One of the greatest American electrical scientists was Gabriel Kron. Working for General Electric (GE), Kron built a true negative resistor in the 1930s, which could power itself and the network analyzer127 at Stanford University, under a GE support contract with the U.S. Navy. Here is a direct quote from Kron {306} to show what we refer to:

"When onlypositive and negative real numbers exist, it is customary to replace a positive resistance by an inductance and a negative resistance by a capacitor (since none or only afew negative resistances exist on practical network analyzers.) "

In that sentence we believe that Kron was forced by the censors to insert the words "none or" in the expression in parentheses. Particularly note the suggestion that in the imaginary realm it may not be the same as the accepted practice of using inductance as a positive resistor and capacitance as a negative resistor. Of course, the fourth Minkowski axis is - ict, and so this is very probably an oblique reference to the fact that energy can also "flow in" from the time domain. Kron was quite knowledgeable in general

127 The network analyzer was a large analogue simulation capable of modeling sophisticated equations — such as Maxwell's equations, the Schrodinger equation. etc. — for use in designing, simulating, and analyzing naval communications systems or proposed systems. It was one of the most advanced simulations of its day. Kron was the chief engineer and scientist on the project, and one of the ablest electrical physicists the United States ever produced.

relativity as well as advanced electrodynamics, and he applied full general relativity to rotating EM machines etc. In another quote, Kron {307} also revealed that he had the negative resistor but was not allowed to use it to openly power the Network Analyzer. Quoting and reading through the "spin control":

"Although negative resistances are available for use with a network analyzer, in practice it is more convenient to use a second type ofcircuit, in which the positive and negative resistances are replaced by inductors and capacitors and the dc currents and voltages are replaced by ac currents and voltages of fixed frequency. The use of the second type ofinterpretation is equivalent to multiplying the wave equation by i = V-l."

After the word "although..." Kron includes the blunt statement that negative resistors were indeed available for use with the network analyzer. But if the "convenient" replacement of the positive and negative resistors by inductors and capacitors was made, then there was no COP>1.0 involved, and there was no true negative resistance involved. Kron is trying to clearly tell us that fact in the above quotation. He also strongly hints that energy from the time domain on the axis ict is involved, but that multiplication by V-l discards this "energy from the time domain".

Kron's negative resistor secret has never been released by General Electric, Stanford University, or the U.S. Navy and it is not going to be released. It has never been deciphered outside those groups, with the possible exception of knowledge by Floyd Sweet of Kron's negative resistor construction. Sweet worked in General Electric but not on the Network Analyzer project. Kron, however, was Sweet's mentor and patron, and Sweet often spoke of Kron in glowing terms. In our opinion, Sweet's vacuum triode amplifier was a further development of Kron's early negative resistor, as Sweet understood it.

We further believe that Kron's "open path" is simply the other two components of the supersystem, being (i) local curved spacetime, and (ii) the active local vacuum. Obviously the external environment connects any two points in the physical circuit, in addition to the circuit's physical connection (the "closed path"). Between any two points at differing potentials in an electrical circuit, there exists a potential and a dipolarity. Therefore, there exists a broken symmetry because of the dipolarity. The potential difference of that dipolarity is also a curvature of spacetime; i.e., it is a "field" between the two points, and the field is identically a curvature of spacetime. Hence from any two such dipolar points in the circuit, there exists the giant negentropy flow of EM energy that we pointed out in 2000 {308}. This "open path" EM energy flow between any two unlike charges (any dipolarity) in the universe, not intercepted by the circuit and thus nondiverged, is discarded by Lorentz's integration of the energy flow vector around a closed surface enclosing any volume element of interest. It appears that Kron not only recognized (in different terms) what we are calling the "supersystem", but also recognized the equivalent of Heaviside's nondiverged EM energy flow component from any dipolarity — referring to that energy flow as the "open path" flow of energy. It is almost certain that he fully recognized what Lorentz symmetrical regauging did to the Maxwell-Heaviside equations. Thus it appears that Kron was the first scientist to discard Lorenz/Lorentz symmetrical regauging, producing his negative resistor by doing so.

We do not have firm knowledge, however, but only circumstantial evidence that Kron recognized the flow of EM energy from the time domain into 3-space, and vice versa, though he was certainly capable of seeing that. Nevertheless, this would also be included in his notion and discovery of the "open path", since it is included in every dipolarity, generating the scalar potential between the poles of the dipolarity. It may also have occurred to him from his excellent grasp of general relativity and spacetime curvature {309}.

Kron's concepts are certainly capable of being modeled and used to produce C0P>1.0 EM circuits and systems, including his negative resistor. Kron did tremendous work in advancing EM networks and power systems. He left behind a great legacy of network and system analysis capable of dealing with the C0P>1.0 electrical power system problem {310a-e}. Unfortunately, that legacy has been little used, if at all, in design of electrical power systems and power distribution networks today. To our knowledge, there are no electrical power systems deliberately using Kron's open path.128

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