## Local Curvatures Of Spacetime

Figure 9-1 The Supersystem concept (block diagram).

Figure 9-1 shows a diagrammatic illustration of the supersystem concept. Figure 9-2 illustrates the effect of the classical EM assumptions of a flat spacetime and a locally inert vacuum. As can be seen, the classical assumptions arbitrarily discard the interaction effects upon and in the system due to the active vacuum dynamics and due to the local spacetime curvatures and their dynamics.246

As stated, all three components of the supersystem interact with each other. This is a dramatic change to classical U(1) electrodynamics. Hence the total interactions — with the system — of both the active vacuum and the locally curved spacetime, and their interactions with each other, are more general than either classical EM, general relativity, or the quantum mechanical vacuum of particle physics prescribes individually.

245 We hypothesize that the feedback contains the mechanism generating Newton's third law as a restoration of symmetry, but leave that to the master theorists to explore and decide.

246 As one example, the nondiverged Heaviside component of energy flow — previously discussed in earlier chapters — is part of the supersystem activity. This flow alters both the local active vacuum and the local spacetime curvature associated with an electrical power system and its connected external circuits. Since the resulting local "environmental" changes in the supersystem are extensive, then one can conceive ways in which these changes can be interacted with additional intercepting/receiving systems to produce extra "EM energy from the vacuum".

Immediately it can be seen that the concept of energy from the vacuum is a "supersystem active and not negligible" concept involving a unified field theory approach a priori. It can also be seen that a "system" in equilibrium must be in equilibrium with its active environmental exchange — its exchange with the active local vacuum and the active local curvatures of spacetime. Since energy "exchange" with the system means both incoming and outgoing exchange, it follows that the equilibrium system has equal incoming and outgoing energy exchange. It follows that the symmetrically regauged system has equal incoming and outgoing energy, and so the symmetrically regauged system must be in additional stress from two net equal and opposite direct interaction forces, one general relativistic and the other from the active vacuum. Further, this "equal and opposite" equilibrium stress state must be accompanied by equal and opposite interaction effects between the two environmental media of the system.247'248

247 We point out but do not pursue the fact that this is a very important new concept associated with coherently changing the symmetrical regauging, which allows a new physics, a new electrodynamics, and a new chemistry including biochemistry. For one thing, it permits such things as a self-maintained excitation state that simultaneously continuously discharges its excitation energy. This is simply a redefinition and more general broadening of the "source charge" concept. From the normal system view (assuming away the vacuum and curved spacetime interactions), an "impossible" system state can nonetheless be possible and stabilized, by changing the intensity of the Lorentz regauging condition. As an example, new molecules or ions can be made and stabilized in an excited state, that otherwise would be so unstable that the excitation would decay in a nanosecond with the state disappearing also. We believe this alone will lead to a great new biochemistry and medical

9.1.2 Time and Space Effects and Positive and Negative Energy

From curved spacetime considerations, we must include the effects on the system, and on the vacuum, of dynamics in the time domain as well as in the spatial domain. Indeed, in Sachs's theory space and time do not separately exist, but only spacetime. We consider time as highly compressed EM energy — as heretofore pointed out, where time is spatial EM energy compressed by the factor c2 and having energy density similar to mass. We must include not only EM energyflow along the time-domain (fourth Minkowski axis ict), but also EM force, potential, energy oscillations, etc. in the time domain itself. We shall have to deal with timeforce, time-energy, time-potential, time-energy current, longitudinal EM waves in the time domain (time-polarized EM waves), etc. {563}. The complexity of the full supersystem analysis is thus easily seen and appreciated. In most cases, a higher group symmetry model for a particular situation will prove intractable for closed solutions, and numerical methods must be used.

Further, when curved spacetime interacts with the active vacuum, we shall also have to consider negative energy currents in the nonlinear vacuum itself, as well as in the time-domain. We may also speak of the negative energy density in the vacuum as a special kind of negative energy potential in the vacuum that is created by a negative energy potential in the time domain. We may speak of a gradient in this vacuum negative energy potential as a negative energy force or "force in the negative energy domain". Applied to the time domain, these concepts constitute a causality condition placed on the Dirac sea, in the same vein as more technical causality considerations given by Finster {564}.

## Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

The solar Stirling engine is progressively becoming a viable alternative to solar panels for its higher efficiency. Stirling engines might be the best way to harvest the power provided by the sun. This is an easy-to-understand explanation of how Stirling engines work, the different types, and why they are more efficient than steam engines.

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