2.2.1 Introductory remarks.

The domain of Lorentz's symmetrically regauged equations is only a small subset of the domain of the Maxwell-Heaviside equations they replace. Indeed, the later Lorentz {161a, 161b} symmetrical regauging discards an entire class of Maxwellian systems permitted by nature and by the Maxwell-Heaviside equations before they are symmetrically regauged.

Lorentz's symmetrically regauged EM equations discard all Maxwell-Heaviside systems that are far from equilibrium in their energetic exchange with the active vacuum. They retain only that subset of the Maxwell-Heaviside theory wherein the system being described is in forced equilibrium {162} in its exchange with its active vacuum environment. Hence the present Lorentz-Maxwell-Heaviside theory, by which EM circuits and electrical power systems are designed, produces only systems in self-forced equilibrium with the active vacuum, specifically during the symmetrically regauging discharge of the circuit's excitation energy. The closed current loop circuit in fact discharges half its collected energy to destroy the source dipole in the generator, thereby destroying that dipole's extraction from the vacuum and furnishing of the energy flow pouring out of the terminals. These circuits kill themselves faster than they can power the load, and they use more energy to kill the energy flow from the vacuum than they use to power their load. Hence all present EM systems disequilibrium of the system with its active environment, hence arbitrarily discards all Maxwellian disequilibrium systems - precisely those that can exhibit CQP>1.0.

rigorously conform to classical equilibrium thermodynamics, and exhibit a coefficient of performance (COP) of COP<1.0 since any real system also has losses {163}.

2.2.2 Technical regauging of the Maxwell-Heaviside equations {164}. For asymmetrical-regauging (A-regauging) considerations, we are speaking of A-regauging the potential energy in and around a circuit. We include not only the Poynting energy flow component that is diverged into the circuit conductors, but also the remaining Heaviside nondiverged energy flow in space surrounding the conductors. This means that the energy is in field energy (E-field and B-field) form, both overtly as ordinary EM fields and covertly or "infolded" inside the corresponding scalar potentials {165, 166, 167, 168}, or both. Consequently, we must analyze Maxwell's equations as we would for radiating energy, rather than employ only the j<f> circuit analysis conventionally utilized, where the collected energy is sluggishly transported by the Slepian vector We show in this book that asymmetrical self-regauging (ASR) allows permissible overunity operation of electromagnetic engines and devices {169}, if other requirements are fulfilled also.

In Gaussian units, Jackson {170} shows that Maxwell's four equations (vacuum form) can first be reduced to a set of two coupled equations in the representation as follows:

The result is two coupled Maxwell equations rather than four. Jackson shows that potentials A and ® in these two equations are arbitrary in a specific sense, since the A vector can be replaced with where A is a scalar function and VA is its gradient. The B field is given by B = VxA„ so that the new B' field becomes

In other words, the B field has remained entirely unchanged, even though the magnetic vector potential has been asymmetrically changed. However, if no other change were made, then the electric field E would have still been changed because of the gradient VA. In that case the net change would be asymmetrical, because one obtained a "free" E-field which could

then do work on the system — either beneficially or detrimentally, depending upon the specific conditions, geometry, and timing. To prevent this excess "free" E-field from appearing, the electrodynamicists simultaneously and asymmetrically regauge (transform) the scalar potential O so as to offset the E-field change due to the regauging of equation [15]. In short, they also change O to O'., where

With that additional change, now the net E and B fields remain unchanged {171, 172}, even though both potentials have changed and the fundamental stored energy of the system has changed, as has the stress of the system. Unchanged force fields just mean that only a set of zero-summation forces (a zero-summed stress system) has been utilized to effect the change in potential energy. It also means that the net summation of the two asymmetricalregaugings has been entirely symmetrical {173}.

Jackson points out that, conventionally, a set of potentials is habitually and arbitrarily chosen by the electrodynamicists such that c dt

This net symmetrical regauging operation creates a new and simpler Maxwellian system, with different system stress and different system potential energy. It successfully separates the variables, so that two inhomogeneous wave equations result. This procedure yields a new and simplified system, and the new Maxwell's equations for it are as follows:

The two previously coupled Maxwell equations [15] and [16] (potential form) have been replaced by equations [20] and [21], to leave two much simpler inhomogeneous wave equations, one for and one for A. These are new equations for a new system!

Of course, this arbitrary net symmetrical regauging (let us use the term

S-regauging) is quite useful for purposes of simplifying the theory and for easing calculations. But its unquestioning and rather universal usage has arbitrarily eliminated the freedom of the system designer to asymmetrically regauge the system's potentials, and use the resulting excess free force fields to change the stored energy in the system without the operator performing extra work upon the system. So we advance the condition for violating this S-regauging, violating the exclusion of net A-regauging, and violating the "frozen gauge" process as

Any regauging of the potentials that complies with equation [22] will a priori produce one or more net excess forces in the system, as well as a change in potential energy of the system. By controlling the regauging, the system designer is then able to control where, how, and when these excess forces appear, and whether they enhance the system's operation or hinder it. These net forces can then be used to perform work and dissipate the excess potential energy taken on in the asymmetrical regauging. That is what we do when we ourselves add potential (and potential energy) to an EM system to enable it to do work! Ifwe always have to asymmetrically regauge the system to get it to do subsequent work, why do we notjust let the system asymmetrically regauge itselfso we get the input energyfreely and also get the resulting workfreely? The gauge freedom axiom in quantum field theory assures us that nature will indeed freely change the potential energy of any system for us, if we but arrange it and permit it.

In short, we have had a gauge freedom principle for some time, which guarantees us that COP>1.0 EM systems are permitted and possible. Yet we have failed to realize it, or take any advantage of it. So we continue to pay to asymmetrically regauge (potentialized) all electrical power systems, and to insure that we have to continue to do it, we specifically design the systems so they will then re-enforce Lorentz's symmetrical regauging condition.

This is another of those "inexplicable aberrations of the scientific mind" referred to by Nikola Tesla!

Again see Figure 1-1 in Chapter 1, and see Figure 2-3. In Figure 2-3, we show how Lorentz's integration trick {174a, 174b} discarded the huge nondiverged Heaviside component of energy flow outside the conductor, while retaining the small Poynting component that strikes the surface charges and gets diverged into the conductor to power the electrons. In justifying his integration trick, Lorentz stated that all the rest of that wasted Heaviside energy flow

See Panofsky & Phillips Classical Electnqtv and Magnetism.. 2nd edn Addison Wesley 1962. p 178-181

The Lorentz procedure arbitrarily discards the enormous Heaviside component that misses the circuit entirely and is wasted This results in a non sequitur of first magnitude in EM energy flow theory

2-3a. Lorentz surface integration

Figure 2-3 Lorentz's integration trick to discard the enormous Heaviside non-diverged energy flow component

The Heaviside component is often 10 trillion times the Poynting component but is simply wasted in ordinary single-pass energy flow circuits

Heaviside component (nondiverged)

Heaviside component (nondiverged)

(Figure 2-4) was "physically insignificant" (his term) because it did not strike the circuit, was not intercepted, and did not power anything. Well, Maxwell's theory is a material fluid flow theory, so let us evaluate Lorentz's justification in a fluid flow analogy.

The Heaviside component is often 10 trillion times the Poynting component, but is simply wasted in ordinary single-pass energy flow circuits

Heavlside component (nondiverged)

The Heaviside component is often 10 trillion times the Poynting component, but is simply wasted in ordinary single-pass energy flow circuits

Heavlside component (nondiverged)

PWPWWPWi

O.^Poyntmg component (diverged) —

O O ^ Drude electron gas O

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