rigorously means that far more energy pours from the terminals of every battery and generator than the amount of mechanical energy the operator inputs as shaft horsepower. This easily demonstrated fact — e.g., proven by the Bohren experiment {24} — continues to meet with a resounding silence from electrodynamicists and physicists, and particularly from those dogmatic skeptics so keen on defending the classical thermodynamics of closed or equilibrium systems as if they also applied to open systems far from equilibrium in their exchange with their active environment. We refer particularly to the dogmatists so supremely confident that COP>1.0 EM systems are prohibited by the laws of thermodynamics. These stalwart fellows would thus exclude every charge (and its associated fields and potentials) in the universe, were they logical and speaking scientifically. So they strangle at the gnat of COP = 4, and swallow COP = oo while proclaiming that COP>1.0 EM systems cannot exist.

The dogmatists have achieved a major nefarious goal, however. They have silenced most inquiry into such matters by electrical engineering time-domain to the negative charge, to 3-space, to the positive charge, and back to the lime-domain. To our knowledge, that has not been examined.

112 That is merely a statement of the Lorentz symmetry condition self-enforced by the closed current loop circuit itself.

professors, young graduate students, and young postdoctoral scientists. They have glorified classical equilibrium thermodynamics into a religion rather than the partial and imperfect model it really is. They are directly responsible for the continuing rape and pillaging of the planet's resources, pollution of the biosphere, global warming, and the increasing death of species. They are indirectly responsible for the deaths of more human beings than Hitler, Mao, and Stalin combined. Most of the blame for environmental pollution problems concerned with power and electricity is squarely at their feet. Sadly, the environmentalists seeking to save this planet and biosphere have not yet recognized the true nature of the scientific Taliban that has generated the environmental problem. In tolerating its own scientific "terrorism", the scientific community seriously aborts much of the scientific method.

Figure 4-4 Iterative retroreflection of the "passed" Heaviside component back and forth across a circuit -- thematic.

See Figure 4-4. The neglected large nondiverged energy flow component need not be wasted. As an example, part of it can be captured and used, by applying near-field antenna techniques and such methods as Bohren's resonance increase of the intercepting charge's reaction cross section.113 It is possible to intercept part of that excess energy that is there and available. E.g., even after it passes on by the immediate circuit, the Heaviside energy flow component can be intercepted beyond the circuit

113 0r other methods we cannot yet divulge because of patent situation.

and retroreflected back across the same circuit again. In this way — at least in theory — extra Poynting energy can be collected and recollected by the same external circuit for a single given input energy.

In essence, such an "iterative, multi-collecting circuit" is now fed with transmitted energy from multiple (iterative) paths simultaneously. This is physically doable,114 but it is not a simple procedure, and antenna theory and especially near-field antenna theory must be utilized as well as focused retroreflection techniques. To directly model it, higher group symmetry electrodynamics (such as quaternion EM, O(3) EM, etc.) must be used. Precisely such phenomena are met in modern experiments in intensely scattering optical materials {263a-263b, 264a-264b} and in Bohren-type experiments where more energy is collected than the operator has input via standard calculations {257, 258}.

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